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CYCS Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 68
GCID: GC07M025158

Cytochrome C, Somatic

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Cytochrome C, Somatic1 2
CYC2 3 5
THC42 5
HCS2
Cytochrome C2

External Ids:    HGNC: 199861   Entrez Gene: 542052   Ensembl: ENSG000001721157   OMIM: 1239705   UniProtKB: P999993   

Export aliases for CYCS gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC07M024801 GC07M024900 GC07M024931 GC07M025124


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for CYCS Gene:
This gene encodes a small heme protein that functions as a central component of the electron transport chain in
mitochondria. The encoded protein associates with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion where it accepts
electrons from cytochrome b and transfers them to the cytochrome oxidase complex. This protein is also involved
in initiation of apoptosis. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic
thrombocytopenia. Numerous processed pseudogenes of this gene are found throughout the human genome.(provided by
RefSeq, Jul 2010)

GeneCards Summary for CYCS Gene:
CYCS (cytochrome c, somatic) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with CYCS include thrombocytopenia 4, and bladder transitional cell papilloma. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity and iron ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is CYCSP7.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CYC_HUMAN, P99999
Function: Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from
the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to
the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain
Function: Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic
members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of
cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then
accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases

Gene Wiki entry for CYCS (Cytochrome c) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000007.14  NC_018918.2  NT_007819.18  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the CYCS gene promoter:
         HOXA9   GR   AML1a   RelA   NF-kappaB   POU2F1   POU2F1a   GR-alpha   Pax-4a   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): CYCS promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CYCS

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CYCS


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 7p15.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  7p15.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 7p21.2

CYCS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CYCS gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 7         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC07M025158:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
25,158,270 bp from pter      End:
25,164,980 bp from pter
Size:
6,711 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr7-,CRA_TCAG 25,209,510-25,216,457     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CYC_HUMAN, P99999 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Cytochrome c  
Size: 105 amino acids; 11749 Da
4 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for CYCS:
1J3S (3D)        3NWV (3D)        3ZCF (3D)        3ZOO (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A4D166 B2R4I1 P00001 Q6NUR2 Q6NX69 Q96BV4

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CYCS: NX_P99999

Explore proteomics data for CYCS at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Binds 1 heme group per subunit1
  • Phosphorylation at Tyr-49 and Tyr-98 both reduce by half the turnover in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase,
    down-regulating mitochondrial respiration (By similarity)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys40, Lys80
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See CYCS Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_061820.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000307786   ENSP00000386270   ENSP00000387279   ENSP00000416479  
    Reactome Protein details: P99999

    CYCS Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for CYCS (Cytochrome c)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for CYCS
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for CYCS
    OriGene MassSpec for CYCS
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for CYCS
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for CYCS
    Novus Biologicals CYCS Proteins
    Novus Biologicals CYCS Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for CYCS

    CYCS Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of CYCS
    R&D Systems Antibodies for CYCS (Cytochrome c)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for CYCS 
    OriGene Antibodies for CYCS
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for CYCS
    Novus Biologicals CYCS Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for CYCS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for CYCS
    ThermoFisher Antibody for CYCS
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for CYCS

    CYCS Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for CYCS
    R&D Systems ELISAs for CYCS (Cytochrome c)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for CYCS
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for CYCS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for CYCS


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR009056 Cyt_c-like_dom
     IPR003088 Cyt_c_dom
     IPR002327 Cyt_c_1A/1B

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P99999

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P99999

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CYC_HUMAN, P99999
    Similarity: Belongs to the cytochrome c family


    CYCS for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CYC_HUMAN, P99999
    Function: Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from
    the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to
    the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain
    Function: Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic
    members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of
    cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then
    accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004722contributes to protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity TAS8206937
    GO:0005506iron ion binding IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI10206961
    GO:0009055electron carrier activity ----
    GO:0020037heme binding TAS9515723
         
    CYCS for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for CYCS:
     Increased S DNA content 

         12 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Cycs):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  craniofacial  embryogenesis 
     endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  immune system  mortality/aging 
     nervous system  skeleton 

    CYCS for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Cycstm1Wlm for CYCS

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for CYCS
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for CYCS

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for CYCS
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for CYCS

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target CYCS:
    hsa-mir-93-3p (MIRT038787), hsa-mir-320c (MIRT036158), hsa-mir-16-5p (MIRT031466), hsa-mir-361-5p (MIRT044075), hsa-mir-148a-3p (MIRT025976)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CYCS using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CYCS (see all 31):
    hsa-miR-3910 hsa-miR-34b* hsa-miR-539 hsa-miR-200a hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-29c hsa-miR-767-5p hsa-miR-16-1*
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for CYCS
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CYCS

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for CYCS

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for CYCS (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for CYCS
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CYCS (NM_018947)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for CYCS
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for CYCS
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CYCS

