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Aliases for CYTH2 Gene

Aliases for CYTH2 Gene

  • Cytohesin 2 2 3 5
  • Pleckstrin Homology, Sec7 And Coiled/Coil Domains 2 (Cytohesin-2) 2 3
  • PH, SEC7 And Coiled-Coil Domain-Containing Protein 2 3 4
  • Pleckstrin Homology, Sec7 And Coiled-Coil Domains 2 2 3
  • ARF Nucleotide-Binding Site Opener 3 4
  • ARF Exchange Factor 3 4
  • PSCD2L 3 4
  • PSCD2 3 4
  • ARNO 3 4
  • CTC-273B12.8 3
  • Protein ARNO 4
  • Cytohesin-2 3
  • Sec7p-Like 3
  • CTS18.1 3
  • Sec7p-L 3
  • CTS18 3
  • SEC7L 3

External Ids for CYTH2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for CYTH2 Gene

  • PSCD2L
  • PSCD2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CYTH2 Gene

  • GC19P053667
  • GC19P048972
  • GC19P045352

Summaries for CYTH2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CYTH2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PSCD family. Members of this family have identical structural organization that consists of an N-terminal coiled-coil motif, a central Sec7 domain, and a C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The coiled-coil motif is involved in homodimerization, the Sec7 domain contains guanine-nucleotide exchange protein (GEP) activity, and the PH domain interacts with phospholipids and is responsible for association of PSCDs with membranes. Members of this family appear to mediate the regulation of protein sorting and membrane trafficking. The encoded protein exhibits GEP activity in vitro with ARF1, ARF3, and ARF6 and is 83% homologous to CYTH1. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

GeneCards Summary for CYTH2 Gene

CYTH2 (Cytohesin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CYTH2 include Neuroblastoma. Among its related pathways are Arf1 pathway and Phospholipase D signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include lipid binding and inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate binding. An important paralog of this gene is CYTH1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYTH2 Gene

  • Acts as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Promotes guanine-nucleotide exchange on ARF1, ARF3 and ARF6. Promotes the activation of ARF factors through replacement of GDP with GTP. The cell membrane form, in association with ARL4 proteins, recruits ARF6 to the plasma membrane. Involved in neurite growth (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for CYTH2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CYTH2 Gene

Genomics for CYTH2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for CYTH2 Gene

Enhancers for CYTH2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH19G048612 1.7 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.3 +147.7 147731 7.8 CREB3L1 AGO1 ZFP64 DMAP1 FEZF1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC PRR12 SNORD35A KDELR1 SNORD35B ALDH16A1 GRWD1 SEC1P NOP53-AS1 RPS11 PIH1D1
GH19G048780 1.6 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18.3 +312.7 312679 2.9 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 CREB3L1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B ZNF766 ZNF143 FOS PRR12 PIH1D1 GRWD1 SNORD35A DKKL1 KDELR1 SNORD35B CYTH2 ENSG00000268093 RPS11
GH19G048953 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 18.6 +486.3 486256 2.7 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX CREB3L1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 PRR12 PIH1D1 GRWD1 SNORD35A PTOV1-AS2 KDELR1 SNORD35B CYTH2 RPS11 NUP62
GH19G048468 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 15.6 +0.6 578 3.0 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 CREB3L1 WRNIP1 SIN3A ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 GRWD1 CYTH2 NOP53-AS1 LOC105372430
GH19G048328 1.7 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 10.4 -137.4 -137367 5.8 CREB3L1 AGO1 FEZF1 YBX1 YY1 ZNF143 ZNF548 ZNF263 SP3 NFYC TMEM143 BICRA GRWD1 CA11 C19orf68 SYNGR4 NOP53-AS1 EMP3 RASIP1 SLC8A2
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around CYTH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for CYTH2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000110708 368 1601 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 CREB3L1 WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143

Genomic Location for CYTH2 Gene

Chromosome:
19
Start:
48,469,032 bp from pter
End:
48,482,314 bp from pter
Size:
13,283 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for CYTH2 Gene

Genes around CYTH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CYTH2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CYTH2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CYTH2 Gene

Proteins for CYTH2 Gene

  • Protein details for CYTH2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q99418-CYH2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Cytohesin-2
    Protein Accession:
    Q99418
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K8P0
    • Q8IXY9
    • Q92958

    Protein attributes for CYTH2 Gene

    Size:
    400 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    46546 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heteromer. Composed of GRASP, CYTH2 and at least one GRM1 (By similarity). Interacts with ARRB1. Interacts with ARL4D; the interaction is direct. Directly interacts with CCDC120 through the coiled coil domain; this interaction stabilizes CCDC120, possibly by preventing its ubiquitination, and is required for neurite growth in neuroblastoma cells.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CYTH2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for CYTH2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for CYTH2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CYTH2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=278
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CYTH2 Gene

Domains & Families for CYTH2 Gene

Gene Families for CYTH2 Gene

Protein Domains for CYTH2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CYTH2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q99418

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

CYH2_HUMAN :
  • Binds via its PH domain to the inositol head group of phosphatidylinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The PH domain is necessary and sufficient for plasma membrane relocalization.
Domain:
  • Binds via its PH domain to the inositol head group of phosphatidylinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The PH domain is necessary and sufficient for plasma membrane relocalization.
  • Autoinhibited by its C-terminal basic region.
  • The coiled coil domain is involved in interaction with CCDC120.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CYTH2: view

Function for CYTH2 Gene

Molecular function for CYTH2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Acts as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Promotes guanine-nucleotide exchange on ARF1, ARF3 and ARF6. Promotes the activation of ARF factors through replacement of GDP with GTP. The cell membrane form, in association with ARL4 proteins, recruits ARF6 to the plasma membrane. Involved in neurite growth (By similarity).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CYTH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005085 guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity IEA --
GO:0005086 ARF guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity ISS,IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10198630
GO:0008289 lipid binding IEA --
GO:0070679 inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate binding ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYTH2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CYTH2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for CYTH2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CYTH2 Gene

