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CYP2C19 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 69
GCID: GC10P096447

Cytochrome P450, Family 2, Subfamily C, Polypeptide 19

(Previous names: cytochrome P450, subfamily IIC (mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase),...)
(Previous symbol: CYP2C)
  See CYP2C19-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Cytochrome P450, Family 2, Subfamily C, Polypeptide 191 2     P450IIC192
CYP2C1 2 5     Cytochrome P-450 II C2
Cytochrome P450, Subfamily IIC (Mephenytoin 4-Hydroxylase), Polypeptide 191 2     Cytochrome P450 2C192
Cytochrome P450-11A2 3     Flavoprotein-Linked Monooxygenase2
Cytochrome P450-254C2 3     Mephenytoin 4'-Hydroxylase2
Mephenytoin 4-Hydroxylase2 3     Microsomal Monooxygenase2
(R)-Limonene 6-Monooxygenase2 3     S-Mephenytoin 4-Hydroxylase2
(S)-Limonene 6-Monooxygenase2 3     Xenobiotic Monooxygenase2
(S)-Limonene 7-Monooxygenase2 3     EC 1.14.13.-3
CYPIIC172 3     EC 1.14.13.483
CYPIIC192 3     EC 1.14.13.493
CPCJ2     EC 1.14.13.803
P450C2C2     EC 1.14.14.18

External Ids:    HGNC: 26211   Entrez Gene: 15572   Ensembl: ENSG000001658417   OMIM: 1240205   UniProtKB: P332613   

Export aliases for CYP2C19 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC10P095415 GC10P095677 GC10P096574 GC10P096188 GC10P096189 GC10P096512 GC10P090150


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for CYP2C19 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are
monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids
and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is known to metabolize many
xenobiotics, including the anticonvulsive drug mephenytoin, omeprazole, diazepam and some barbiturates.
Polymorphism within this gene is associated with variable ability to metabolize mephenytoin, known as the poor
metabolizer and extensive metabolizer phenotypes. The gene is located within a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes
on chromosome 10q24. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for CYP2C19 Gene:
CYP2C19 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with CYP2C19 include clopidogrel, impaired responsiveness to, and proguanil poor metabolizer. GO annotations related to this gene include iron ion binding and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is CYP2W1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CP2CJ_HUMAN, P33261
Function: Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug
S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine

summary for CYP2C19 Gene:
Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are a diverse group of catalysts that contains 57 members in humans. CYPs
are usually membrane-bound and are localized to the inner mitochondrial or endoplasmic reticular membrane.
CYPs have oxygenase activity and commonly catalyze redox reactions, involving the oxidation of the substrate
and reduction of water. This group of enzymes contain a heme ion within the active site, which is essential
for catalytic activity. CYPs have been found in all organisms tested and are ubiquitously expressed. They
are found at high levels in the liver, where they have an important role in metabolism of drugs and
endogenous toxic compounds (for example bilirubin). Most CYPs can metabolize numerous substrates and this
accounts for their major role in drug interactions. CYPs also have functions in steroid hormone synthesis,
cholesterol synthesis and vitamin D metabolism.

Gene Wiki entry for CYP2C19 Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" summary for CYP2C19


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000010.10  NC_018921.2  NT_030059.14  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the CYP2C19 gene promoter:
         GR   p53   GR-beta   GR-alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): CYP2C19 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CYP2C19

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CYP2C19


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 10q24   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  10q23.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 10q24

CYP2C19 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CYP2C19 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 10         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC10P096447:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
96,447,911 bp from pter      End:
96,613,017 bp from pter
Size:
165,107 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CP2CJ_HUMAN, P33261 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Cytochrome P450 2C19  
Size: 490 amino acids; 55931 Da
Cofactor: Heme group
Caution: P450-254C was originally listed as a separate gene (CYP2C17). Resequencing demonstrated that it is not a
separate gene, but a chimera. The 5'-portion corresponds to a partial 2C18 clone, and the 3'-portion corresponds
to a partial 2C19 clone
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for CYP2C19:
4GQS (3D)    
Secondary accessions: P33259 Q8WZB1 Q8WZB2 Q9UCD4

