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Aliases for CYTH2 Gene

Aliases for CYTH2 Gene

  • Cytohesin 2 2 3
  • PSCD2L 3 4 6
  • PSCD2 3 4 6
  • ARNO 3 4 6
  • Pleckstrin Homology, Sec7 And Coiled/Coil Domains 2 (Cytohesin-2) 2 3
  • PH, SEC7 And Coiled-Coil Domain-Containing Protein 2 3 4
  • ARF Nucleotide-Binding Site Opener 3 4
  • ARF Exchange Factor 3 4
  • Pleckstrin Homology, Sec7 And Coiled-Coil Domains 2 (Cytohesin-2) 3
  • Pleckstrin Homology, Sec7 And Coiled-Coil Domains 2 2
  • CTC-273B12.8 3
  • Protein ARNO 4
  • Cytohesin-2 3
  • Sec7p-Like 3
  • CTS18.1 3
  • Sec7p-L 3
  • CTS18 3
  • SEC7L 3

External Ids for CYTH2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for CYTH2 Gene

  • PSCD2L
  • PSCD2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CYTH2 Gene

  • GC19P053667
  • GC19P048972
  • GC19P045352

Summaries for CYTH2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CYTH2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PSCD family. Members of this family have identical structural organization that consists of an N-terminal coiled-coil motif, a central Sec7 domain, and a C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The coiled-coil motif is involved in homodimerization, the Sec7 domain contains guanine-nucleotide exchange protein (GEP) activity, and the PH domain interacts with phospholipids and is responsible for association of PSCDs with membranes. Members of this family appear to mediate the regulation of protein sorting and membrane trafficking. The encoded protein exhibits GEP activity in vitro with ARF1, ARF3, and ARF6 and is 83% homologous to CYTH1. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

GeneCards Summary for CYTH2 Gene

CYTH2 (Cytohesin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Class I PI3K signaling events and Arf1 pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include phospholipid binding and ARF guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000268465.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYTH2 Gene

  • Acts as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Promotes guanine-nucleotide exchange on ARF1, ARF3 and ARF6. Promotes the activation of ARF factors through replacement of GDP with GTP. The cell membrane form, in association with ARL4 proteins, recruits ARF6 to the plasma membrane.

Gene Wiki entry for CYTH2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CYTH2 Gene

Genomics for CYTH2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for CYTH2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for CYTH2 Gene

48,469,032 bp from pter
48,482,314 bp from pter
13,283 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for CYTH2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for CYTH2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CYTH2 Gene

Proteins for CYTH2 Gene

  • Protein details for CYTH2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K8P0
    • Q8IXY9
    • Q92958

    Protein attributes for CYTH2 Gene

    400 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    46546 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heteromer. Composed of GRASP, CYTH2 and at least one GRM1 (By similarity). Interacts with ARRB1. Interacts with ARL4D; the interaction is direct.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CYTH2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for CYTH2 Gene


neXtProt entry for CYTH2 Gene

Proteomics data for CYTH2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for CYTH2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys78
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for CYTH2 Gene

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CYTH2 Gene

Domains for CYTH2 Gene

Gene Families for CYTH2 Gene

  • PLEKH :Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain containing

Protein Domains for CYTH2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CYTH2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q99418
  • Binds via its PH domain to the inositol head group of phosphatidylinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The PH domain is necessary and sufficient for plasma membrane relocalization
  • Autoinhibited by its C-terminal basic region.
  • Contains 1 PH domain.
  • Contains 1 SEC7 domain.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CYTH2: view

Function for CYTH2 Gene

Molecular function for CYTH2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Acts as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Promotes guanine-nucleotide exchange on ARF1, ARF3 and ARF6. Promotes the activation of ARF factors through replacement of GDP with GTP. The cell membrane form, in association with ARL4 proteins, recruits ARF6 to the plasma membrane.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CYTH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005086 ARF guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity ISS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10198630
GO:0008289 lipid binding IEA --
GO:0070679 inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate binding ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYTH2: view

Phenotypes for CYTH2 Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for CYTH2:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CYTH2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for CYTH2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CYTH2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for CYTH2 Gene

Localization for CYTH2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYTH2 Gene

Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Cytoplasm. Note=Both isoform 1 and isoform 2 are recruited to the cell membrane through their association with ARL4A, ARL4C and ARL4D. They require also interaction with phosphoinositides for targeting to the plasma membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for CYTH2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CYTH2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
golgi apparatus 3
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CYTH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 17398095
GO:0005802 NOT trans-Golgi network IBA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA 17398095
GO:0016020 membrane TAS 9417041
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYTH2: view