Localization for CYTH2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYTH2 Gene

Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Cytoplasm. Cell projection. Cell projection, growth cone. Note=Both isoform 1 and isoform 2 are recruited to the cell membrane through its association with ARL4A, ARL4C and ARL4D. They require also interaction with phosphoinositides for targeting to plasma membrane (PubMed:17398095). In differentiating neuroblastoma cells, colocalizes with CCDC120 in both neurite shaft and growth cone areas. {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:P63034, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17398095}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CYTH2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 5
golgi apparatus 5
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
endosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CYTH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 17398095
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS,IDA 17398095
GO:0016020 membrane TAS 9417041
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYTH2: view

Pathways & Interactions for CYTH2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CYTH2: view

Pathways by source for CYTH2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CYTH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006897 endocytosis TAS 9417041
GO:0030036 actin cytoskeleton organization TAS 9417041
GO:0032012 regulation of ARF protein signal transduction IEA --
GO:0043547 positive regulation of GTPase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYTH2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CYTH2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CYTH2 Gene

(8) Drugs for CYTH2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
1,6,7,8,9,11A,12,13,14,14A-DECAHYDRO-1,13-DIHYDROXY-6-METHYL-4H-CYCLOPENT[F]OXACYCLOTRIDECIN-4-ONE Experimental Pharma Target 0
D-Myo-Inositol-1,4,5-Triphosphate Experimental Pharma Target 0
Formic acid Experimental Pharma Target 0
inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate Experimental Pharma Target 0
S,S-(2-Hydroxyethyl)Thiocysteine Experimental Pharma Target 0

(5) Additional Compounds for CYTH2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CYTH2: view

Transcripts for CYTH2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for CYTH2 Gene

Cytohesin 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for CYTH2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CYTH2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6:
SP7: - -
SP8: - -

Relevant External Links for CYTH2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
CYTH2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
CYTH2

Expression for CYTH2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CYTH2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CYTH2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (24.1), Cervix (17.7), Serum (8.2), and Fetal heart (6.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for CYTH2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for CYTH2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CYTH2 Gene:

CYTH2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CYTH2 Gene:

Hs.144011

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CYTH2 Gene:

Q99418-CYH2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Widely expressed.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CYTH2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Lung(4.4)
  • Kidney(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CYTH2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CYTH2 Gene

Orthologs for CYTH2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for CYTH2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CYTH2 34
  • 94 (n)
-- 35
  • 73 (a)
OneToMany
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CYTH2 34 35
  • 93.92 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CYTH2 34 35
  • 93.42 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 93 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cyth2 34 16 35
  • 90.83 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Cyth2 34
  • 90.17 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia cyth1 34
  • 78.2 (n)
Str.2989 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.10498 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CYTH2 35
  • 84 (a)
OneToMany
si:dkey-283b15.4 34
  • 77.17 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.7084 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta step 35
  • 34 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea grp-1 35
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SEC7 35
  • 6 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 61 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.8851 35
  • 60 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for CYTH2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CYTH2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for CYTH2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for CYTH2 (if available)

Paralogs for CYTH2 Gene

(11) SIMAP similar genes for CYTH2 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CYTH2: view

Variants for CYTH2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CYTH2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000002285 -- 48,475,466(+) AGGCC(A/G)GGAAA intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant
rs1000448683 -- 48,474,318(+) CCTGA(A/G)GAGCT nc-transcript-variant, reference, synonymous-codon
rs1000557685 -- 48,480,426(+) CGGGC(C/T)TTGAT utr-variant-3-prime
rs1000656313 -- 48,477,991(+) CTCTG(C/T)TTCTC intron-variant
rs1000727176 -- 48,479,531(+) ACCCC(A/G)AGCCC downstream-variant-500B, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CYTH2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2658088 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3556506 CNV deletion 23714750
nsv1114021 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv518578 CNV loss 19592680
nsv828572 CNV loss 20364138
nsv9739 CNV gain+loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for CYTH2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 7.16% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.34; 7.48% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for CYTH2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
CYTH2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYTH2 Gene

Disorders for CYTH2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for CYTH2 Gene - From: GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
neuroblastoma
  • neuroblastoma 1
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CYTH2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for CYTH2

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
CYTH2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CYTH2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CYTH2 Gene

Publications for CYTH2 Gene

  1. A human exchange factor for ARF contains Sec7- and pleckstrin- homology domains. (PMID: 8945478) Chardin P. … Chabre M. (Nature 1996) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. The Arl4 family of small G proteins can recruit the cytohesin Arf6 exchange factors to the plasma membrane. (PMID: 17398095) Hofmann I. … Munro S. (Curr. Biol. 2007) 3 4 22 64
  3. Structure of the Sec7 domain of the Arf exchange factor ARNO. (PMID: 9510256) Cherfils J. … Chardin P. (Nature 1998) 3 4 22 64
  4. Cytohesin-2/ARNO, through its interaction with focal adhesion adaptor protein paxillin, regulates preadipocyte migration via the downstream activation of Arf6. (PMID: 20525696) Torii T. … Tanoue A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2010) 2 3 64
  5. GRASP and IPCEF promote ARF-to-Rac signaling and cell migration by coordinating the association of ARNO/cytohesin 2 with Dock180. (PMID: 20016009) White D.T. … Santy L.C. (Mol. Biol. Cell 2010) 3 22 64

Products for CYTH2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for CYTH2

Sources for CYTH2 Gene

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