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CYP2C19: NX_P33261

Explore proteomics data for CYP2C19 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for CYP2C19 (P33261) (see all 27)
     GKLPPGP  PGPTPLP  PFSAGKR  LTSVLHD 


    See CYP2C19 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000760.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000360372  
    Reactome Protein details: P33261

    CYP2C19 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for CYP2C19

     
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    CYP2C19 Antibody Products:

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    Abcam antibodies for CYP2C19 (P33260, P33261)
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for CYP2C19
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for CYP2C19
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for CYP2C19

    CYP2C19 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for CYP2C19
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    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for CYP2C19 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    CYP: Cytochrome P450s

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: CYP2C19
    CYP2 family

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR001128 Cyt_P450
     IPR017972 Cyt_P450_CS
     IPR002401 Cyt_P450_E_grp-I

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P33261

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P33261

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB002401 E-class P450 group I signature

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CP2CJ_HUMAN, P33261
    Similarity: Belongs to the cytochrome P450 family


    Find genes that share domains with CYP2C19           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CP2CJ_HUMAN, P33261
    Function: Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug
    S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine
    Catalytic activity: (+)-(R)-limonene + NADPH + O(2) = (+)-trans-carveol + NADP(+) + H(2)O
    Catalytic activity: (-)-(S)-limonene + NADPH + O(2) = (-)-trans-carveol + NADP(+) + H(2)O
    Catalytic activity: (-)-(S)-limonene + NADPH + O(2) = (-)-perillyl alcohol + NADP(+) + H(2)O
    Induction: P450 can be induced to high levels in liver and other tissues by various foreign compounds, including
    drugs, pesticides, and carcinogens

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for CYP2C19:
    cytochrome P450,subfamily IIC (mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase),polypeptide 19,with poor metabolizing phenotype mutant
    associated with CYP2C19,not predisposing to systemic lupus erythematosus

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.14.13.801 EC 1.14.14.12 EC 1.14.13.491 EC 1.14.13.-1 EC 1.14.13.481

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004497monooxygenase activity IDA19651758
    GO:0005506iron ion binding IEA--
    GO:0008395steroid hydroxylase activity IMP18356043
    GO:0016491oxidoreductase activity IDA16401082
    GO:0016705oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen ----
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with CYP2C19           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for CYP2C19
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for CYP2C19

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for CYP2C19
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for CYP2C19

    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CYP2C19 using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CYP2C19
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for CYP2C19
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CYP2C19

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for CYP2C19

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for CYP2C19 (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for CYP2C19
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CYP2C19 (NM_000769)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for CYP2C19
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CYP2C19

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for CYP2C19 
    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CYP2C19


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    CP2CJ_HUMAN, P33261: Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Microsome membrane; Peripheral
    membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    endoplasmic reticulum5
    nucleus2
    mitochondrion1
    plasma membrane1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005789endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS--
    GO:0043231intracellular membrane-bounded organelle TAS3442670

    Find genes that share ontologies with CYP2C19           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for CYP2C19 About   (see all 14)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Biological oxidations
    Biological oxidations0.56
    Estradiol metabolism0.00
    metapathway biotransformation0.42
    Phenytoin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.00
    Tamoxifen metabolism0.00
    Tamoxifen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.00
    Benzodiazepine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.00
    2Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type
    Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type0.75
    Xenobiotics0.00
    Phase 1 - Functionalization of compounds0.75
    Cyclophosphamide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.00
    cytochrome P4500.74
    CYP2E1 reactions0.00
    3Arachidonic acid metabolism
    Linoleic acid metabolism0.64
    Synthesis of (16-20)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE)0.00
    Arachidonic acid metabolism0.41
    Synthesis of epoxy (EET) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHET)0.00
    Arachidonic acid metabolism0.40
    4Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins0.37
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    5Venlafaxine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Venlafaxine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.67
    Imipramine/Desipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.50
    Citalopram Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.67
    Proton Pump Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.00
    Fluoxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.57
    Clomipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.00


