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Aliases for CYCS Gene

Aliases for CYCS Gene

  • Cytochrome C, Somatic 2 3
  • CYC 3 4 6
  • THC4 3 6
  • Cytochrome C 3
  • HCS 3

External Ids for CYCS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CYCS Gene

  • GC07M024801
  • GC07M024900
  • GC07M024931
  • GC07M025124

Summaries for CYCS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CYCS Gene

  • This gene encodes a small heme protein that functions as a central component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. The encoded protein associates with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion where it accepts electrons from cytochrome b and transfers them to the cytochrome oxidase complex. This protein is also involved in initiation of apoptosis. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic thrombocytopenia. Numerous processed pseudogenes of this gene are found throughout the human genome.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

GeneCards Summary for CYCS Gene

CYCS (Cytochrome C, Somatic) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CYCS include thrombocytopenia 4 and autosomal thrombocytopenia with normal platelets. Among its related pathways are Pathways in cancer and ERK Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include iron ion binding and protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYCS Gene

  • Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain

  • Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases

Gene Wiki entry for CYCS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CYCS Gene

Genomics for CYCS Gene

Regulatory Elements for CYCS Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for CYCS Gene

Start:
25,118,651 bp from pter
End:
25,125,361 bp from pter
Size:
6,711 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for CYCS Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for CYCS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CYCS Gene

Proteins for CYCS Gene

  • Protein details for CYCS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P99999-CYC_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Cytochrome c
    Protein Accession:
    P99999
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D166
    • B2R4I1
    • P00001
    • Q6NUR2
    • Q6NX69
    • Q96BV4

    Protein attributes for CYCS Gene

    Size:
    105 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11749 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CYCS Gene

neXtProt entry for CYCS Gene

Proteomics data for CYCS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for CYCS Gene

  • Binds 1 heme group per subunit
  • Phosphorylation at Tyr-49 and Tyr-98 both reduce by half the turnover in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase, down-regulating mitochondrial respiration.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys40 and Lys80
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for CYCS Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for CYCS (CYCS)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CYCS Gene

Domains for CYCS Gene

Protein Domains for CYCS Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CYCS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P99999

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

CYC_HUMAN :
  • P99999
Family:
  • Belongs to the cytochrome c family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CYCS: view

No data available for Gene Families for CYCS Gene

Function for CYCS Gene

Molecular function for CYCS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CYCS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004722 contributes_to protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity TAS 8206937
GO:0005506 iron ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10206961
GO:0009055 electron carrier activity --
GO:0020037 heme binding TAS 9515723
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYCS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CYCS: view

Animal Models for CYCS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CYCS:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CYCS

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for CYCS Gene

Localization for CYCS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYCS Gene

Mitochondrion intermembrane space. Note=Loosely associated with the inner membrane.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for CYCS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CYCS gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 4
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CYCS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000159 protein phosphatase type 2A complex TAS 8206937
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 20671748
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005758 mitochondrial intermembrane space TAS 8689682
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYCS: view

Pathways for CYCS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CYCS: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
    • Apoptosis in human,mouse,rat
    • Apoptosis 384HT in human,mouse,rat
    • TNF Ligands & Receptors in human,mouse,rat

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CYCS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000302 response to reactive oxygen species TAS --
GO:0006122 mitochondrial electron transport, ubiquinol to cytochrome c IBA --
GO:0006123 mitochondrial electron transport, cytochrome c to oxygen IBA --
GO:0006309 apoptotic DNA fragmentation IMP 8689682
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYCS: view

Compounds for CYCS Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for CYCS Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Heme
  • (protoporphyrinato)iron
14875-96-8

(7) Drugbank Compounds for CYCS Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
Heme
target
Heme C
target
Minocycline
10118-90-8 target negative modulator
N-Trimethyllysine
target
Protoporphyrin Ix Containing Co
target

(136) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CYCS Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
bongkrekic acid 80.1 17
oxygen 79 122
phosphatidylserine 78.4 89
superoxide 78.3 136
adpribose 77.2 70
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CYCS: view

Transcripts for CYCS Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CYCS Gene

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CYCS

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CYCS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CYCS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
CYCS
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
CYCS

