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CXCL9 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 57
GCID: GC04M076922

Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 9

(Previous name: monokine induced by gamma interferon)
(Previous symbols: CMK, MIG)
  See CXCL9-related diseases

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 91 2     Monokine Induced By Interferon-Gamma2 3
MIG1 2 3 5     Small-Inducible Cytokine B92 3
CMK1 2 3     Humig2
SCYB92 3 5     C-X-C Motif Chemokine 92
Monokine Induced By Gamma Interferon1 2     crg-102
Gamma-Interferon-Induced Monokine2 3     HuMIG3

External Ids:    HGNC: 70981   Entrez Gene: 42832   Ensembl: ENSG000001387557   OMIM: 6017045   UniProtKB: Q073253   

Export aliases for CXCL9 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifiers: GC04M076818 GC04M077112 GC04M077315 GC04M077380 GC04M077279 GC04M072674

(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for CXCL9 Gene:
The function of this gene has not been specifically defined; however, it is thought to be involved in T cell
trafficking. This gene has been localized to 4q21 with INP10, which is also a member of the chemokine family of
cytokines. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for CXCL9 Gene:
CXCL9 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with CXCL9 include lymphomatoid granulomatosis, and malaria. GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and chemokine activity. An important paralog of this gene is CXCL10.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CXCL9_HUMAN, Q07325
Function: Cytokine that affects the growth, movement, or activation state of cells that participate in immune and
inflammatory response. Chemotactic for activated T-cells. Binds to CXCR3

Gene Wiki entry for CXCL9 Gene

(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section

RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000004.11  NC_018915.2  NT_016354.20  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the CXCL9 gene promoter:
         IRF-2   p53   AML1a   STAT3   IRF-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidCXCL9 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CXCL9

DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CXCL9

Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 4q21   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  4q21.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 4q21

CXCL9 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CXCL9 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 4         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC04M076922:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

76,922,428 bp from pter      End:
76,928,641 bp from pter
6,214 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CXCL9_HUMAN, Q07325 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: C-X-C motif chemokine 9 precursor  
Size: 125 amino acids; 14019 Da
Secondary accessions: Q503B4

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CXCL9: NX_Q07325

Explore proteomics data for CXCL9 at MOPED

See CXCL9 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

REFSEQ proteins: NP_002407.1  
ENSEMBL proteins: 
Reactome Protein details: Q07325

CXCL9 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for CXCL9 (CXCL9/MIG)
Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
OriGene Purified Protein for CXCL9
OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for CXCL9
OriGene Custom MassSpec
OriGene Custom Protein Services for CXCL9
GenScript Purified and Recombinant Proteins for CXCL9
Novus Biologicals CXCL9 Proteins
Novus Biologicals CXCL9 Lysate
Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for CXCL9
Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

Search eBioscience for Proteins for CXCL9 

antibodies-online proteins for CXCL9 (45 products) 

antibodies-online peptides for CXCL9

GeneTex Proteins for CXCL9: (see all 3
                    MIG recombinant protein (GTX65490)

CXCL9 Antibody Products:

Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
R&D Systems Antibodies for CXCL9 (CXCL9/MIG)
Browse OriGene Antibodies
OriGene Custom Antibody Services for CXCL9
Novus Biologicals CXCL9 Antibodies
Abcam antibodies for CXCL9
Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
ThermoFisher Antibodies for CXCL9
antibodies-online antibodies for CXCL9 (67 products) 

GeneTex Antibodies for CXCL9:  
                    CXCL9 Antibodies

CXCL9 Assay Products:

Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
OriGene Custom Assay Services for CXCL9
R&D Systems ELISAs for CXCL9 (CXCL9/MIG)         (see all)
GenScript Custom Assay Services for CXCL9
Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
eBioscience ELISAs for CXCL9:  
                    Human MIG Instant ELISA 128 tests
antibodies-online kits for CXCL9 (37 products) 

(According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
About This Section

HGNC Gene Families:
ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

4 InterPro protein domains:
 IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom
 IPR001089 Chemokine_CXC
 IPR018048 Chemokine_CXC_CS
 IPR027225 CXCL9

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q07325

ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q07325

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CXCL9_HUMAN, Q07325
Similarity: Belongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family

Find genes that share domains with CXCL9           About GenesLikeMe

(According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway, and/or Taconic Biosciences, CRISPR knockouts from OriGene, transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
About This Section

Molecular Function:

     UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CXCL9_HUMAN, Q07325
Function: Cytokine that affects the growth, movement, or activation state of cells that participate in immune and
inflammatory response. Chemotactic for activated T-cells. Binds to CXCR3
Induction: By IFNG/IFN-gamma. The induction is enhanced by TNF in dermal fibroblasts and vein endothelial cells

     Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0005125cytokine activity TAS2115167
GO:0005515protein binding IPI18275857
GO:0008009chemokine activity IDA12782716
GO:0048248CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding IDA12782716
Find genes that share ontologies with CXCL9           About GenesLikeMe

     1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for CXCL9:
 Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

     3 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Cxcl9):
 hematopoietic system  immune system  mortality/aging 

Find genes that share phenotypes with CXCL9           About GenesLikeMe

Animal Models:
     MGI mouse knock-out Cxcl9tm1Jmf for CXCL9

   genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for CXCL9

    Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for CXCL9:  
                    TF2637 - Cxcl9

CRISPR Knockouts: 
   OriGene CRISPR knockouts for CXCL9

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CXCL9:
hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT016944), hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT028888), hsa-mir-34a-5p (MIRT025283)

Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CXCL9 using miScript Target Protectors
5 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CXCL9:
hsa-miR-4316 hsa-miR-634 hsa-miR-3662 hsa-miR-103a-2* hsa-miR-4267
SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCXCL9 3' UTR sequence
Inhib. RNA
OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for CXCL9
Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CXCL9

OriGene clones in human, mouse for CXCL9 (see all 7)
OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for CXCL9
OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CXCL9 (NM_002416)
Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for CXCL9
Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CXCL9

Cell Line
GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for CXCL9
Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for CXCL9 
In Situ Assay

Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CXCL9

(According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
About This Section

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
CXCL9_HUMAN, Q07325: Secreted
Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

plasma membrane2

Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
GO:0005615extracellular space IEA--
GO:0009897external side of plasma membrane IEA--

Find genes that share ontologies with CXCL9           About GenesLikeMe

(SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
About This Section

SuperPaths for CXCL9 About   (see all 13)  
See pathways by source

SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
1PEDF Induced Signaling
MIF Regulation of Innate Immune Cells0.94
IL-6 Pathway0.61
MIF Mediated Glucocorticoid Regulation0.94
STAT3 Pathway0.47
PEDF Induced Signaling0.73
Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway0.46
all-trans-Retinoic Acid Signaling in Brain0.71
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction0.43
2Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway0.94
Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway0.93
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway0.94
3Chemokine Superfamily: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions
Chemokine receptors bind chemokines0.81
Chemokine Superfamily: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions0.81
4Chemokine Signaling
Chemokine Signaling0.33
Chemokine signaling pathway0.33
5Peptide ligand-binding receptors
Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
GPCR ligand binding0.71
G alpha (i) signalling events0.44

Find genes that share SuperPaths with CXCL9           About GenesLikeMe

Pathways by source                                   See SuperPaths
Show all pathways

1 R&D Systems Pathway for CXCL9
    Chemokine Superfamily: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions

Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for CXCL9 (see all 17)
    Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway
Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C
Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes
MIF Mediated Glucocorticoid Regulation

5 BioSystems Pathways for CXCL9
    Type II interferon signaling (IFNG)
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
CXCR3-mediated signaling events
IL23-mediated signaling events
Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway

2 Reactome Pathways for CXCL9
    Chemokine receptors bind chemokines
G alpha (i) signalling events

3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for CXCL9):
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
Chemokine signaling pathway
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway

    Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CXCL9 (see all 13): 
          NFKB Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
          Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
          Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
          Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
          Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity in human mouse rat


    GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CXCL9

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

Selected Interacting proteins for CXCL9 (Q073251, 2, 3 ENSP000003549014) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 165)
InteractantInteraction Details
GeneCardExternal ID(s)
DPP4P274871, 2, 3, ENSP000003537314EBI-3911467,EBI-2871277 MINT-8091083 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000353731
CCR3P516773, ENSP000003500034I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000350003
CXCR3P496823, ENSP000003627954I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000362795
ACKR3ENSP000002729284STRING: ENSP00000272928
ADCY2ENSP000003429524STRING: ENSP00000342952
About this table

Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 14):    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0006935chemotaxis IDA12782716
GO:0006952defense response TAS2115167
GO:0006954inflammatory response IEA--
GO:0006955immune response IEA--
GO:0006968cellular defense response TAS10570316

Find genes that share ontologies with CXCL9           About GenesLikeMe

(Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
About This Section

Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
   Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
  Browse compounds at ApexBio 

Browse Tocris compounds for CXCL9

Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CXCL9 gene (see all 25)    About this table
Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
rantes 85.6 85 17489976 (5), 9856808 (3), 12164740 (3), 12864798 (3) (see all 59)
tarc 84.5 31 11310827 (3), 11920617 (3), 15927812 (3), 16583210 (3) (see all 18)
ccl3 81.1 26 17170049 (3), 12960247 (2), 19293190 (1), 19906920 (1) (see all 20)
ena 78 80.3 1 17444857 (1)
groalpha 67.8 7 15975968 (3), 19597126 (1), 9846975 (1), 11422029 (1)
ccl4 56.5 19 12960247 (2), 11178128 (1), 19265171 (1), 15591886 (1) (see all 14)
sdf 1 46 1 17384278 (1)
ifn-alpha 43.3 3 16736505 (1), 16571725 (1)
il 10 36.5 3 15975968 (2), 19340290 (1)
vegf 10.9 11 18644076 (4), 19160404 (1), 17459161 (1), 19010327 (1) (see all 6)

Find genes that share compounds with CXCL9           About GenesLikeMe

(Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
About This Section

REFSEQ mRNAs for CXCL9 gene: 

Unigene Cluster for CXCL9:

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9
Hs.77367  [show with all ESTs]
Unigene Representative Sequence: BC042178
1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CXCL9 using miScript Target Protectors
5 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CXCL9:
hsa-miR-4316 hsa-miR-634 hsa-miR-3662 hsa-miR-103a-2* hsa-miR-4267
SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCXCL9 3' UTR sequence
Inhib. RNA
OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for CXCL9
Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CXCL9
OriGene clones in human, mouse for CXCL9 (see all 7)
OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for CXCL9
OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CXCL9 (NM_002416)
Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CXCL9
OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for CXCL9
OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for CXCL9
Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat CXCL9
  QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CXCL9
  QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CXCL9

Additional mRNA sequence: 

AK311852.1 BC025745.1 BC042178.1 BC063122.1 BC095396.1 X72755.1 

4 DOTS entries:

DT.414759  DT.99955548  DT.95168680  DT.95168681 

Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 95):

AI918026 AI370217 BC042178 AI924853 AI784420 NM_002416 AA974879 T89439 
BQ016361 AA970872 AA131506 X72755 AA131406 T29117 AI686870 AA361362 
BF438664 AI424490 AI567906 AI819546 AW269682 CA748729 CB995904 BI835035 

GeneLoc Exon Structure

(RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
About This Section

CXCL9 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
CXCL9 Expression
About this image

CXCL9 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
 selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
 Adipose (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
         Body Subcutaneous White Adipose
 Liver (Hepatobiliary System)
         Mature Mesothelial Cells Hepatic Mesenchyme
 Blood (Cardiovascular System)
         Conventional Dendritic Cells I Spleen
 Spleen (Hematopoietic System)
         Conventional Dendritic Cells I Spleen
CXCL9 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

CXCL9 Protein Expression

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.77367
    Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CXCL9 (see all 13): 
          NFKB Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
          Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
          Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
          Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
          Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity in human mouse rat

OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for CXCL9
OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for CXCL9
Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat CXCL9
QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CXCL9
QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CXCL9
In Situ
Assay Products:

Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CXCL9

(Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
About This Section

This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and mouse.

Orthologs for CXCL9 gene from Selected species (see all 5)    About this table
Organism Taxonomic
Gene Description Human
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cxcl95 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9   --   5 (46.51 cM) 92321331 

ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CXCL9 (if available)
TreeFam Gene Tree for CXCL9 (if available)

(Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to Build 68,Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
About This Section

Paralogs for CXCL9 gene
8 SIMAP similar genes for CXCL9 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     CXCL9_HUMAN (see all proteins):
PPBP    CXCL3    CXCL2    CXCL1    CXCL10    CXCL11

Find genes that share paralogs with CXCL9           About GenesLikeMe

(SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, and 4UniProtKB, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
About This Section

Selected SNPs for CXCL9 (see all 169)    About this table                                 

Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
SNP IDValidClinical
Chr 4 posSequence#AA
C--76922315(+) CAAATC/TCCTGA 1 -- ds50010--------
C--76922338(+) CGCCCA/CCTTCG 1 -- ds50010--------
C--76922355(+) CAAAGG/TGCTGG 1 -- ds50010--------
C--76922412(+) AATCAA/GTGTTG 1 -- ds50010--------
C,F--76922749(-) ATATAC/TATACA 1 -- ut31 ese317Minor allele frequency- T:0.19MN NA WA CSA EA 994
C,F--76922759(-) TTTATC/TATATA 1 -- ut3117Minor allele frequency- T:0.34MN NA WA EA 1300
C--76922817(-) CAGTAT/CATAAC 1 -- ut316Minor allele frequency- C:0.01MN NA 448
C,F--76922827(-) CACAGG/ATAGAC 1 -- ut315Minor allele frequency- A:0.01MN 400
--76922840(+) ATGCAA/GGGTAA 1 -- ut310--------
--76922928(+) GATTAG/TATAAG 1 -- ut310--------

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CXCL9 (76922428 - 76928641 bp)

Structural Variations
     Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for CXCL9:    About this table    
Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
nsv7363OTHER Inversion18451855

Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing CXCL9

(in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
About This Section

OMIM gene information: 601704    OMIM disorders: --

13 diseases for CXCL9:    
About MalaCards
lymphomatoid granulomatosis    malaria    tuberculosis    endotheliitis
complex regional pain syndrome type 1    chronic eosinophilic pneumonia    sydenham's chorea    radiculopathy
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis    extrapulmonary tuberculosis    inclusion body myositis    acrodermatitis
viral encephalitis

2 inferred disease relationships from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for CXCL9:
Lung disease     Skin disease

Find genes that share disorders with CXCL9           About GenesLikeMe

Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CXCL9 gene (see all 59)    About this table

Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
inflammation 58 18 15210824 (1), 17473147 (1), 19155971 (1), 19276231 (1) (see all 16)
necrosis 48.5 36 9354680 (4), 9108380 (2), 19095263 (2), 20382085 (1) (see all 28)
sporadic inclusion body myositis 48.5 2 12965263 (1)
sarcoidosis pulmonary 42.2 2 17550373 (2)
lymphomatoid granulomatosis 40.3 1 9354680 (1)
immunopathology 39.7 1 16163626 (1)
fibrosis idiopathic pulmonary 38.2 1 19565490 (1)
keratoconjunctivitis vernal 36.8 1 14597036 (1)
bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 36.6 3 18644457 (1), 15956791 (1), 17550373 (1)
mycosis fungoides 36.5 1 15927812 (1)

Genetic Association Database (GAD): CXCL9
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: CXCL9 (11 documents)

Export disorders for CXCL9 gene to outside databases

(in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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PubMed articles for CXCL9 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 449) (see top 10):
(articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CXCL9)