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with CYP2C19           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    5 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for CYP2C19
        Estrogen biosynthesis
    Estradiol metabolism
    Retinol metabolism
    Estrone metabolism
    Androstenedione and testosterone biosynthesis and metabolism p.1

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for CYP2C19 (see all 6)
        cytochrome P450
    Tamoxifen metabolism
    melatonin degradation I
    metapathway biotransformation
    superpathway of melatonin degradation

    4 Reactome Pathways for CYP2C19
        Synthesis of (16-20)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE)
    Xenobiotics
    Synthesis of epoxy (EET) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHET)
    CYP2E1 reactions

    Selected PharmGKB Pathways for CYP2C19 (see all 20)
        Atorvastatin/Lovastatin/Simvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Benzodiazepine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Carbamazepine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Citalopram Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Clomipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for CYP2C19) (see all 6):
        Arachidonic acid metabolism
    Linoleic acid metabolism
    Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450
    Metabolic pathways
    Serotonergic synapse

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CYP2C19 (see all 6): 
              Nephrotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Cancer Drug Resistance in human mouse rat
              Drug Metabolism: Phase I Enzymes in human mouse rat
              Cellular Stress Responses in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CYP2C19

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for CYP2C19 (P332613 ENSP000003603724) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 101)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PORP164353I2D: score=3 
    ALDH1A1ENSP000002977854STRING: ENSP00000297785
    ALDH1A2ENSP000002497504STRING: ENSP00000249750
    ALOX12ENSP000002515354STRING: ENSP00000251535
    ALOX12BENSP000003151674STRING: ENSP00000315167
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006805xenobiotic metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0008202steroid metabolic process IMP18356043
    GO:0016098monoterpenoid metabolic process IDA16401082
    GO:0017144drug metabolic process IDA19219744
    GO:0019369arachidonic acid metabolic process TAS--

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    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for CYP2C19 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    PF 4981517Selective CYP3A4 inhibitor[1390637-82-7]
    MethoxyresorufinFluorometric CYP450 substrate[5725-89-3]
    Letrozole Potent, reversible non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor [112809-51-5]
    ExemestaneSteroidal aromatase (CYP19) inhibitor[107868-30-4]
    PentoxyresorufinFluorometric cytochrome P450 substrate[87687-03-4]

    Selected HMDB Compounds for CYP2C19 (see all 59)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Melatonin5-Methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine (see all 23)73-31-417003850
    (+)-Limonene(+)-(4R)-Limonene (see all 2)5989-27-5--
    (-)-trans-CarveolCarveol 1197-07-5--
    11,12,15-THETA11,12,15-Trihydroxyicosatrienoic acid (see all 5)----
    11,12-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid10-(3-(2-octenyl)oxiranyl)-5,8-Decadienoic acid (see all 15)81276-02-0--
    11,14,15-THETA(5Z,8Z,12E)-11,14,15-Trihydroxyeicosa-5,8,12-trienoic acid (see all 8)----
    11H-14,15-EETA14,15-Ep-11-HETrE (see all 11)219535-29-2--
    12,13-EpOMEVernolic acid (see all 12)----
    14,15-Epoxy-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid(5Z,8Z,11Z)-14,15-Epoxyicosa-5.8.11-trienoic acid (see all 11)81276-03-1--
    15(S)-HPETE(5Z,8Z,11Z,13E)-(15S)-15-Hydroperoxyicosa-5,8,11,13-tetraenoate (see all 8)70981-96-3--