Expression for CYCS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CYCS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CYCS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (5.4) and Heart - Atrial Appendage (4.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for CYCS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CYCS Gene Hs.437060

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with CYCS: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CYCS Gene

Orthologs for CYCS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for CYCS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CYCS 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 90 (a)
ManyToMany
CYCS 35
  • 90.79 (n)
  • 90.48 (a)
CYCS 36
  • 90 (a)
ManyToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CYCS 35
  • 89.84 (n)
  • 89.52 (a)
CYCS 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cycs 35
  • 90.48 (n)
  • 91.43 (a)
Cycs 16
Gm10108 36
  • 90 (a)
ManyToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Cycs 35
  • 89.21 (n)
  • 91.43 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CYC 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToMany
CYCS 35
  • 81.59 (n)
  • 87.62 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia cycs 35
  • 75.32 (n)
  • 84.62 (a)
MGC75709 35
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8580 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii -- 35
cycsa 36
  • 49 (a)
OneToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009537 35
  • 69.93 (n)
  • 79.41 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Cyt-c-p 35
  • 71.9 (n)
  • 78.43 (a)
Cyt-c-p 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea cyc-2.1 35
  • 60.88 (n)
  • 60.2 (a)
cyc-2.1 36
  • 53 (a)
ManyToMany
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AFR360W 35
  • 60.73 (n)
  • 57.43 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CYC1 35
  • 65.35 (n)
  • 64.36 (a)
CYC1 36
  • 60 (a)
ManyToMany
CYC1 38
CYC7 36
  • 54 (a)
ManyToMany
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F16929g 35
  • 60.73 (n)
  • 59.41 (a)
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.10771 35
barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.3294 35
corn
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.15923 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 63 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.4826 36
  • 65 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for CYCS:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CYCS Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for CYCS (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for CYCS (if available)

Paralogs for CYCS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CYCS: view

No data available for Paralogs for CYCS Gene

Variants for CYCS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CYCS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1060388 -- 25,120,385(-) GAATT(A/G)gccgg utr-variant-3-prime
rs1060389 -- 25,120,367(-) cgctc(A/G)tgcct utr-variant-3-prime
rs1137505 -- 25,120,358(-) cctgt(A/G)gtccc utr-variant-3-prime
rs1137509 -- 25,120,313(-) aggtc(A/G)ggcgt utr-variant-3-prime
rs1137510 -- 25,120,253(-) taaaa(A/G)ttagc utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CYCS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7393 OTHER Inversion 18451855

Relevant External Links for CYCS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
CYCS
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
CYCS

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYCS Gene

Disorders for CYCS Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for CYCS Gene (123970)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

CYC_HUMAN
  • Thrombocytopenia 4 (THC4) [MIM:612004]: Thrombocytopenia is defined by a decrease in the number of platelets in circulating blood, resulting in the potential for increased bleeding and decreased ability for clotting. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18345000}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(92) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CYCS Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
leukemia 66.5 45
necrosis 64.5 92
cancer 63.1 40
promyelocytic leukemia 62.5 2
tumors 55.9 104

Relevant External Links for CYCS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
CYCS
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
CYCS
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CYCS: view

Publications for CYCS Gene

  1. Cytochrome c release upon Fas receptor activation depends on translocation of full-length bid and the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition. (PMID: 11790791) Tafani M. … Farber J.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002) 2 3 23
  2. Cytochrome c in the apoptotic and antioxidant cascades. (PMID: 9515723) Skulachev V.P. (FEBS Lett. 1998) 3 4 23
  3. Identification of a novel protein MICS1 that is involved in maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and apoptotic release of cytochrome c. (PMID: 18417609) Oka T. … Mihara K. (Mol. Biol. Cell 2008) 3 23
  4. Role of cytochrome c as a stimulator of alpha-synuclein aggregation in Lewy body disease. (PMID: 10506125) Hashimoto M. … Masliah E. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999) 3 23
  5. Glucose metabolism inhibits apoptosis in neurons and cancer cells by redox inactivation of cytochrome c. (PMID: 19029908) Vaughn A.E. … Deshmukh M. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2008) 3 23

Products for CYCS Gene

Sources for CYCS Gene

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