  1. HuMig: a new human member of the chemokine family of cytokines. (PubMed id 8476424)1, 2, 3 Farber J.M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1993)
  2. Association of cytokine and chemokine gene polymorphisms with severe acute respiratory syndrome. (PubMed id 19258635)1, 4, 9 Lau Y.L. and Peiris J.S. (Hong Kong Med J 2009)
  3. Human IP-9: a keratinocyte derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3). (PubMed id 10233762)1, 2, 9 Tensen C.P.... Willemze R. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 1999)
  4. Common polymorphisms in ITGA2, PON1 and THBS2 are associated with coronary atherosclerosis in a candidate gene association study of the Chinese Han population. (PubMed id 20485444)1, 4 Wang Y....Huang W. (J. Hum. Genet. 2010)
  5. Evaluation of candidate stromal epithelial cross-talk genes identifies association between risk of serous ovarian cancer and TERT, a cancer susceptibility &quot;hot-spot&quot;. (PubMed id 20628624)1, 4 Johnatty S.E.... . (PLoS Genet. 2010)
  6. Interleukin-9 polymorphism in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection: an opposite effect in boys and girls. (PubMed id 20503287)1, 4 Schuurhof A....Janssen R. (Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2010)
  7. Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in preterm children is associated with airway remodeling genes and innate immune genes. (PubMed id 19258923)1, 4 Siezen C.L....Janssen R. (Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2009)
  8. Polymorphisms of CXCR3-binding chemokines in type 1 diabetes. (PubMed id 19410617)1, 4 BrA1ck P....Ramos-Lopez E. (Hum. Immunol. 2009)
  9. Association of a CXCL9 polymorphism with pediatric Crohn's disease. (PubMed id 17892861)1, 4 Lacher M....Koletzko S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2007)
  10. Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is predominantly associated with innate immune genes. (PubMed id 17703412)1, 4 Janssen R....Hoebee B. (J. Infect. Dis. 2007)
  11. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
  12. The human gene encoding SCYB9B, a putative novel CXC chemokine, maps to human chromosome 4q21 like the closely related genes for MIG (SCYB9) and INP10 (SCYB10). (PubMed id 9730616)1, 3 Erdel M.... Werner-Felmayer G. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1998)
  13. Involvement of the interferon-gamma-induced T cell-attracting chemokines, interferon-gamma-inducible 10-kd protein (CXCL10) and monokine induced by interferon-gamma (CXCL9), in the salivary gland lesions of patients with SjAPgren's syndrome. (PubMed id 12384933)1, 9 Ogawa N....Sugai S. (Arthritis Rheum. 2002)
  14. Detection of interferon-gamma-inducible chemokines in human milk. (PubMed id 12856973)1, 9 Takahata Y....Hara T. (Acta Paediatr. 2003)
  15. Constitutive nuclear factor kappaB activity is required to elicit interferon-gamma-induced expression of chemokine CXC ligand 9 (CXCL9) and CXCL10 in human tumour cell lines. (PubMed id 12946268)1, 9 Hiroi M. and Ohmori Y. (Biochem. J. 2003)
  16. Antifibrotic effects of CXCL9 and its receptor CXCR3 in livers of mice and humans. (PubMed id 19344719)1, 9 Wasmuth H.E....Trautwein C. (Gastroenterology 2009)
  17. ESAT6-induced IFNgamma and CXCL9 can differentiate severity of tuberculosis. (PubMed id 19340290)1, 9 Hasan Z....Hussain R. (PLoS ONE 2009)
  18. VAP-1, Eotaxin3 and MIG as potential atherosclerotic triggers of severe calcified and stenotic human aortic valves: effects of statins. (PubMed id 17490641)1, 9 Anger T....Garlichs C.D. (Exp. Mol. Pathol. 2007)
  19. Human Mig chemokine: biochemical and functional characterization. (PubMed id 7595201)1, 9 Liao F....Farber J.M. (J. Exp. Med. 1995)
  20. Increased urinary levels of CXCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL9 in patients with Type 2 diabetic nephropathy. (PubMed id 18413205)1, 9 Higurashi M....Yamada K. (J. Diabetes Complicat. 2009)
  21. Increased levels of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and chemokines IP-10 and MIG in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and their first degree relatives. (PubMed id 16243485)1, 9 Chuang Y.H....Gershwin M.E. (J. Autoimmun. 2005)
  22. The antipsoriatic drug dimethylfumarate strongly suppresses chemokine production in human keratinocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (PubMed id 11422029)1, 9 Stoof T.J....Boorsma D.M. (Br. J. Dermatol. 2001)
  23. Close resemblance between chemokine receptor expression profiles of lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes and their normal counterparts in association with elevated serum concentrations of IP-10 and MIG. (PubMed id 17875534)1, 9 Momose K....Ishida F. (Int. J. Hematol. 2007)
  24. The proinflammatory CXC-chemokines GRO-alpha/CXCL1 and MIG/CXCL9 are concomitantly expressed in ulcerative colitis and decrease during treatment with topical corticosteroids. (PubMed id 17703315)1, 9 Egesten A....Carlson M. (Int J Colorectal Dis 2007)
  25. An alternatively spliced variant of CXCR3 mediates the inhibition of endothelial cell growth induced by IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, and acts as functional receptor for platelet factor 4. (PubMed id 12782716)1, 9 Lasagni L.... Romagnani P. (J. Exp. Med. 2003)
  26. Regulated production of interferon-inducible T-cell chemoattractants by human intestinal epithelial cells. (PubMed id 11208713)1, 9 Dwinell M.B....Kagnoff M.F. (Gastroenterology 2001)
  27. CXCR3 expression and activation of eosinophils: role of IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 and monokine induced by IFN-gamma. (PubMed id 10903763)1, 9 Jinquan T....Poulsen L.K. (J. Immunol. 2000)
  28. Localization of the gene for the human MIG cytokine on chromosome 4q21 adjacent to INP10 reveals a chemokine &quot;mini-cluster&quot;. (PubMed id 8976378)1, 9 Lee H.H. and Farber J.M. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1996)
  29. Modelling of the membrane receptor CXCR3 and its complexes with CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 chemokines: putative target for new drug design. (PubMed id 19800124)1, 9 Trotta T....Colonna G. (Mol. Immunol. 2009)
  30. [Expression and significance of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, C-X-C motif 9 and keratin 19 in oral submucosal fibrosis]. (PubMed id 19087608)1, 9 Li N. and Jian X.C. (Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2008)
  31. Both Th1 and Th2 chemokines are elevated in sera of patients with autoimmune blistering diseases. (PubMed id 16583210)1, 9 Echigo T....Sato S. (Arch. Dermatol. Res. 2006)
  32. Both Th2 and Th1 chemokines (TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and Mig/CXCL9) are elevated in sera from patients with atopic dermatitis. (PubMed id 15113590)1, 9 Shimada Y....Sato S. (J. Dermatol. Sci. 2004)
  33. Carboxyterminal cleavage of the chemokines MIG and IP-10 by gelatinase B and neutrophil collagenase. (PubMed id 14550288)1, 9 Van den Steen P.E....Opdenakker G. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003)
  34. CCR3 functional responses are regulated by both CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. (PubMed id 12884299)1, 9 Xanthou G....Pease J.E. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2003)
  35. Expression and modulation of IFN-gamma-inducible chemokines (IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC) in human brain endothelium and astrocytes: possible relevance for the immune invasion of the central nervous system and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. (PubMed id 12162873)1, 9 Salmaggi A....De Rossi M. (amp 2002)
  36. The ligands of CXC chemokine receptor 3, I-TAC, Mig, and IP10, are natural antagonists for CCR3. (PubMed id 11110785)1, 9 Loetscher P....Clark-Lewis I. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
  37. Characterization and peripheral blood biomarker assessment of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive interstitial lung disease. (PubMed id 19565490)1, 9 Richards T.J....Ascherman D.P. (Arthritis Rheum. 2009)
  38. Mig, IP-10, and CXCR3 gene expression is predictive for the individual response of children with chronic allograft nephropathy to mycophenolate mofetil. (PubMed id 12270371)1, 9 Reiners J....von Schmakenburg C. (Transplant. Proc. 2002)
  39. Inflammation in human skin: a model to study chemokine-mediated leukocyte migration in vivo. (PubMed id 11523044)1, 9 Gillitzer R. (J. Pathol. 2001)
  40. In vivo stability of human chemokine and chemokine receptor expression. (PubMed id 11423172)1, 9 Campbell J.D....HayGlass K.T. (Hum. Immunol. 2001)
  41. Kinetic investigation of chemokine truncation by CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV reveals a striking selectivity within the chemokine family. (PubMed id 11390394)1, 9 Lambeir A.M....De Meester I. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
