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DCD Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 53
GCID: GC12M055038

Dermcidin

  See DCD-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
dermcidin1 2     DSEP2 3
Diffusible Survival/Evasion Peptide1 2     DCD-12
preproteolysin1 2     HCAP2
Proteolysis Inducing Factor1 2     PIF2
Survival Promoting Peptide1 2     EC 3.4.-.-3
AIDD2 3     Preproteolysin3

External Ids:    HGNC: 146691   Entrez Gene: 1171592   Ensembl: ENSG000001616347   OMIM: 6066345   UniProtKB: P816053   

Export aliases for DCD gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC12P049932 GC12M055152 GC12M054755 GC12M053324 GC12M052076


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for DCD Gene:
This gene encodes a secreted protein that is subsequently processed into mature peptides of distinct biological
activities. The C-terminal peptide is constitutively expressed in sweat and has antibacterial and antifungal
activities. The N-terminal peptide, also known as diffusible survival evasion peptide, promotes neural cell
survival under conditions of severe oxidative stress. A glycosylated form of the N-terminal peptide may be
associated with cachexia (muscle wasting) in cancer patients. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for DCD Gene:
DCD (dermcidin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with DCD include root caries, and burns. GO annotations related to this gene include peptidase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DCD_HUMAN, P81605
Function: DCD-1 displays antimicrobial activity thereby limiting skin infection by potential pathogens in the
first few hours after bacterial colonization. Highly effective against E.coli, E.faecalis, S.aureus and
C.albicans. Optimal pH and salt concentration resemble the conditions in sweat. Also exhibits proteolytic
activity
Function: Survival-promoting peptide promotes survival of neurons and displays phosphatase activity. It may bind
IgG

Gene Wiki entry for DCD (Dermcidin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000012.11  NT_029419.13  NC_018923.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the DCD gene promoter:
         TBP   STAT5B   HFH-3   AML1a   LCR-F1   HNF-3beta   Evi-1   FOXI1   POU2F1   POU2F1a   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidDCD promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for DCD

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat DCD


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12q13.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12q13.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12q13.1

DCD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
DCD gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12M055038:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
55,038,375 bp from pter      End:
55,042,277 bp from pter
Size:
3,903 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DCD_HUMAN, P81605 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Dermcidin precursor  
Size: 110 amino acids; 11284 Da
Cofactor: Manganese. Required for survival-promoting peptide
Mass spectrometry: Mass=4702.57; Method=Electrospray; Range=63-109; Source=PubMed:11694882;
2 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for DCD:
2KSG (3D)        2YMK (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A5JHP2 A5JHP3 P58461 Q53YJ2
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  P81605-1   P81605-2   P81605-3   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for DCD: NX_P81605

Explore proteomics data for DCD at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See DCD Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_444513.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000293371   ENSP00000450415   ENSP00000406773  

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for DCD

     
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    antibodies-online proteins for DCD (3 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for DCD

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR028130 Dermcidin

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P81605

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P81605


    Find genes that share domains with DCD           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: DCD_HUMAN, P81605
    Function: DCD-1 displays antimicrobial activity thereby limiting skin infection by potential pathogens in the
    first few hours after bacterial colonization. Highly effective against E.coli, E.faecalis, S.aureus and
    C.albicans. Optimal pH and salt concentration resemble the conditions in sweat. Also exhibits proteolytic
    activity
    Function: Survival-promoting peptide promotes survival of neurons and displays phosphatase activity. It may bind
    IgG
    Catalytic activity: Preferential cleavage: Arg- -Xaa, Lys- -Xaa

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.4.-.-1

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0008233peptidase activity IEA--
    GO:0044822poly(A) RNA binding IDA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with DCD           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for DCD:
     Decreased Wnt reporter activit 

    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for DCD

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    hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT032404)

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    DCD_HUMAN, P81605: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    cytoskeleton1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region IDA9736629
    GO:0070062extracellular vesicular exosome IDA19056867

    Find genes that share ontologies with DCD           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for DCD
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for DCD

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 23)

    Selected Interacting proteins for DCD (P816053 ENSP000002933714) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 55)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    FAM107AO959903, ENSP000003542704I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000354270
    INPP5KQ9BT403, ENSP000002547124I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000254712
    MDM2Q009873, ENSP000004172814I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000417281
    TNFRSF14Q929563, ENSP000003479484I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000347948
    SUMO2P619563, ENSP000004059654I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000405965
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006508proteolysis ----
    GO:0031640killing of cells of other organism IEA--
    GO:0042742defense response to bacterium IEA--
    GO:0050832defense response to fungus IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with DCD           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for DCD

    1 HMDB Compound for DCD    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Manganesemanganese 7439-96-5--



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for DCD gene: 
    NM_053283.2  

    Unigene Cluster for DCD:

    Dermcidin
    Hs.350570  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: CB999228
    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000293371(uc001sgj.3) ENST00000546807(uc009znu.3) ENST00000456047(uc009znt.3)

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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF144011.1 AY590150.1 BC062682.1 BC069108.1 EF503687.1 EF503688.1 EF503689.1 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.99945647 

    8 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BC062682 BC069108 NM_053283 AL598959 AF144011 CD103709 AY590150 CD000439 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    DCD expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ACGTTAAAGA
    DCD Expression
    About this image

    DCD Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    DCD Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.350570

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DCD_HUMAN, P81605
    Tissue specificity: Specifically and constitutively expressed in eccrine sweat gland cells. Secreted into the
    sweat at a concentration of 1-10 micrograms/ml

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and chimp.

