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Aliases for DBH Gene

Aliases for DBH Gene

  • Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase (Dopamine Beta-Monooxygenase) 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • Dopamine Beta-Monooxygenase 4
  • Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase 3
  • DBM 3

External Ids for DBH Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DBH Gene

  • GC09P127576
  • GC09P128007
  • GC09P129926
  • GC09P131843
  • GC09P133531
  • GC09P135491
  • GC09P136501
  • GC09P106002

Summaries for DBH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DBH Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is an oxidoreductase belonging to the copper type II, ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase family. It is present in the synaptic vesicles of postganglionic sympathetic neurons and converts dopamine to norepinephrine. It exists in both soluble and membrane-bound forms, depending on the absence or presence, respectively, of a signal peptide. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DBH Gene

DBH (Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase (Dopamine Beta-Monooxygenase)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DBH include dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency and capgras syndrome. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include copper ion binding and dopamine beta-monooxygenase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MOXD1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DBH Gene

  • Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline

Gene Wiki entry for DBH Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DBH Gene

Genomics for DBH Gene

Genomic Location for DBH Gene

133,636,360 bp from pter
133,659,344 bp from pter
22,985 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for DBH Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for DBH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DBH Gene

Proteins for DBH Gene

  • Protein details for DBH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5T381
    • Q96AG2

    Protein attributes for DBH Gene

    617 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    69065 Da
    Name=Cu(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29036; Note=Binds 2 copper ions per subunit.;
    Name=pyrroloquinoline quinone; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:58442; Note=Binds 1 PQQ per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer composed of two non-covalently bound disulfide-linked dimers
    • Sequence=AAH17174.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA31631.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA31632.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA68285.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for DBH Gene

Proteomics data for DBH Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for DBH Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn64 and Asn184
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for DBH Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for DBH (Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase)
  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for DBH (DBH)

Domains for DBH Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DBH Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 DOMON domain.
  • Belongs to the copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase family.
  • Contains 1 DOMON domain.
  • Belongs to the copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DBH: view

No data available for Gene Families for DBH Gene

Function for DBH Gene

Molecular function for DBH Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
dopamine beta-hydroxylase,copper dependent (dopamine beta-monooxygenase),catecholamine production,induced by cAMP through AP1 proteins,FOS and JUN with a polymorphism (nt 910) not associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine + ascorbate + O(2) = noradrenaline + dehydroascorbate + H(2)O
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Activity is enhanced by nerve growth factor (in superior cervical ganglia and adrenal medulla). Trans-synaptic stimulation with reserpine, acetylcholine and glucocorticoids

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DBH Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DBH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity TAS 3443096
GO:0004497 monooxygenase activity --
GO:0004500 dopamine beta-monooxygenase activity TAS --
GO:0005507 copper ion binding IEA --
GO:0016715 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced ascorbate as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DBH: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DBH: view

Animal Models for DBH Gene

MGI Knock Outs for DBH:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for DBH Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target DBH

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for DBH

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DBH Gene

Localization for DBH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DBH Gene

Soluble dopamine beta-hydroxylase: Cytoplasmic vesicle, secretory vesicle lumen. Cytoplasmic vesicle, secretory vesicle, chromaffin granule lumen.
Cytoplasmic vesicle, secretory vesicle membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein. Cytoplasmic vesicle, secretory vesicle, chromaffin granule membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for DBH Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DBH gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 3
cytoskeleton 2
plasma membrane 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DBH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region NAS 14718574
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS 3443096
GO:0016020 membrane TAS 3443096
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0030658 transport vesicle membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DBH: view

Pathways for DBH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DBH: view

Pathways by source for DBH Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for DBH Gene
2 BioSystems pathways for DBH Gene
1 PharmGKB pathway for DBH Gene
2 KEGG pathways for DBH Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for DBH Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P09172-DOPO_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Catecholamine biosynthesis; (R)-noradrenaline biosynthesis; (R)-noradrenaline from dopamine: step 1/1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DBH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001816 cytokine production IEA --
GO:0001974 blood vessel remodeling IEA --
GO:0001975 response to amphetamine IEA --
GO:0002443 leukocyte mediated immunity IEA --
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission TAS 2880016
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DBH: view

Drugs for DBH Gene

(5) Drugbank Compounds for DBH Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
Vitamin C
  • Acide ascorbique
50-81-7 Target approved, nutraceutical
  • 1,1'-dithiobis(N,N-diethylthioformamide)
97-77-8 3117 Target inhibitor approved
  • 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
51-61-6 681 Target, Enzyme ligand, substrate approved
  • 2-Mercapto-6-propyl-4-pyrimidone
51-52-5 657298 Enzyme inhibitor approved
corticotropin-releasing factor
Enzyme inducer investigational

(5) ApexBio Compounds for DBH Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(R)-Nepicastat HCl Dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor [195881-94-8]
Disulfiram [97-77-8]
Isotretinoin [4759-48-2]
Mildronate [76144-81-5]
Nepicastat (SYN-117) HCl Dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor [170151-24-3]