  42. Interferon-inducible protein 10, monokine induced by interferon gamma, and interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant are produced by thymic epithelial cells and attract T-cell receptor (TCR) alphabeta+ CD8+ single-positive T cells, TCRgammadelta+ T cells, and natural killer-type cells in human thymus. (PubMed id 11157474)1, 9 Romagnani P....Romagnani S. (Blood 2001)
  43. Plasma CXCL9 elevations correlate with chronic GVHD diagnosis. (PubMed id 24363401)1 Kitko C.L....Paczesny S. (Blood 2014)
  44. High circulating chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, and (C-X-C motif) ligand 11, in hepatitis C-associated cryoglobulinemia. (PubMed id 23527708)1 Antonelli A....Ferri C. (Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2013)
  45. Autocrine CCL2, CXCL4, CXCL9 and CXCL10 signal in retinal endothelial cells and are enhanced in diabetic retinopathy. (PubMed id 23352833)1 Nawaz M.I....Struyf S. (Exp. Eye Res. 2013)
  46. Expression of CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9, -10 and -11 in paediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (PubMed id 23600831)1 Pranzatelli M.R....Ransohoff R.M. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2013)
  47. CXCL9/Mig mediates T cells recruitment to valvular tissue lesions of chronic rheumatic heart disease patients. (PubMed id 23417848)1 FaAc K.C....Guilherme L. (Inflammation 2013)
  48. CXCR3 ligands are associated with the continuum of diffuse alveolar damage to chronic lung allograft dysfunction. (PubMed id 24063316)1 Shino M.Y....Belperio J.A. (Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2013)
  49. Serum levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) are associated with tumor progression and treatment outcome in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. (PubMed id 23769451)1 Chang K.P....Kao H.K. (Oral Oncol. 2013)
  50. Chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 9 serum levels in mixed cryoglobulinaemia are associated with circulating levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. (PubMed id 22766105)1 Antonelli A....Ferri C. (Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 2012)
  51. Expression of CXCL9, -10, and -11 in the aqueous humor of patients with herpetic endotheliitis. (PubMed id 22367045)1 Park J.W....Yoon K.C. (Cornea 2012)
  52. Gene profile of chemokines on hepatic stellate cells of schistosome-infected mice and antifibrotic roles of CXCL9/10 on liver non-parenchymal cells. (PubMed id 22905138)1 Liang Y.J....Zhang Z.S. (PLoS ONE 2012)
  53. Gene expression analysis of rheumatoid arthritis synovial lining regions by cDNA microarray combined with laser microdissection: up-regulation of inflammation-associated STAT1, IRF1, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5. (PubMed id 22401175)1 Yoshida S....Ohshima K. (Scand. J. Rheumatol. 2012)
  54. Modulation of CXCR3 ligand secretion by prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase inhibitors in human breast cancer. (PubMed id 22333315)1 Bronger H....Schmitt M. (Breast Cancer Res. 2012)
  55. CXC ligand 9 response to malaria during pregnancy is associated with low-birth-weight deliveries. (PubMed id 22689822)1 Dong S....Fried M. (Infect. Immun. 2012)
  56. Chemokines as markers of local inflammation and angiogenesis in patients with chronic subdural hematoma: a prospective study. (PubMed id 22037980)1 Stanisic M....Saehle T. (Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2012)
  57. Chemokine-mediated tissue recruitment of CXCR3+ CD4+ T cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic GVHD. (PubMed id 23012327)1 Croudace J.E....Moss P.A. (Blood 2012)
  58. Role of autophagy in monokine induced by interferon I^ (Mig) production during adenovirus-hepatitis B virus infection. (PubMed id 22580676)1 Xia Y....Liu M. (Hepatogastroenterology 2012)
  59. Circulating interferon-I^-inducible Cys-X-Cys chemokine receptor 3 ligands are elevated in humans with aortic aneurysms and Cys-X-Cys chemokine receptor 3 is necessary for aneurysm formation in mice. (PubMed id 21962843)1 Gallo A....Geirsson A. (J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 2012)
  60. Bortezomib regulates the chemotactic characteristics of T cells through downregulation of CXCR3/CXCL9 expression and induction of apoptosis. (PubMed id 23179902)1 Liu W....Shi Y.J. (Int. J. Hematol. 2012)
  61. JCV+ Patients with Inflammatory bowel disease show elevated plasma levels of MIG and SCF. (PubMed id 22467521)1 Comar M....Zauli G. (Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 2012)
  62. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of human epithelial cells induces CXCL9 expression and CD4+ T cell migration via activation of p38-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-I^ pathway. (PubMed id 22586042)1 Huang W....Hu Q. (J. Immunol. 2012)
  63. Intragraft transcriptome level of CXCL9 as biomarker of acute cellular rejection after liver transplantation. (PubMed id 22889476)1 Asaoka T....Nagano H. (J. Surg. Res. 2012)
  64. Myocardial chemokine expression and intensity of myocarditis in Chagas cardiomyopathy are controlled by polymorphisms in CXCL9 and CXCL10. (PubMed id 23150742)1 Nogueira L.G....Cunha-Neto E. (PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2012)
  65. Mycobacterium tuberculosis increases IP-10 and MIG protein despite inhibition of IP-10 and MIG transcription. (PubMed id 21167783)1 Bai X....Chan E.D. (Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2011)
  66. Dysregulated expression of MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and CXCL16 and their receptors in systemic sclerosis. (PubMed id 21303517)1 Rabquer B.J....Koch A.E. (amp 2011)
  67. CXCL9 induces chemotaxis, chemorepulsion and endothelial barrier disruption through CXCR3-mediated activation of melanoma cells. (PubMed id 21179030)1 Amatschek S....Wiesner C. (Br. J. Cancer 2011)
  68. Urinary chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 are noninvasive markers of renal allograft rejection and BK viral infection. (PubMed id 21812928)1 Jackson J.A....Kirk A.D. (Am. J. Transplant. 2011)
  69. Increase of circulating CXCL9 and CXCL11 associated with euthyroid or subclinically hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis. (PubMed id 21470996)1 Antonelli A....Fallahi P. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2011)
  70. Circulating chemokine (CXC motif) ligand (CXCL)9 is increased in aggressive chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, in association with CXCL10. (PubMed id 21601475)1 Antonelli A....Fallahi P. (Cytokine 2011)
  71. Toward an understanding of the protein interaction network of the human liver. (PubMed id 21988832)1 Wang J....Yang X. (Mol. Syst. Biol. 2011)
  72. Serum chemokine receptor CXCR3 ligands are associated with progression, organ dysfunction and complications of chronic liver diseases. (PubMed id 21645215)1 Tacke F....Wasmuth H.E. (Liver Int. 2011)
  73. Pretransplant serum CXCL9 and CXCL10 levels fail to predict acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients receiving induction therapy. (PubMed id 21475065)1 Heidt S....Wood K.J. (Transplantation 2011)
  74. G-protein-coupled receptor independent, immunomodulatory properties of chemokine CXCL9. (PubMed id 20038462)1 Gong J.H....Hancock R.E. (Cell. Immunol. 2010)
  75. Predominant interferon-I^-mediated expression of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5 proteins in the brain during chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii in BALB/c mice resistant to development of toxoplasmic encephalitis. (PubMed id 20626297)1 Wen X....Suzuki Y. (amp 2010)
  76. Pre-transplant serum level of CXCL9 as a biomarker of acute rejection and graft failure risk in kidney transplantation. (PubMed id 20456109)1 Brouard S. and Soulillou J.P. (Transpl. Int. 2010)
  77. High pretransplant serum levels of CXCL9 are associated with increased risk of acute rejection and graft failure in kidney graft recipients. (PubMed id 19929857)1 Rotondi M....Serio M. (Transpl. Int. 2010)
  78. A longitudinal analysis of innate and adaptive immune profile during hepatic flares in chronic hepatitis B. (PubMed id 20137825)1 Tan A.T....Bertoletti A. (J. Hepatol. 2010)
  79. Chemokine control of HIV-1 infection: beyond a binding competition. (PubMed id 20942936)1 Wu Y. (Retrovirology 2010)
  80. CXCL9 and CXCL11 chemokines modulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonists secretion in Graves' and normal thyrocytes. (PubMed id 20810571)1 Antonelli A....Fallahi P. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2010)