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for CYCS
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for CYCS 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CYCS


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    CYC_HUMAN, P99999: Mitochondrion intermembrane space. Note=Loosely associated with the inner membrane
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    cytosol4
    nucleus4
    plasma membrane2
    extracellular1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000159protein phosphatase type 2A complex TAS8206937
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005743mitochondrial inner membrane TAS--
    GO:0005758mitochondrial intermembrane space TAS8689682

    CYCS for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for CYCS About   (see all 50)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1TWEAK Pathway
    TWEAK Pathway0.87
    Apoptotic Pathways Triggered By HIV10.42
    DR3 Signaling0.87
    Apoptosis through Death Receptors0.42
    TNFR1 Pathway0.56
    TRAIL Pathway0.40
    TNF Signaling0.55
    Fas Signaling0.35
    2Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade
    Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade0.44
    FAS pathway and Stress induction of HSP regulation0.44
    Apoptosis and survival FAS signaling cascades0.44
    Caspase cascade in apoptosis0.42
    3Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
    Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.0.81
    Parkinson's disease0.57
    Respiratory electron transport0.81
    Huntington's disease0.45
    The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport0.71
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)0.41
    4LT-BetaR Pathway
    Apoptosis and survival Lymphotoxin beta receptor signaling0.46
    LT-BetaR Pathway0.46
    5Alzheimer's disease
    Alzheimers Disease0.44
    Alzheimer's disease0.44

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 R&D Systems Pathway for CYCS
        Apoptosis Signaling Pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for CYCS (see all 29)
        Caspase Cascade
    TWEAK Pathway
    14-3-3 Induced Apoptosis
    DHA Signaling
    LT-BetaR Pathway

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for CYCS
        Apoptosis and Autophagy

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for CYCS (see all 10)
        Development Leptin signaling via JAK/STAT and MAPK cascades
    Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade
    Apoptosis and survival BAD phosphorylation
    Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic action of membrane-bound ESR1
    Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic action of nuclear ESR1 and ESR2

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for CYCS (see all 14)
        Apoptosis
    DNA damage response
    Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling
    FAS pathway and Stress induction of HSP regulation
    AGE/RAGE pathway


    Selected Reactome Pathways for CYCS (see all 6)
        Respiratory electron transport
    Activation of caspases through apoptosome-mediated cleavage
    Release of apoptotic factors from the mitochondria
    Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species
    Transcriptional activation of mitochondrial biogenesis

    1 PharmGKB Pathway for CYCS
        Doxorubicin Pathway (Cardiomyocyte Cell), Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for CYCS) (see all 18):
        Sulfur metabolism
    p53 signaling pathway
    Apoptosis
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
    Alzheimer's disease


    CYCS for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CYCS: 
              TNF Ligands & Receptors in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis 384HT in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CYCS

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for CYCS (P999991, 2, 3 ENSP000003077864) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 185)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    APAF1O147271, 3, ENSP000003530594EBI-446479,EBI-446492 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000353059
    NAF1Q96HR82, 3, ENSP000002740544MINT-7712884 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000274054
    RNF144BQ7Z4192, 3, ENSP000002599394MINT-7944749 MINT-7949203 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000259939
    CYC1P085743, ENSP000003171594I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000317159
    BCL2L1Q078173, ENSP000003025644I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000302564
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006309apoptotic DNA fragmentation IMP8689682
    GO:0006915apoptotic process TAS--
    GO:0008635activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process by cytochrome c TAS9267021
    GO:0016311dephosphorylation TAS8206937
    GO:0022904respiratory electron transport chain TAS--

    CYCS for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for CYCS (CYC)

    1 HMDB Compound for CYCS    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Heme(protoporphyrinato)iron (see all 19)14875-96-8--

    7 DrugBank Compounds for CYCS    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Minocycline-- 10118-90-8targetnegative modulator18977395 14680842 16469440 11986668 15665864 17067803
    Heme-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Heme C-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    N-Trimethyllysine-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Protoporphyrin Ix Containing Co-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Protoporphyrin Ix Containing Zn-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Zinc Substituted Heme C-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CYCS gene (see all 136)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    bongkrekic acid 80.1 19 11795493 (2), 11006098 (1), 11494136 (1), 11536168 (1) (see all 16)
    oxygen 79 388 16278578 (7), 1846619 (3), 17497889 (3), 8867328 (2) (see all 99)
    phosphatidylserine 78.4 106 15025923 (4), 14583346 (3), 15777082 (3), 17567446 (2) (see all 77)
    superoxide 78.3 426 8226820 (4), 8070678 (4), 11700991 (3), 10908611 (3) (see all 99)
    adpribose 77.2 72 15192325 (2), 10647997 (2), 11474117 (2), 12766487 (1) (see all 67)
    cardiolipin 76.9 180 19577639 (6), 12531542 (5), 15209096 (5), 11749969 (4) (see all 84)
    n acetylcysteine 75.7 37 16753142 (1), 19012744 (1), 19117669 (1), 17245372 (1) (see all 29)
    sp 600125 73.3 14 14991847 (1), 14766793 (1), 19699753 (1), 15117824 (1) (see all 14)
    h2o2 69.5 186 16889691 (7), 17085975 (6), 9662447 (4), 1654817 (3) (see all 99)
    ferricyanide 69.4 41 15683711 (2), 7499204 (2), 7528206 (2), 7691806 (1) (see all 36)