    Selected DrugBank Compounds for CYP2C19 (see all 213)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Imipramine-- 50-49-7enzymesubstrate inhibitor9316174 12065442 9084457 19934256 12228186 9190854
    OmeprazoleOMEP (see all 2)73590-58-6enzymesubstrate inhibitor18048485 16093273 9353355 15258107 19934256 19515014
    Citalopram-- 59729-33-8enzymesubstrate inhibitor10774624 9890159 19934256 11532381 19515014
    Phenytoin5,5-diphenylhydantoin (see all 13)57-41-0enzymesubstrate inducer9014207 8806399 19934256 11038165 19515014
    AmitriptylineAmitriprolidine (see all 5)50-48-6enzymesubstrate inhibitor11259560 19934256 12228186 19515014
    Hexobarbital5-(1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acid (see all 4)56-29-1enzymesubstrate11996013 8004130 19934256 19515014
    SertralineSertralina [Spanish] (see all 3)79617-96-2enzymesubstrate inhibitor12143142 16910628 15547048 19934256
    TamoxifenICI-46474 (see all 3)10540-29-1enzymesubstrate12124303 15159443 19934256 19515014
    AntipyrineAcetasol (see all 14)60-80-0enzymesubstrate inhibitor8801065 19934256 19515014
    Diazepam-- 439-14-5enzymesubstrate inhibitor9029042 19934256 19515014

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CYP2C19 gene (see all 131)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    mephenytoin 91.2 45 7640152 (3), 10424320 (2), 18979093 (2), 8563772 (2) (see all 27)
    4-hydroxymephenytoin 89.1 3 11694260 (1), 17270503 (1), 12401345 (1)
    omeprazole 83.2 146 11046127 (7), 9578596 (6), 8894508 (5), 10340921 (5) (see all 57)
    rabeprazole 80.7 40 11785712 (4), 12269976 (3), 15258107 (3), 15285851 (3) (see all 16)
    lansoprazole 77.4 64 11719736 (6), 12656699 (5), 15285851 (4), 17295875 (4) (see all 21)
    omeprazole sulfone 75.6 1 8550990 (1)
    chlorzoxazone 75.3 9 9744576 (1), 11719732 (1), 15155557 (1), 12401345 (1) (see all 9)
    sulfaphenazole 74.5 4 11061988 (1), 10383917 (1), 10955816 (1), 11317475 (1)
    debrisoquine 74 19 8730982 (3), 10424320 (2), 12811361 (1), 7895609 (1) (see all 13)
    phenacetin 73.7 10 7895609 (1), 9744576 (1), 10548449 (1), 10421611 (1) (see all 10)

    Selected PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for CYP2C19 gene (see all 48)    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    amitriptyline  CA  
    carisoprodol
    citalopram  CA  
    clobazam
    clomipramine  CA  
    clopidogrel  CA  
    crizotinib
    cyclophosphamideCA  
    dabrafenib
    dasatinib



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    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for CYP2C19 gene: 
    NM_000769.1  

    Unigene Cluster for CYP2C19:

    Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19
    Hs.282409  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: M61854
    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000464755(uc009xus.1 uc010qny.2) ENST00000371321(uc010qnz.2)
    ENST00000480405
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    M61854.1 X65962.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.92457807  DT.92046716  DT.314631 

    18 AceView cDNA sequences:

    CD013964 L07093 CD013966 CD013962 CB217056 CD013963 CD013965 CB158473 
    NM_000769 BG545330 BM969011 M61854 BX538127 AW192911 CB161988 AV688442 
    M61858 X65962 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    CYP2C19 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    CYP2C19 Expression
    About this image


    CYP2C19 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Mature Hepatocytes Liver Lobule
    CYP2C19 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    CYP2C19 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.282409
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CYP2C19 (see all 6): 
              Nephrotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Cancer Drug Resistance in human mouse rat
              Drug Metabolism: Phase I Enzymes in human mouse rat
              Cellular Stress Responses in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and mouse.