  81. Interferon-alpha, -beta and -gamma induce CXCL9 and CXCL10 secretion by human thyrocytes: modulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists. (PubMed id 20299237)1 Antonelli A....Ferrannini E. (Cytokine 2010)
  82. New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine. (PubMed id 20237496)1 Davila S....Seielstad M. (Genes Immun. 2010)
  83. Chemokine expression patterns in the systemic and genital tract compartments are associated with HIV-1 infection in women from Benin. (PubMed id 19898927)1 Lajoie J....Roger M. (J. Clin. Immunol. 2010)
  84. MIG and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-I^1 correlate with malaria vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. (PubMed id 20838432)1 Dunachie S.J....Fletcher H.A. (PLoS ONE 2010)
  85. Urinary CXCL9 and CXCL10 levels correlate with the extent of subclinical tubulitis. (PubMed id 19459809)1 Schaub S....Hayglass K. (Am. J. Transplant. 2009)
  86. HBx protein induces expression of MIG and increases migration of leukocytes through activation of NF-kappaB. (PubMed id 19157479)1 Xia L.M....Tian D.A. (Virology 2009)
  87. The imbalance in serum concentration of Th-1- and Th-2-derived chemokines as one of the factors involved in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. (PubMed id 19639049)1 Narbutt J....Kuna P. (Mediators Inflamm. 2009)
  88. SpeB of Streptococcus pyogenes differentially modulates antibacterial and receptor activating properties of human chemokines. (PubMed id 19274094)1 Egesten A....Collin M. (PLoS ONE 2009)
  89. [Expression and significance of chemokine CXC receptor 3, 4 and their ligands at the early pregnancy decidua and villi]. (PubMed id 19134328)1 Bai X.X....Wang H.L. (Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2008)
  90. Reviews in molecular biology and biotechnology: transmembrane signaling by G protein-coupled receptors. (PubMed id 18240029)1 Luttrell L.M. (Mol. Biotechnol. 2008)
  91. Circulating chemokines in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. (PubMed id 18415893)1 Domberg J....Schott M. (Horm. Metab. Res. 2008)
  92. Bioplex analysis of plasma cytokines in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. (PubMed id 18930766)1 Lee K.S....Hong C.H. (Immunol. Lett. 2008)
  93. RhoA is involved in LFA-1 extension triggered by CXCL12 but not in a novel outside-in LFA-1 activation facilitated by CXCL9. (PubMed id 18292502)1 Pasvolsky R....Alon R. (J. Immunol. 2008)
  94. The antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9 is constitutively expressed in epithelial cells of the male urogenital tract and is present in seminal plasma. (PubMed id 18338951)1 Linge H.M....Egesten A. (amp 2008)
  95. Stromal cell-derived factors 1alpha and 1beta, inflammatory protein-10 and interferon-inducible T cell chemo-attractant are novel substrates of dipeptidyl peptidase 8. (PubMed id 18275857)1 Ajami K....Gorrell M.D. (FEBS Lett. 2008)
  96. Protein FOG is a moderate inducer of MIG/CXCL9, and group G streptococci are more tolerant than group A streptococci to this chemokine's antibacterial effect. (PubMed id 17975089)1 Linge H.M....Frick I.M. (Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 2007)
  97. Genome-wide association study of electrocardiographic and heart rate variability traits: the Framingham Heart Study. (PubMed id 17903306)4 Newton-Cheh C....Larson M.G. (BMC Med. Genet. 2007)
  98. The CXC chemokine MIG/CXCL9 is important in innate immunity against Streptococcus pyogenes. (PubMed id 17262710)1 Egesten A....Bjorck L. (J. Infect. Dis. 2007)
  99. Prolactin enhances interferon-gamma-induced production of CXC ligand 9 (CXCL9), CXCL10, and CXCL11 in human keratinocytes. (PubMed id 17255201)1 Kanda N. and Watanabe S. (Endocrinology 2007)
  100. hORFeome v3.1: a resource of human open reading frames representing over 10,000 human genes. (PubMed id 17207965)1 Lamesch P.... Vidal M. (Genomics 2007)
  101. The chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 differentially stimulate G alpha i-independent signaling and actin responses in human intestinal myofibroblasts. (PubMed id 16210647)1 Kouroumalis A....Ward S.G. (J. Immunol. 2005)
  102. Association between lack of angiogenic response in muscle tissue and high expression of angiostatic ELR-negative CXC chemokines in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis: possible link to vasculopathy. (PubMed id 16200621)1 Fall N....Grom A.A. (Arthritis Rheum. 2005)
  103. Intracellular domains of CXCR3 that mediate CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 function. (PubMed id 15150261)1 Colvin R.A....Luster A.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
  104. Increased serum concentrations of monokine induced by interferon-gamma/CXCL9 and interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10/CXCL-10 in Sydenham's chorea patients. (PubMed id 15081261)1 Teixeira A.L....Teixeira M.M. (J. Neuroimmunol. 2004)
  105. A second step of chemotaxis after transendothelial migration: keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis release IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10, monokine induced by IFN-gamma, and IFN-gamma-inducible alpha-chemoattractant for T cell chemotaxis toward epidermis in atopic dermatitis. (PubMed id 12847282)1 Klunker S....Akdis C.A. (J. Immunol. 2003)
  106. Expression analysis of the T-cell-targeting chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 in mice and humans with endothelial infections caused by rickettsiae of the spotted fever group. (PubMed id 14507644)1 Valbuena G....Walker D.H. (Am. J. Pathol. 2003)
  107. HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages. (PubMed id 12539042)1 Izmailova E....Aldovini A. (Nat. Med. 2003)
  108. Expression of IP-10/CXCL10 and MIG/CXCL9 in the thyroid and increased levels of IP-10/CXCL10 in the serum of patients with recent-onset Graves' disease. (PubMed id 12107104)1 Romagnani P....Serio M. (Am. J. Pathol. 2002)
  109. Expression of chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. (PubMed id 12185171)1 Mahad D.J....Woodroofe M.N. (J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 2002)
  110. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
  111. Neutrophils produce biologically active macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha)/CCL20 and MIP-3beta/CCL19. (PubMed id 11449350)1 Scapini P....Cassatella M.A. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2001)
  112. Cutting edge: species specificity of the CC chemokine 6Ckine signaling through the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3: human 6Ckine is not a ligand for the human or mouse CXCR3 receptors. (PubMed id 10201891)1 Jenh C.H....Zavodny P.J. (J. Immunol. 1999)
  113. Chemokine receptor responses on T cells are achieved through regulation of both receptor expression and signaling. (PubMed id 10201901)1 Rabin R.L....Farber J.M. (J. Immunol. 1999)
  114. Chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions provide a mechanism for selective T cell recruitment to specific liver compartments within hepatitis C-infected liver. (PubMed id 10570316)1 Shields P.L....Adams D.H. (J. Immunol. 1999)
  115. Binding and functional properties of recombinant and endogenous CXCR3 chemokine receptors. (PubMed id 9660793)1 Weng Y....DeMartino J.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998)
  116. A macrophage mRNA selectively induced by gamma-interferon encodes a member of the platelet factor 4 family of cytokines. (PubMed id 2115167)1 Farber J.M. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1990)
  117. Presence of three distinct molecular species of Gi protein alpha subunit. Structure of rat cDNAs and human genomic DNAs. (PubMed id 2834384)1 Itoh H.... Kaziro Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 1988)
  118. Regulation of cockroach antigen-induced allergic airway hyperreactivity by the CXCR3 ligand CXCL9. (PubMed id 15210824)9 Thomas M.S....Lukacs N.W. (J. Immunol. 2004)
  119. Prediction of acute renal allograft rejection by urinary monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG). (PubMed id 15857922)9 Hauser I.A....Radeke H.H. (J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2005)
  120. Antitumor effects of the MIG and IP-10 genes transferred with poly [D,L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid] on murine neuroblastoma. (PubMed id 17514193)9 Tominaga M....Kitano S. (Cancer Gene Ther. 2007)
  121. Monokine induced by interferon gamma (IFNgamma) (CXCL9) and IFNgamma inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant (CXCL11) involvement in Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy: modulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists. (PubMed id 19276231)9 Antonelli A....Ferrannini E. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009)