    CYCS for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for CYCS gene: 
    NM_018947.5  

    Unigene Clusters for CYCS:

    Cytochrome c, somatic
    Hs.437060  [show with all ESTs], Hs.617193
    Unigene Representative Sequences: NM_018947, AK056360
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000305786(uc003sxl.3) ENST00000409409 ENST00000409764 ENST00000413447

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CYCS using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CYCS (see all 31):
    hsa-miR-3910 hsa-miR-34b* hsa-miR-539 hsa-miR-200a hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-29c hsa-miR-767-5p hsa-miR-16-1*
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for CYCS
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CYCS
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for CYCS (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for CYCS
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CYCS (NM_018947)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for CYCS
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CYCS
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for CYCS
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for CYCS
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat CYCS
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CYCS
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CYCS

    Additional mRNA sequence: AK056360.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 39):

    DT.92473725  DT.100888546  DT.91812314  DT.75196329  DT.91828671  DT.92473723  DT.91720058  DT.91824344 
    DT.100888547  DT.75101253  DT.95323786  DT.121047732  DT.75177203  DT.121047666  DT.95323474  DT.100888555 
    DT.120695536  DT.40133209  DT.91997384  DT.100684549  DT.100888556  DT.121047667  DT.121047675  DT.121047730 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 2051):

    AW137376 AI339691 BG776502 AW419114 AA355928 CR622353 R66054 F03499 
    BE379949 AA916454 AA318957 AW249679 CB243997 AA384986 BQ227250 BX428878 
    BU176818 CB147456 BM786090 CB149301 AW273362 BC009578 R52654 BG566934 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    CYCS expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTTTTAAAAT
    CYCS Expression
    About this image


    CYCS expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 14) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     Pancreas (Endocrine System)
             Islets of Langerhans
    CYCS Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    CYCS Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene clusters: Hs.437060 Hs.617193
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CYCS: 
              TNF Ligands & Receptors in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis 384HT in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for CYCS gene from Selected species (see all 26)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Cycs1 , 5 cytochrome c, somatic1, 5 90.48(n)1
    91.43(a)1
      6 (24.32 cM)5
    130631  NM_007808.41  NP_031834.11 
     505625635 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves CYCS1 cytochrome c, somatic 81.59(n)
    87.62(a)
      420624  NM_001079478.1  NP_001072946.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Uncharacterized protein
    86(a)
    1 → many
    6(31328170-31339393)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia 480242982   -- 80.62(n)    48024298 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii AL726703.12   -- 79.17(n)   57995  AL726703.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Cyt-c-p1 Cytochrome c proximal 71.9(n)
    78.43(a)
      34996  NM_057828.4  NP_477176.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea cyc-2.11 cyc-2.1 60.88(n)
    60.2(a)
      177243  NM_068228.5  NP_500629.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes CYC1(YJR048W)4
    CYC11
    Cytochrome c, isoform 1; electron carrier of the mitochondrial more4
    CYC11
    65.35(n)1
    64.36(a)1
      10(526335-526664)4
    8535071, 4  NP_012582.11, 4 
    soybean
    (Glycine max)
    eudicotyledons Gma.107712 Transcribed sequence with moderate similarity to protein more 73.41(n)    BI470860.1 
    barley
    (Hordeum vulgare)
    Liliopsida Hv.32942 Transcribed sequence with moderate similarity to protein more 75.29(n)    AJ472049.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CYCS (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CYCS (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for CYCS gene
    CYCSP72  

    CYCS for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    Selected Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for CYCS (see all 44)
    PGOHUM00000242202 PGOHUM00000242473 PGOHUM00000242740 PGOHUM00000242804 PGOHUM00000242827