Pathways for CYTH2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CYTH2: view

Pathways by source for CYTH2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CYTH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006897 endocytosis TAS 9417041
GO:0016192 NOT vesicle-mediated transport IBA --
GO:0030036 actin cytoskeleton organization TAS 9417041
GO:0030155 regulation of cell adhesion IBA --
GO:0032012 regulation of ARF protein signal transduction --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYTH2: view

Compounds for CYTH2 Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for CYTH2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Guanosine triphosphate
  • 5'-GTP

(7) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CYTH2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
grp-1 96.9 11
nitrilotriacetic acid 74.6 3
gtp 64.2 6
hampshire 63.6 3
phosphatidylinositol 40.8 3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CYTH2: view

Transcripts for CYTH2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for CYTH2 Gene

Cytohesin 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CYTH2

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CYTH2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - -
SP7: - -
SP8: - -

Relevant External Links for CYTH2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CYTH2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CYTH2 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for CYTH2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CYTH2 Gene Hs.144011

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CYTH2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with CYTH2: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for CYTH2 Gene

Orthologs for CYTH2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for CYTH2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CYTH2 35
  • 93.92 (n)
  • 93.16 (a)
CYTH2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CYTH2 35
  • 93.42 (n)
  • 100 (a)
CYTH2 36
  • 97 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 73 (a)
CYTH2 35
  • 94 (n)
  • 99.75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cyth2 35
  • 90.83 (n)
  • 99.25 (a)
Cyth2 16
Cyth2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 93 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Cyth2 35
  • 90.17 (n)
  • 99.25 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 91 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.10498 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia cyth1 35
  • 78.2 (n)
  • 92.23 (a)
Str.2989 35
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.7084 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CYTH2 36
  • 84 (a)
si:dkey-283b15.4 35
  • 77.17 (n)
  • 88 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta step 36
  • 34 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea grp-1 36
  • 39 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SEC7 36
  • 6 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 61 (a)
CSA.8851 36
  • 60 (a)
Species with no ortholog for CYTH2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CYTH2 Gene

Gene Tree for CYTH2 (if available)
Gene Tree for CYTH2 (if available)

Paralogs for CYTH2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for CYTH2 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CYTH2: view

Variants for CYTH2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CYTH2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs12305 -- 48,479,305(+) CTGTT(G/T)GGAAA utr-variant-3-prime
rs1143265 -- 48,478,082(+) GTGAA(A/G)ACGTG synonymous-codon, reference
rs1643480 -- 48,482,322(-) tcaca(C/T)tctga downstream-variant-500B
rs1643481 -- 48,480,921(-) GCCAC(C/G)AGCGG utr-variant-3-prime
rs1643482 -- 48,478,785(-) ccagg(C/G/T)gtcca intron-variant, downstream-variant-500B

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CYTH2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv9739 CNV Gain+Loss 18304495
nsv912219 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv828572 CNV Loss 20364138
nsv912222 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv912223 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv518578 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2658088 CNV Deletion 23128226

Relevant External Links for CYTH2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYTH2 Gene

Disorders for CYTH2 Gene

No disorders were found for CYTH2 Gene.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYTH2 Gene

Publications for CYTH2 Gene

  1. A human exchange factor for ARF contains Sec7- and pleckstrin- homology domains. (PMID: 8945478) Chardin P. … Chabre M. (Nature 1996) 2 3 4 23
  2. Structure of the Sec7 domain of the Arf exchange factor ARNO. (PMID: 9510256) Cherfils J. … Chardin P. (Nature 1998) 3 4 23
  3. The Arl4 family of small G proteins can recruit the cytohesin Arf6 exchange factors to the plasma membrane. (PMID: 17398095) Hofmann I. … Munro S. (Curr. Biol. 2007) 3 4 23
  4. ARF6 activation by Galpha q signaling: Galpha q forms molecular complexes with ARNO and ARF6. (PMID: 16650966) GiguA"re P. … Parent J.L. (Cell. Signal. 2006) 3 23
  5. GRASP and IPCEF promote ARF-to-Rac signaling and cell migration by coordinating the association of ARNO/cytohesin 2 with Dock180. (PMID: 20016009) White D.T. … Santy L.C. (Mol. Biol. Cell 2010) 3 23

Products for CYTH2 Gene

Sources for CYTH2 Gene

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