  122. IP-10 and Mig production by glomerular cells in human proliferative glomerulonephritis and regulation by nitric oxide. (PubMed id 11752021)9 Romagnani P....Serio M. (J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2002)
  123. The CXC chemokines gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-inducible protein 10 and monokine induced by IFN-gamma are released during severe melioidosis. (PubMed id 10858199)9 Lauw F.N....van der Poll T. (Infect. Immun. 2000)
  124. [Expression of chemokine monokine induced by interferon-gama in patients with chronic hepatitis B]. (PubMed id 17121706)9 Zhna J.H....Xiang G.J. (Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2006)
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  126. Relationship between circulating levels of IFN-gamma, IL-10, CXCL9 and CCL2 in pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis is dependent on disease severity. (PubMed id 19281538)9 Hasan Z....Hussain R. (Scand. J. Immunol. 2009)
  127. Increased levels of monokine induced by interferon-gamma (Mig) in the vitreous of patients with diabetic retinopathy. (PubMed id 18644076)9 Wakabayashi Y....Goto H. (Diabet. Med. 2008)
  128. IL-18 enhances IFN-gamma-induced production of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in human keratinocytes. (PubMed id 17274000)9 Kanda N....Watanabe S. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2007)
  129. Evaluation of CXCL9 and CXCL10 as circulating biomarkers of human cardiac allograft rejection. (PubMed id 16780603)9 Karason K....Svensson P.A. (BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2006)
  130. HSV oncolytic therapy upregulates interferon-inducible chemokines and recruits immune effector cells in ovarian cancer. (PubMed id 15925544)9 Benencia F....Coukos G. (Mol. Ther. 2005)
  131. Accumulation of CXCR3-expressing eosinophils and increased concentration of its ligands (IP10 and Mig) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. (PubMed id 15956791)9 Katoh S....Hirashima M. (Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2005)
  132. Up-regulation of the interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)-inducible chemokines IFN-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant and monokine induced by IFN-gamma and of their receptor CXC receptor 3 in human renal cell carcinoma. (PubMed id 15578685)9 Suyama T....Ishikura H. (Cancer 2005)
  133. Early expression of interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 and monokine induced by interferon-gamma in cardiac allografts is mediated by CD8+ T cells. (PubMed id 10762220)9 Kapoor A....Fairchild R.L. (Transplantation 2000)
  134. Chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9 and CXCL10 are required for the development of murine cerebral malaria. (PubMed id 18347328)9 Campanella G.S....Luster A.D. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008)
  135. IFN-beta provides immuno-protection in the retina by inhibiting ICAM-1 and CXCL9 in retinal pigment epithelial cells. (PubMed id 18322185)9 Hooks J.J....Detrick B. (J. Immunol. 2008)
  136. Synthesis of alpha-chemokines IP-10, I-TAC, and MIG are differentially regulated in human corneal keratocytes. (PubMed id 15851567)9 McInnis K.A....Oakes J.E. (amp 2005)
  137. Monokine induced by interferon-gamma is induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and is involved in osteoclast adhesion and migration. (PubMed id 15585657)9 Kwak H.B....Lee Z.H. (Blood 2005)
  138. Treatment with IFN-gamma increases serum levels of Th1 chemokines and decreases those of Th2 chemokines in patients with mycosis fungoides. (PubMed id 15927812)9 Hino R....Tokura Y. (J. Dermatol. Sci. 2005)
  139. Lysophosphatidylcholine posttranscriptionally inhibits interferon-gamma-induced IP-10, Mig and I-Tac expression in endothelial cells. (PubMed id 15621055)9 Sheikh A.M....Masuda J. (Cardiovasc. Res. 2005)
  140. Human eosinophils produce the T cell-attracting chemokines MIG and IP-10 upon stimulation with IFN-gamma. (PubMed id 15197236)9 Dajotoy T....Egesten A. (J. Leukoc. Biol. 2004)
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  142. Monokine levels in cancer and infection. (PubMed id 12817618)9 Shin G.S....Han K. (Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 2003)
  143. The T-lymphocyte chemoattractant Mig is highly expressed in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. (PubMed id 14597036)9 Abu El-Asrar A.M....Geboes K. (Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2003)
  144. Increased serum levels of interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 and monokine induced by gamma interferon in patients with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. (PubMed id 12930373)9 Takada H....Hara T. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2003)
  145. Thyrocytes from autoimmune thyroid disorders produce the chemokines IP-10 and Mig and attract CXCR3+ lymphocytes. (PubMed id 11600578)9 GarcA-a-LA^pez M.A....Marazuela M. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2001)
  146. MIG is a dominant lymphocyte-attractant chemokine in lichen planus lesions. (PubMed id 9856808)9 Spandau U....Gillitzer R. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 1998)
  147. The role of Mig, the monokine induced by interferon-gamma, and IP-10, the interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10, in tissue necrosis and vascular damage associated with Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disease. (PubMed id 9354680)9 Teruya-Feldstein J....Tosato G. (Blood 1997)
  148. Mig, the monokine induced by interferon-gamma, promotes tumor necrosis in vivo. (PubMed id 9108380)9 Sgadari C....Tosato G. (Blood 1997)
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  150. Over-expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in periprosthetic osteolysis of loosened total hip arthroplasty. (PubMed id 19781765)9 Wang C.T....Hou S.M. (Biomaterials 2010)
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  152. Regulation of CXCL9/10/11 in oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts. (PubMed id 19029086)9 Ohta K....Kamata N. (J. Dent. Res. 2008)
  153. Blood and synovial fluid cytokine signatures in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a cross-sectional study. (PubMed id 17170049)9 de Jager W....Prakken B.J. (Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2007)
  154. Increased mRNA expression of chemokines in hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. (PubMed id 17444857)9 Hirano S....Kitano S. (J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2007)
  155. Raised plasma concentration and ex vivo production of inflammatory chemokines in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (PubMed id 15975968)9 Lit L.C....Lam C.W. (Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2006)
  156. Kinetics of cytokines and chemokines gene expression distinguishes Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection from disease. (PubMed id 16174562)9 Mamoni R.L. and Blotta M.H. (Cytokine 2005)
  157. Resident Th1-like effector memory cells in pulmonary recall responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (PubMed id 15778493)9 Walrath J....Silver R.F. (Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 2005)
  158. An interferon-gamma-related cytokine storm in SARS patients. (PubMed id 15602737)9 Huang K.J....Lei H.Y. (J. Med. Virol. 2005)
  159. Glutamine and CXC chemokines IL-8, Mig, IP-10 and I-TAC in human intestinal epithelial cells. (PubMed id 15297094)9 Marion R....DAcchelotte P.P. (Clin Nutr 2004)
  160. Spatial and temporal expression of ligands for CXCR3 and CXCR4 in human endometrium. (PubMed id 15126579)9 Kitaya K....Honjo H. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2004)
  161. Nitric oxide differentially regulates pro- and anti-angiogenic markers in DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells. (PubMed id 15063730)9 Hellmuth M....MA1hl H. (FEBS Lett. 2004)
  162. Structure-function relationship between the human chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands. (PubMed id 12417585)9 Clark-Lewis I....Loetscher P. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
  163. Chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression indicates acute rejection of human cardiac transplants. (PubMed id 12544874)9 Fahmy N.M....Fairchild R.L. (Transplantation 2003)
  164. Detection and localization of chemokine gene expression in autoimmune thyroid disease. (PubMed id 12864798)9 Kemp E.H....Weetman A.P. (Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 2003)
  165. Expression of IFN-gamma-inducible chemokines in inclusion body myositis. (PubMed id 12965263)9 Raju R....Dalakas M.C. (J. Neuroimmunol. 2003)
  166. Interferon-gamma, interleukin-18, monokine induced by interferon-gamma and interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 in histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. (PubMed id 12148894)9 Ohshima K....Kikuchi M. (amp 2002)