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for CYCS (see all 216)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 7 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0444504
    Thrombocytopenia 4 (THC4)4--see VAR_0444502 G S mis40--------
    rs1930055961,2
    --25131765(+) TCAGAC/TTGATA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs171509571,2
    C,F--25131796(+) AACTGA/CGAAAC 1 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- C:0.01NA 142
    rs1847387131,2
    C--25131803(+) AAACTA/CTGTAA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs102380321,2
    C,F,H--25131905(+) gactgT/Agatcc 1 -- ds50015Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NS EA NA 540
    rs1880133861,2
    --25132014(+) GAAGCA/GATTCT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1163673751,2
    C,F--25132035(+) CCTCCG/AAGTAG 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.01WA 118
    rs1148861751,2
    F--25132037(+) TCCGAG/ATAGCT 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.03WA 118
    rs1173689221,2
    F--25132065(+) CGCCCC/TCCACC 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- T:0.04EA 120
    rs47197991,2
    C,F,A,H--25132220(+) AAGTTT/CTCTTT 1 -- ds500123Minor allele frequency- C:0.24NS EA NA WA CSA 2352

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CYCS (25158270 - 25164980 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for CYCS:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv7393OTHER Inversion18451855

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): CYCS
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing CYCS
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for CYCS

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 123970   
    OMIM disorders: 612004  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CYC_HUMAN, P99999
  • Thrombocytopenia 4 (THC4) [MIM:612004]: Thrombocytopenia is defined by a decrease in the number of
    platelets in circulating blood, resulting in the potential for increased bleeding and decreased ability for
    clotting. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • Selected diseases for CYCS (see all 161):    
    About MalaCards
    thrombocytopenia 4    bladder transitional cell papilloma    thrombocytopenia 2    amelanotic melanoma
    thrombocytopenia    tyrosinemia type i    tyrosinemia    antley-bixler syndrome
    optic atrophy    mitochondrial encephalomyopathy    encephalomyopathy    maple syrup urine disease
    balanitis    waldenstrom macroglobulinemia    breast adenocarcinoma    macroglobulinemia
    chronic granulomatous disease    primary effusion lymphoma    systemic scleroderma    hyperthyroidism

    5 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for CYCS:
    Vasculitis     Lupus erythematosus     Nephritis     Systemic scleroderma
    Interstitial lung disease

    CYCS for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CYCS gene (see all 92)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    leukemia 66.5 47 10688837 (2), 11302692 (2), 11961058 (2), 19590527 (2) (see all 39)
    necrosis 64.5 98 15876954 (3), 11943185 (3), 17287591 (2), 9162279 (2) (see all 85)
    cancer 63.1 45 1651788 (4), 12840220 (2), 19029908 (2), 15753398 (2) (see all 33)
    promyelocytic leukemia 62.5 2 8489236 (1), 12754412 (1)
    tumors 55.9 108 15876954 (3), 15498510 (2), 17287591 (2), 16784988 (2) (see all 97)
    myeloid leukemia 54.3 3 11526432 (1), 16162967 (1), 16439016 (1)
    colon cancer 52.6 20 15087383 (4), 11309352 (3), 18172320 (2), 14500374 (1) (see all 14)
    neurodegenerative diseases 49.6 1 14521400 (1)
    cell damage 48.2 7 11418670 (1), 16093441 (1), 17294830 (1), 13130504 (1) (see all 7)
    monocytic leukemia 47.5 3 11861382 (1), 12738674 (1), 15767555 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): CYCS
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: CYCS (3 documents)

    Export disorders for CYCS gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for CYCS gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 3107):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CYCS)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cytochrome c in the apoptotic and antioxidant cascades. (PubMed id 9515723)1, 2, 9 Skulachev V.P. (FEBS Lett. 1998)
    2. Cytochrome c release upon Fas receptor activation depends on translocation of full-length bid and the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition. (PubMed id 11790791)1, 3, 9 Tafani M....Farber J.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    3. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    4. Absence of CYCS mutations in a large Italian cohort of patients with inherited thrombocytopenias of unknown origin. (PubMed id 19172527)1, 4 Savoia A....Balduini C.L. (Platelets 2009)
    5. A mutation of human cytochrome c enhances the intrinsic apoptotic pathway but causes only thrombocytopenia. (PubMed id 18345000)1, 2 Morison I.M.... Ledgerwood E.C. (Nat. Genet. 2008)
    6. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    7. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    8. The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7. (PubMed id 12853948)1, 2 Hillier L.W.... Wilson R.K. (Nature 2003)
    9. Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology. (PubMed id 12690205)1, 2 Scherer S.W.... Tsui L.-C. (Science 2003)
    10. The human somatic cytochrome c gene: two classes of processed pseudogenes demarcate a period of rapid molecular evolution. (PubMed id 2849112)1, 2 Evans M.J. and Scarpulla R.C. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1988)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 54205 HGNC: 19986 AceView: CYCS Ensembl:ENSG00000172115 euGenes: HUgn54205
    ECgene: CYCS Kegg: 54205 H-InvDB: CYCS

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for CYCS Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    Protein Spotlighthttp://web.expasy.org/spotlight/back_issues/076
    Protein Spotlighthttp://web.expasy.org/spotlight/back_issues/088/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for CYCS gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving CYCS

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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