    Orthologs for DCD gene from 1 species (see representative species )    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    chimpanzee
    (Pan troglodytes)
    Mammalia DCD1 dermcidin 99.7(n)
    100(a)
      748033  XM_001170688.2  XP_001170688.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for DCD (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for DCD (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for DCD (see all 153)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1456420541,2
    --55037903(+) GTAGCA/GAATGA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs733108251,2
    C,F--55037962(+) AGTCCC/TAGGGT 1 -- ds50015Minor allele frequency- T:0.13WA NA EA 362
    rs1893236931,2
    --55037965(+) CCCAGA/GGTGGT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1488957481,2
    C--55038021(+) TTGGGA/GGGTCT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1142171451,2
    C,F--55038279(+) GCCAAT/CTGAAG 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- C:0.04WA 118
    rs560133731,2
    C,F--55038382(+) ACAGAT/CGCTTT 1 -- ut313Minor allele frequency- C:0.08WA CSA 122
    rs1434479711,2
    C--55038449(+) GAAGAC/TGTAAA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs776059681,2
    C,F--55038526(+) TTTAAC/TGTCAT 2 I V mis11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA 4498
    rs2005357921,2
    C,F--55038545(+) CCTAGG/TACAGC 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00EU 1031
    rs1998257821,2
    --55038569(+) GGGGTA/GAAGGG 1 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for DCD (55038375 - 55042277 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for DCD:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv832421CNV Gain17160897

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing DCD
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for DCD

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 606634    OMIM disorders: --

    3 diseases for DCD:    
    About MalaCards
    root caries    burns    spinal stenosis

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for DCD:
    Spinal stenosis     Muscular atrophy

    Find genes that share disorders with DCD           About GenesLikeMe

    4 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for DCD gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    skin diseases 29.1 1 18620136 (1)
    breast cancer 18.8 4 18949710 (2), 17448443 (1), 17626247 (1)
    tumors 2.58 2 15355918 (1), 18006755 (1)
    cancer 1.58 5 18403914 (1), 16142329 (1), 17448443 (1), 15355918 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): DCD
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: DCD (8 documents)

    Export disorders for DCD gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for DCD gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 92):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with DCD)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Dermcidin: a novel human antibiotic peptide secreted by sweat glands. (PubMed id 11694882)1, 2, 3, 9 Schittek B.... Garbe C. (Nat. Immunol. 2001)
    2. Analysis of the solution structure of the human antibiotic peptide dermcidin and its interaction with phospholipid vesicles. (PubMed id 20510021)1, 2, 9 Jung H.H....Kim J.I. (BMB Rep. 2010)
    3. Identification of dermcidin in human gestational tissue and characterization of its proteolytic activity. (PubMed id 17448443)1, 2, 9 Lee Motoyama J.P....Suzuki K. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2007)
    4. Evaluating the discriminative power of multi-trait genetic risk scores for type 2 diabetes in a northern Swedish population. (PubMed id 20571754)1, 4 Fontaine-Bisson B....Franks P.W. (Diabetologia 2010)
    5. Gene variants in the novel type 2 diabetes loci CDC123/CAMK1D, THADA, ADAMTS9, BCL11A, and MTNR1B affect different aspects of pancreatic beta-cell function. (PubMed id 19833888)1, 4 Simonis-Bik A.M....'t Hart L.M. (Diabetes 2010)
    6. Lack of significant effects of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, NOTCH2, ADAMTS9, THADA, and TSPAN8/LGR5 on diabetes and quantitative metabolic traits. (PubMed id 19670153)1, 4 Schleinitz D....Stumvoll M. (Horm. Metab. Res. 2010)
    7. Use of multiple metabolic and genetic markers to improve the prediction of type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-Potsdam Study. (PubMed id 19720844)1, 4 Schulze M.B....Joost H.G. (Diabetes Care 2009)
    8. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes. (PubMed id 18372903)1, 4 Zeggini E....Altshuler D. (Nat. Genet. 2008)
    9. Novel meta-analysis-derived type 2 diabetes risk loci do not determine prediabetic phenotypes. (PubMed id 18714373)1, 4 Staiger H....HAoring H.U. (PLoS ONE 2008)
    10. Genotype score in addition to common risk factors for prediction of type 2 diabetes. (PubMed id 19020323)1, 4 Meigs J.B....Cupples L.A. (N. Engl. J. Med. 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 117159 HGNC: 14669 AceView: DCD Ensembl:ENSG00000161634 euGenes: HUgn117159
    ECgene: DCD H-InvDB: DCD

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for DCD Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    Protein Spotlighthttp://web.expasy.org/spotlight/back_issues/018

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for DCD gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving DCD

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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