  167. Infiltration of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes around Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H&amp;RS) cells in Hodgkin disease: Relation with expression of CXC and CC chemokines on H&amp;RS cells. (PubMed id 11920617)9 Ohshima K....Kikuchi M. (Int. J. Cancer 2002)
  168. Primary hepatocytes from mice treated with IL-2/IL-12 produce T cell chemoattractant activity that is dependent on monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig) and chemokine responsive to gamma-2 (Crg-2). (PubMed id 11238618)9 Park J.W....Wiltrout R.H. (J. Immunol. 2001)
  169. Potential role of the chemokine receptors CXCR3, CCR4, and the integrin alphaEbeta7 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. (PubMed id 11310827)9 Rottman J.B....Krueger J.G. ( a journal of technical methods and pathology 2001)
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  171. Cell cycle-dependent expression of CXC chemokine receptor 3 by endothelial cells mediates angiostatic activity. (PubMed id 11134180)9 Romagnani P....Serio M. (J. Clin. Invest. 2001)
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  173. Differential expression of CXCR3 targeting chemokines CXCL10, CXCL9, and CXCL11 in different types of skin inflammation. (PubMed id 11523046)9 Flier J....Tensen C.P. (J. Pathol. 2001)
  174. Characterization of epithelial chemoattractants for human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. (PubMed id 11208714)9 Shibahara T....Madara J.L. (Gastroenterology 2001)
  175. CXCR3 and CCR5 ligands in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. (PubMed id 11141325)9 Patel D.D....Whichard L.P. (Clin. Immunol. 2001)
  176. CXC chemokines IP-10 and mig expression and direct migration of pulmonary CD8+/CXCR3+ T cells in the lungs of patients with HIV infection and T-cell alveolitis. (PubMed id 11029363)9 Agostini C....Semenzato G. (Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2000)
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  179. Epidermal interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and monokine induced by gamma-interferon (Mig) but not IL-8 mRNA expression is associated with epidermotropism in cutaneous T cell lymphomas. (PubMed id 9699721)9 Tensen C.P....Willemze R. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 1998)
  180. The CXC-chemokine, H174: expression in the central nervous system. (PubMed id 10065899)9 Luo Y....Dorf M.E. (J. Neurovirol. 1998)
  181. Serum chemokine profiles in patients with alopecia areata. (PubMed id 17489976)9 Kuwano Y....Tamaki K. (Br. J. Dermatol. 2007)
  182. Human corneal epithelial cells synthesize ELR(-)alpha-chemokines in response to proinflammatory mediators. (PubMed id 17763126)9 McInnis K.A....Oakes J.E. (Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm. 2007)
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  184. Elevated serum levels of CXCL9/monokine induced by interferon-gamma and CXCL10/interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 in ocular sarcoidosis. (PubMed id 16505042)9 Takeuchi M....Usui M. (amp 2006)
  185. Treatment of monocytes with interleukin (IL)-12 plus IL-18 stimulates survival, differentiation and the production of CXC chemokine ligands (CXCL)8, CXCL9 and CXCL10. (PubMed id 16907924)9 Coma G....Bofill M. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2006)
  186. Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the brain: potential role of the chemokine mig in pathogenesis. (PubMed id 16163626)9 Xu J....Jiang Y. (Clin. Infect. Dis. 2005)
  187. Induction of interferon-inducible protein-10 and monokine induced by interferon-gamma from human endothelial cells infected with Influenza A virus. (PubMed id 14689273)9 Ishiguro N....Kobayashi K. (Arch. Virol. 2004)
  188. NF-kappa B activation mediates the cross-talk between extracellular matrix and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) leading to enhanced monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG) expression in macrophages. (PubMed id 12226082)9 Horton M.R....Powell J.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
  189. Immunotherapy with interleukin-10 depends on the CXC chemokines inducible protein-10 and monokine induced by IFN-gamma. (PubMed id 11980656)9 Dorsey R....Fulton A.M. (Cancer Res. 2002)
  190. Expression of the chemokines IP-10 and Mig in IL-10 transduced tumors. (PubMed id 11265771)9 Sun H....Fulton A.M. (J. Immunother. 2001)
  191. Lysophosphatidylcholine inhibits T cell-specific CXC chemokines IP-10, MIG, and I-TAC expression induced by IFN-gamma in human endothelial cells. (PubMed id 11795279)9 Sheikh A.M....Masuda J. (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2001)
  192. CXC chemokine receptor 3 expression on CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors from human cord blood induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: chemotaxis and adhesion induced by its ligands, interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 and monokine induced by interferon gamma. (PubMed id 10942362)9 Jinquan T....Poulsen L.K. (Blood 2000)
  193. Expression of the interferon-gamma-inducible chemokines IP-10 and Mig and their receptor, CXCR3, in multiple sclerosis lesions. (PubMed id 10840276)9 Simpson J.E....Woodroofe M.N. (Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 2000)
  194. IL-4 enhances keratinocyte expression of CXCR3 agonistic chemokines. (PubMed id 10903743)9 Albanesi C....Girolomoni G. (J. Immunol. 2000)
  195. Expression and function of CXC and CC chemokines in human malignant liver tumors: a role for human monokine induced by gamma-interferon in lymphocyte recruitment to hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed id 10385645)9 Yoong K.F....Adams D.H. (Hepatology 1999)
  196. The CXCR3 activating chemokines IP-10, Mig, and IP-9 are expressed in allergic but not in irritant patch test reactions. (PubMed id 10504443)9 Flier J....Tensen C.P. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 1999)
  197. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 mediates rapid and shear-resistant adhesion-induction of effector T lymphocytes by the chemokines IP10 and Mig. (PubMed id 9541591)9 Piali L....Moser B. (Eur. J. Immunol. 1998)
  198. Mig and IP-10: CXC chemokines that target lymphocytes. (PubMed id 9060447)9 Farber J.M. (J. Leukoc. Biol. 1997)
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  200. Natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis: marked decline of chemokines and cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid. (PubMed id 20007431)9 MellergAYrd J....Dahle C. (Mult. Scler. 2010)
  201. Expression and role of CXCL10 during the encephalitic stage of experimental and clinical African trypanosomiasis. (PubMed id 19827943)9 Amin D.N....Masocha W. (J. Infect. Dis. 2009)
  202. Novel role of the CXC chemokine receptor 3 in inflammatory response to arterial injury: involvement of mTORC1. (PubMed id 19059841)9 Schwarz J.B....ZohlnhAPfer D. (Circ. Res. 2009)
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  204. Villitis of unknown etiology is associated with a distinct pattern of chemokine up-regulation in the feto-maternal and placental compartments: implications for conjoint maternal allograft rejection and maternal anti-fetal graft-versus-host disease. (PubMed id 19265171)9 Kim M.J....Kim J.S. (J. Immunol. 2009)
  205. Molecular mechanisms underlying the pro-inflammatory synergistic effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in human microvascular endothelium. (PubMed id 19782427)9 Lombardi A....Luconi M. (Eur. J. Cell Biol. 2009)
  206. Activation of the interferon-gamma signaling pathway in systemic lupus erythematosus peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (PubMed id 19404947)9 Karonitsch T....Aringer M. (Arthritis Rheum. 2009)
  207. Efficacy of bacille Calmette-GuAcrin immunotherapy predicted by expression of antigen-presenting molecules and chemokines. (PubMed id 19428084)9 Videira P.A....Trindade H. (Urology 2009)
  208. Inflammatory cytokines modulate chemokine production patterns of HepG2 cells toward initially inclined direction. (PubMed id 19207593)9 Ohashi T....Kakumu S. (Hepatol. Res. 2009)
  209. CXCR3-B expression correlates with tumor necrosis extension in renal cell carcinoma. (PubMed id 19095263)9 Gacci M....Carini M. (J. Urol. 2009)
  210. Interleukin-1 regulates keratinocyte expression of T cell targeting chemokines through interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase-1 (IRAK1) dependent and independent pathways. (PubMed id 19166933)9 Sanmiguel J.C....Jensen L.E. (Cell. Signal. 2009)