    Orthologs for CYP2C19 gene from Selected species (see all 8)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Cyp2c655 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily c, polypeptide more   --   19 (33.70 cM) 39061015 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CYP2C19 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CYP2C19 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for CYP2C19 gene
    CYP2W12  CYP2C82  CYP2A62  CYP2F12  CYP2A72  CYP2B62  CYP2R12  CYP2J22  
    CYP2U12  CYP2S12  CYP2E12  CYP2C92  CYP2D62  CYP2C182  CYP2A132  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for CYP2C19 using alignment to 3 protein entries:     CP2CJ_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    CYP2C9    CYP 2C    CYP2C8    CYP2C18    CYP2E1    CYP2A13
    CYP2A6    DKFZp686I24235    CYP2A6V2    CYP2B    CYP2F1    CYP2A7
    CYP2B7    CYP2S1    CYP2B6    CYP2J2    CYP2W1    CYP2R1

    Find genes that share paralogs with CYP2C19           About GenesLikeMe


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for CYP2C19
    PGOHUM00000242077


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    CP2CJ_HUMAN, P33261: Genetic variation in CYP2C19 is responsible for poor drug metabolism [MIM:609535]. Individuals can
    be characterized as either extensive metabolizers (EM) or poor metabolizers (PM). The PM phenotype is inherited
    in an autosomal recessive manner, with the EM phenotype comprising both homozygous dominant and heteroyzgote
    genotypes. There are marked interracial differences in the frequency of this polymorphism. Poor metabolizers
    represent 2-5% of Caucasians, 13-23% of Asian populations, and as many as 38-79% of individuals of some of the
    islands of Polynesia and Micronesia. Different alleles of CYP2C19 are known: CYP2C19*1A CYP2C19*1B, CYP2C19*1C,
    CYP2C19*2A (CYP2C19m1 or CYP2C19m1A), CYP2C19*2B (CYP2C19m1B), CYP2C19*2C (CYP2C19*21), CYP2C19*3A (CYP2C19m2),
    CYP2C19*3B (CYP2C19*20), CYP2C19*4 (CYP2C19m3), CYP2C19*5A (CYP2C19m4), CYP2C19*5B, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*7,
    CYP2C19*8, CYP2C19*9, CYP2C19*10, CYP2C19*11 CYP2C19*12, CYP2C19*13, CYP2C19*14 CYP2C19*15, CYP2C19*16,
    CYP2C19*18, CYP2C19*19. Defective CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles are characterized by a splice mutation and a
    stop codon, respectively, and account for most of the PM alleles. The sequence shown is that of allele CYP2C19*1B


    Selected SNPs for CYP2C19 (see all 2467)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 10 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs283995041,2
    C,F,Hpathogenic196885696(+) CTTCAA/GTGGAT 2 M V mis1 ese315Minor allele frequency- G:0.00EA NS MN WA NA EU 7985
    rs49868931,2
    C,Fpathogenic196903643(+) CCCTGG/AATCCA 2 /* /W stg1 ese311Minor allele frequency- A:0.00MN NA EA EU 6697
    rs563370131,2,,4
    Cpathogenic196975729(+) GAAAAC/TGGATT 2 R W mis10--------
    rs1182037571,2
    Cuntested196602636(+) AAACCG/AGAGCC 2 /Q /R mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4552
    rs178784591,2,,4
    C,Funtested196898155(+) GGAGAA/C/GGAGTT 2 E syn1 ese320NS NA MN WA EA EU 8759
    rs797504981,2
    C--90176192(-) AACTAC/TACTAG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
    rs747010781,2
    C,F--90198030(+) TAGTTG/AGCTGT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.33NA 6
    rs1118871781,2
    C,F--96523629(+) AAGATA/GTTGTG 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.02CSA WA 120
    rs1120953851,2
    C,F--96523666(+) GATGCG/ATCTGG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs1128822801,2
    C,F--96523701(+) TGGTCC/TTGCTG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CYP2C19 (96447911 - 96613017 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for CYP2C19 (see all 11):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2659638CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2739707CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2674280CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2741937CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv895902CNV Loss21882294
    dgv803n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv820156CNV Loss19587683
    nsv522538CNV Loss19592680
    nsv895901CNV Loss21882294
    nsv516555CNV Loss19592680

    The Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database: CYP2C19 
    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): CYP2C19
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): CYP2C19

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing CYP2C19
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for CYP2C19

