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Aliases for CYCS Gene

Aliases for CYCS Gene

  • Cytochrome C, Somatic 2 3 5
  • CYC 3 4
  • THC4 3
  • HCS 3

External Ids for CYCS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CYCS Gene

  • GC07M024801
  • GC07M024900
  • GC07M024931
  • GC07M025124

Summaries for CYCS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CYCS Gene

  • This gene encodes a small heme protein that functions as a central component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. The encoded protein associates with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion where it accepts electrons from cytochrome b and transfers them to the cytochrome oxidase complex. This protein is also involved in initiation of apoptosis. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic thrombocytopenia. Numerous processed pseudogenes of this gene are found throughout the human genome.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

GeneCards Summary for CYCS Gene

CYCS (Cytochrome C, Somatic) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CYCS include thrombocytopenia 4 and autosomal thrombocytopenia with normal platelets. Among its related pathways are Alzheimer's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). GO annotations related to this gene include iron ion binding and electron carrier activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYCS Gene

  • Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain.

  • Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases.

Gene Wiki entry for CYCS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CYCS Gene

Genomics for CYCS Gene

Regulatory Elements for CYCS Gene

Enhancers for CYCS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around CYCS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for CYCS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around CYCS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for CYCS Gene

Chromosome:
7
Start:
25,118,651 bp from pter
End:
25,125,361 bp from pter
Size:
6,711 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for CYCS Gene

Genes around CYCS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CYCS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CYCS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CYCS Gene

Proteins for CYCS Gene

  • Protein details for CYCS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P99999-CYC_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Cytochrome c
    Protein Accession:
    P99999
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D166
    • B2R4I1
    • P00001
    • Q6NUR2
    • Q6NX69
    • Q96BV4

    Protein attributes for CYCS Gene

    Size:
    105 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11749 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CYCS Gene

neXtProt entry for CYCS Gene

Proteomics data for CYCS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for CYCS Gene

  • Binds 1 heme group per subunit.
  • Phosphorylation at Tyr-49 and Tyr-98 both reduce by half the turnover in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase, down-regulating mitochondrial respiration.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 40 and Lys 80
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for CYCS Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for CYCS (CYCS)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CYCS Gene

Domains & Families for CYCS Gene

Protein Domains for CYCS Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CYCS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P99999

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

CYC_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the cytochrome c family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the cytochrome c family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CYCS: view

No data available for Gene Families for CYCS Gene

Function for CYCS Gene

Molecular function for CYCS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CYCS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004722 contributes_to protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity TAS 8206937
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYCS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CYCS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for CYCS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for CYCS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CYCS:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for CYCS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CYCS

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CYCS Gene

Localization for CYCS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYCS Gene

Mitochondrion intermembrane space. Note=Loosely associated with the inner membrane.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for CYCS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CYCS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
extracellular 2
lysosome 2
plasma membrane 2
vacuole 2
chloroplast 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CYCS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA 20671748
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYCS: view

Pathways & Interactions for CYCS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CYCS: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for CYCS Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CYCS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006122 mitochondrial electron transport, ubiquinol to cytochrome c IBA,TAS --
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process TAS --
GO:0006996 organelle organization TAS --
GO:0007005 mitochondrion organization TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYCS: view

Drugs & Compounds for CYCS Gene

(57) Drugs for CYCS Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, negative modulator 210
Heme C Experimental Pharma Target 0
N-Trimethyllysine Experimental Pharma Target 0
Protoporphyrin Ix Containing Co Experimental Pharma Target 0
Protoporphyrin Ix Containing Zn Experimental Pharma Target 0

(86) Additional Compounds for CYCS Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(1) ApexBio Compounds for CYCS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Cytochrome c - pigeon (88-104) Triggers T Cell response 86579-06-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CYCS: view

Transcripts for CYCS Gene

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CYCS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CYCS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
CYCS
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
CYCS

Expression for CYCS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CYCS Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CYCS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (x5.4) and Heart - Atrial Appendage (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CYCS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (6.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for CYCS Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CYCS Gene Hs.437060

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CYCS: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for CYCS Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CYCS Gene