(11) HMDB Compounds for DBH Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Ascorbic acid
  • (+)-ascorbate
  • Copper
Dehydroascorbic acid
  • 1-Dehydroascorbate
  • Disulfuram
  • 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine

(106) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for DBH Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
dopamine 89.9 248
1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin 88.6 27
peptidylglycine 84.9 23
norepinephrine 82.2 132
catecholamine 79.3 58

(7) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for DBH Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
Analgesics Clinical Annotation
Antiinflammatory agents, non-steroids Clinical Annotation
Ergot alkaloids Clinical Annotation
levodopa Clinical Annotation
naltrexone Clinical Annotation
opioids Clinical Annotation
sumatriptan Clinical Annotation
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DBH: view

Compound Products

Transcripts for DBH Gene

mRNA/cDNA for DBH Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(4) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3637) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for DBH Gene

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase):
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for DBH

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DBH Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DBH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DBH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for DBH Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DBH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (20.0) and Liver (18.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for DBH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (27.5), Plasma (17.6), Serum (8.4), and Seminal vesicle (6.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for DBH Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DBH Gene Hs.591890

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with DBH: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Expression partners for DBH Gene

Orthologs for DBH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for DBH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DBH 35
  • 85.58 (n)
  • 84.7 (a)
DBH 36
  • 84 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DBH 35
  • 81.52 (n)
  • 76.07 (a)
DBH 36
  • 74 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dbh 35
  • 80.38 (n)
  • 80.93 (a)
Dbh 16
Dbh 36
  • 78 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DBH 35
  • 99.14 (n)
  • 99.19 (a)
DBH 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dbh 35
  • 78.9 (n)
  • 78.41 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DBH 36
  • 69 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DBH 36
  • 72 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DBH 35
  • 73.08 (n)
  • 69 (a)
DBH 36
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DBH 36
  • 60 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dbh 35
  • 65.46 (n)
  • 64.43 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dbh 35
  • 64.49 (n)
  • 61.34 (a)
dbh 36
  • 58 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Tbh 37
  • 40 (a)
Tbh 35
  • 52.45 (n)
  • 41.91 (a)
Tbh 36
  • 33 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010485 35
  • 49.16 (n)
  • 42.22 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea H13N06.6 37
  • 35 (a)
tbh-1 35
  • 45.13 (n)
  • 35.95 (a)
tbh-1 36
  • 29 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 37 (a)
Species with no ortholog for DBH:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DBH Gene

Gene Tree for DBH (if available)
Gene Tree for DBH (if available)

Paralogs for DBH Gene

Paralogs for DBH Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for DBH Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DBH: view

Variants for DBH Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DBH Gene

There are two main alleles of DBH: DBH-A with Ala-318 and DBH-B with Ser-318

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DBH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs4531 - 133,644,248(+) GCCTT(G/T)CCTTC reference, missense
rs5318 - 133,636,405(+) TGCCC(A/G)GCCCC missense, reference
rs5319 - 133,642,261(+) CACTG(C/G)AGGCC missense, reference
rs5320 - 133,642,351(+) CAGAC(A/G)CGTGC missense, reference
rs5321 - 133,642,437(+) CCAAA(C/G)GGCTT missense, reference

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DBH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2739138 CNV Deletion 23290073
dgv8325n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894081 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894086 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv894094 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894100 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv894105 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv8332n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv469906 CNV Loss 18288195
nsv466615 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv466618 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv894108 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2739170 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv894109 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894110 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv466619 CNV Loss 19166990
dgv8333n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for DBH Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB)

Disorders for DBH Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for DBH Gene (609312)


  • Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency (DBH deficiency) [MIM:223360]: Characterized by profound deficits in autonomic and cardiovascular function, but apparently only subtle signs, if any, of central nervous system dysfunction. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11857564}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(74) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for DBH Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
pure autonomic failure 76.6 8
menkes disease 66.9 4
hypotension orthostatic 65.8 7
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 65.5 11
dystonia hereditary 57.6 1

Relevant External Links for DBH

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DBH: view

No data available for Genatlas for DBH Gene

Publications for DBH Gene

  1. No evidence for allelic association between schizophrenia and a functional variant of the human dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene (DBH). (PMID: 10490716) Williams H.J. … Owen M.J. (Am. J. Med. Genet. 1999) 3 4 23 48
  2. Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in postural tachycardia syndrome. (PMID: 17625104) Garland E.M. … Robertson D. (Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2007) 3 23 25 26
  3. A genotype-controlled analysis of plasma dopamine beta-hydroxylase in healthy and alcoholic subjects: evidence for alcohol-related differences in noradrenergic function. (PMID: 12488060) KAPhnke M.D. … Cubells J.F. (Biol. Psychiatry 2002) 3 23 48
  4. Monoamine related functional gene variants and relationships to monoamine metabolite concentrations in CSF of healthy volunteers. (PMID: 15102340) JAPnsson E.G. … Sedvall G.C. (BMC Psychiatry 2004) 3 23 48
  5. [Association of dopamine beta-hydroxylase polymorphism with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children]. (PMID: 15205702) Zhang H.B. … Yang L. (Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao 2004) 3 23 48

Products for DBH Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for DBH

Sources for DBH Gene

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