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 124020   
    OMIM disorders: 609535  
    9 diseases for CYP2C19:    
    About MalaCards
    clopidogrel, impaired responsiveness to    proguanil poor metabolizer    opremazole poor metabolizer    mephenytoin poor metabolizer
    gastroesophageal reflux disease    drug-induced hepatitis    h. pylori infection    gastric ulcer
    multiple chemical sensitivity

    4 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for CYP2C19:
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease     Peptic ulcer     Heart disease     Esophagitis

    Find genes that share disorders with CYP2C19           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CYP2C19 gene (see all 28)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    peptic ulcer 15.6 5 9867757 (3), 10616772 (1), 16268979 (1)
    gastroesophageal reflux disease 13.9 1 17559380 (1)
    genetic susceptibility 11.6 1 12662378 (1)
    gastric ulcer 8.33 1 12222994 (1)
    reflux 5.88 1 12222994 (1)
    liver diseases 3.84 3 9695714 (2), 8550990 (1)
    torsades de pointes 3.29 1 10886124 (1)
    inflammation 1.84 2 18205890 (2)
    tumors 0.337 10 16641871 (3), 14759713 (2), 18205890 (1)
    intoxication 0 1 16024198 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): CYP2C19
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: CYP2C19 (483 documents)

    Export disorders for CYP2C19 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for CYP2C19 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1079):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CYP2C19)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and ABCB1 genotype and hospitalization for phenytoin toxicity. (PubMed id 19617466)1, 4, 7 Hennessy S....Bilker W.B. (J Clin Pharmacol 2009)
    2. Effects of clarithromycin and verapamil on rabeprazole pharmacokinetics between CYP2C19 genotypes. (PubMed id 16783561)1, 4, 7 Shimizu M....Tateishi T. (Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2006)
    3. Genetic variations and haplotypes of CYP2C19 in a Japanese population. (PubMed id 16141610)1, 2, 4 Fukushima-Uesaka H.... Sawada J. (Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 2005)
    4. Contributions of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to the biotransformation of E- and Z-doxepin in healthy volunteers. (PubMed id 12360109)1, 4, 7 Kirchheiner J....BrockmAPller J. (Pharmacogenetics 2002)
    5. Cloning and expression of complementary DNAs for multiple members of the human cytochrome P450IIC subfamily. (PubMed id 2009263)1, 2, 3 Romkes M.... Goldstein J.A. (Biochemistry 1991)
    6. [Association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 and phenytoin serum concentration]. (PubMed id 15569425)1, 4, 9 Huang Y....Chen B. (Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2004)
    7. CYP2C19 pharmacogenetics in advanced cancer: compromised function independent of genotype. (PubMed id 18854824)1, 4, 9 Helsby N.A....Findlay M. (Br. J. Cancer 2008)
    8. Effects of CYP2C19 gene polymorphism on cure rates for Helicobacter pylori infection by triple therapy with proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole or rabeprazole), amoxycillin and clarithromycin in Japan. (PubMed id 11785712)1, 4, 9 Dojo M....Kuriyama M. (Dig Liver Dis 2001)
    9. Genetic polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium, haplotype structure and novel allele analysis of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in Han Chinese. (PubMed id 19636337)1, 4, 9 Zhou Q....Wang D.M. (Pharmacogenomics J. 2009)
    10. Poor metabolizer genotype status of CYP2C19 is a risk factor for developing gastric cancer in Japanese patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. (PubMed id 16268979)1, 4, 9 Sugimoto M....Ishizaki T. (amp 2005)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 1557 HGNC: 2621 AceView: CYP2C19andCYP2C18 Ensembl:ENSG00000165841 euGenes: HUgn1557
    ECgene: CYP2C19 Kegg: 1557 H-InvDB: CYP2C19

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for CYP2C19 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for CYP2C19 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Committeehttp://www.cypalleles.ki.se/cyp2c19.htm
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/cyp2c19/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
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    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for CYP2C19 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving CYP2C19

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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