Orthologs for CYCS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for CYCS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CYCS 35
  • 90.79 (n)
  • 90.48 (a)
-- 36
  • 90 (a)
ManyToMany
CYCS 36
  • 90 (a)
ManyToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CYCS 35
  • 89.84 (n)
  • 89.52 (a)
CYCS 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cycs 35
  • 90.48 (n)
  • 91.43 (a)
Cycs 16
Gm10108 36
  • 90 (a)
ManyToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Cycs 35
  • 89.21 (n)
  • 91.43 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToMany
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CYCS 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CYCS 35
  • 81.59 (n)
  • 87.62 (a)
CYC 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia cycs 35
  • 75.32 (n)
  • 84.62 (a)
MGC75709 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii -- 35
cycsa 36
  • 49 (a)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8580 35
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009537 35
  • 69.93 (n)
  • 79.41 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Cyt-c-p 35
  • 71.9 (n)
  • 78.43 (a)
Cyt-c-p 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea cyc-2.1 35
  • 60.88 (n)
  • 60.2 (a)
cyc-2.1 36
  • 53 (a)
ManyToMany
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AFR360W 35
  • 60.73 (n)
  • 57.43 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F16929g 35
  • 60.73 (n)
  • 59.41 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CYC1 35
  • 65.35 (n)
  • 64.36 (a)
CYC1 36
  • 60 (a)
ManyToMany
CYC7 36
  • 54 (a)
ManyToMany
CYC1 38
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.10771 35
barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.3294 35
corn
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.15923 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 63 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.4826 36
  • 65 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for CYCS:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CYCS Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for CYCS (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for CYCS (if available)

Paralogs for CYCS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CYCS: view

No data available for Paralogs for CYCS Gene

Variants for CYCS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CYCS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_002204 -
VAR_044450 Thrombocytopenia 4 (THC4)
rs11548795 - 25,123,953(-) GAACA(A/G)AGGCA reference, missense
rs1060388 -- 25,120,385(-) GAATT(A/G)gccgg utr-variant-3-prime
rs1060389 -- 25,120,367(-) cgctc(A/G)tgcct utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CYCS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7393 OTHER Inversion 18451855

Variation tolerance for CYCS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 51.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.24; 5.36% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for CYCS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
CYCS
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
CYCS

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYCS Gene

Disorders for CYCS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(31) MalaCards diseases for CYCS Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
thrombocytopenia 4
  • thrombocytopenia autosomal dominant 4
autosomal thrombocytopenia with normal platelets
thrombocytopenia
cardiac arrest
  • cardiopulmonary arrest
telangiectatic osteogenic sarcoma
  • telangiectatic osteosarcoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CYCS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

CYC_HUMAN
  • Thrombocytopenia 4 (THC4) [MIM:612004]: Thrombocytopenia is defined by a decrease in the number of platelets in circulating blood, resulting in the potential for increased bleeding and decreased ability for clotting. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18345000}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for CYCS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
CYCS
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
CYCS
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
CYCS
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CYCS: view

No data available for Genatlas for CYCS Gene

Publications for CYCS Gene

  1. Cytochrome c in the apoptotic and antioxidant cascades. (PMID: 9515723) Skulachev V.P. (FEBS Lett. 1998) 3 4 23 67
  2. Cytochrome c release upon Fas receptor activation depends on translocation of full-length bid and the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition. (PMID: 11790791) Tafani M. … Farber J.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002) 2 3 23
  3. Minocycline and neurodegenerative diseases. (PMID: 18977395) Kim H.S. … Suh Y.H. (Behav. Brain Res. 2009) 25 26
  4. Identification of a novel protein MICS1 that is involved in maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and apoptotic release of cytochrome c. (PMID: 18417609) Oka T. … Mihara K. (Mol. Biol. Cell 2008) 3 23
  5. Re-evaluation of mitochondrial permeability transition as a primary neuroprotective target of minocycline. (PMID: 17067803) MAYnsson R. … ElmAcr E. (Neurobiol. Dis. 2007) 25 26

Products for CYCS Gene

Sources for CYCS Gene

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