  211. A phase II trial of trastuzumab in combination with low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) in patients (PTS) with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who have previously failed trastuzumab. (PubMed id 19051009)9 Mani A....Shapiro C.L. (Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2009)
  212. The relationship between thyroid function, serum monokine induced by interferon gamma and soluble interleukin-2 receptor in thyroid autoimmune diseases. (PubMed id 19250272)9 Jiskra J....LacinovA! Z. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2009)
  213. Adiponectin inhibits the production of CXC receptor 3 chemokine ligands in macrophages and reduces T-lymphocyte recruitment in atherogenesis. (PubMed id 17991878)9 Okamoto Y....Libby P. (Circ. Res. 2008)
  214. The dual inhibitor of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase ML3000 decreases the expression of CXCR3 ligands. (PubMed id 17666446)9 Ospelt C....Gay S. (Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2008)
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  219. M1 protein of Streptococcus pyogenes increases production of the antibacterial CXC chemokine MIG/CXCL9 in pharyngeal epithelial cells. (PubMed id 17681739)9 Eliasson M....Egesten A. (Microb. Pathog. 2007)
  220. Assessing osteolysis with use of high-throughput protein chips. (PubMed id 17473147)9 Shanbhag A.S....Rubash H.E. (J Bone Joint Surg Am 2007)
  221. Suppressive effects of ketotifen on Th1- and Th2-related chemokines of monocytes. (PubMed id 17617806)9 Hung C.H....Jong Y.J. (Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2007)
  222. Synovial angiostatic non-ELR CXC chemokines in inflammatory arthritides: does CXCL4 designate chronicity of synovitis? (PubMed id 17265155)9 Erdem H....Sengul A. (Rheumatol. Int. 2007)
  223. CXCL9 and 11 in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis: a role of alveolar macrophages. (PubMed id 17550373)9 Nishioka Y....Sone S. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2007)
  224. Chemokine signatures in the skin disorders of Lyme borreliosis in Europe: predominance of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in erythema migrans and acrodermatitis and CXCL13 in lymphocytoma. (PubMed id 17606602)9 MA1llegger R.R....Steere A.C. (Infect. Immun. 2007)
  225. Release of granzymes and chemokines in Thai patients with leptospirosis. (PubMed id 17359329)9 De Fost M....van Der Poll T. (Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 2007)
  226. Heparin displaces interferon-gamma-inducible chemokines (IP-10, I-TAC, and Mig) sequestered in the vasculature and inhibits the transendothelial migration and arterial recruitment of T cells. (PubMed id 16940188)9 Ranjbaran H....Tellides G. (Circulation 2006)
  227. Microdialysis for monitoring inflammation: efficient recovery of cytokines and anaphylotoxins provided optimal catheter pore size and fluid velocity conditions. (PubMed id 16918704)9 Waelgaard L....Mollnes T.E. (Scand. J. Immunol. 2006)
  228. CXCR3 requires tyrosine sulfation for ligand binding and a second extracellular loop arginine residue for ligand-induced chemotaxis. (PubMed id 16847335)9 Colvin R.A.... Luster A.D. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2006)
  229. Expression of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/CCL22 in human lung cancer. (PubMed id 16453150)9 Nakanishi T....Shimokata K. (Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 2006)
  230. Chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma: progress and perspective. (PubMed id 15591886)9 Bisset L.R. and Schmid-Grendelmeier P. (Curr Opin Pulm Med 2005)
  231. Evaluation of interferon-gamma, interferon-gamma-inducing cytokines, and interferon-gamma-inducible chemokines in tuberculous pleural effusions. (PubMed id 15746651)9 Okamoto M....Shimokata K. (J. Lab. Clin. Med. 2005)
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  233. Desensitization of T lymphocyte function by CXCR3 ligands in human hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed id 15633209)9 Liu Y.Q....Fan S.T. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2005)
  234. Gene expression profile of T-cell-specific chemokines in human hepatocyte-derived cells: evidence for a synergistic inducer effect of cytokines and hepatitis C virus proteins. (PubMed id 15655045)9 Apolinario A....GarcA-a-MonzA^n C. (J. Viral Hepat. 2005)
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  236. Role of p38 MAPK and NF-kB for chemokine release in coculture of human eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells. (PubMed id 15606618)9 Wong C.K....Lam C.W. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2005)
  237. Classification of distinct subtypes of peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified, identified by chemokine and chemokine receptor expression: Analysis of prognosis. (PubMed id 15289861)9 Ohshima K....Kikuchii M. (Int. J. Oncol. 2004)
  238. Treatment of recalcitrant pustular psoriasis with infliximab: effective reduction of chemokine expression. (PubMed id 15149518)9 Benoit S....Goebeler M. (Br. J. Dermatol. 2004)
  239. Elevated plasma levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN-gamma inducing cytokines, and IFN-gamma inducible CXC chemokines in visceral leishmaniasis. (PubMed id 15569785)9 Hailu A....Kager P.A. (Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2004)
  240. Clinical and immunologic effects of subcutaneously administered interleukin-12 and interferon alfa-2b: phase I trial of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma or malignant melanoma. (PubMed id 15254058)9 Alatrash G....Bukowski R.M. (J. Clin. Oncol. 2004)
  241. Optic neuritis: chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands. (PubMed id 15317705)9 SA...Sellebjerg F. (Br J Ophthalmol 2004)
  242. The relative activity of CXCR3 and CCR5 ligands in T lymphocyte migration: concordant and disparate activities in vitro and in vivo. (PubMed id 12960247)9 Stanford M.M. and Issekutz T.B. (J. Leukoc. Biol. 2003)
  243. Alloimmune induction of endothelial cell-derived interferon-gamma-inducible chemokines. (PubMed id 12698106)9 Raju R....Hosenpud J.D. (Transplantation 2003)
  244. Lactobacilli and streptococci induce inflammatory chemokine production in human macrophages that stimulates Th1 cell chemotaxis. (PubMed id 12949243)9 Veckman V....Julkunen I. (J. Leukoc. Biol. 2003)
  245. Pleiotropic effects of CXC chemokines in gastric carcinoma: differences in CXCL8 and CXCL1 expression between diffuse and intestinal types of gastric carcinoma. (PubMed id 14632759)9 Eck M....MA1ller-Hermelink H.K. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2003)
  246. Role of CXCL9/CXCR3 chemokine biology during pathogenesis of acute lung allograft rejection. (PubMed id 14568964)9 Belperio J.A....Strieter R.M. (J. Immunol. 2003)
  247. Interferon-beta treatment alters peripheral blood monocytes chemokine production in MS patients. (PubMed id 12020972)9 Comabella M....Khoury S.J. (J. Neuroimmunol. 2002)
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  249. CC and CXC chemokines are differentially expressed in erythema multiforme in vivo. (PubMed id 12164740)9 Spandau U....Gillitzer R. (Arch Dermatol 2002)
  250. High-resolution mapping of the human 4q21 and the mouse 5E3 SCYB chemokine cluster by fiber-fluorescence in situ hybridization. (PubMed id 11685476)9 Erdel M....Werner-Felmayer G. (Immunogenetics 2001)
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  331. High T-helper-1 cytokines but low T-helper-3 cytokines, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in children with high risk of developing type 1 diabetes. (PubMed id 17315139)9 Stechova K....FaresjAP M. (Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 2007)
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  351. Genomic analysis of human lung fibroblasts exposed to vanadium pentoxide to identify candidate genes for occupational bronchitis. (PubMed id 17459161)9 Ingram J.L....Bonner J.C. (Respir. Res. 2007)
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  366. Human cytomegalovirus immediate-early 2 protein IE86 blocks virus-induced chemokine expression. (PubMed id 16378994)9 Taylor R.T. and Bresnahan W.A. (J. Virol. 2006)
  367. Expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders. (PubMed id 16634894)9 Yamaguchi T....Kikuchi M. (Br. J. Dermatol. 2006)
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  376. NK cells that are activated by CXCL10 can kill dormant tumor cells that resist CTL-mediated lysis and can express B7-H1 that stimulates T cells. (PubMed id 15536145)9 Saudemont A....Quesnel B. (Blood 2005)
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  378. Molecular profiling of early stage liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (PubMed id 15661146)9 BiA"che I....Vidaud M. (Virology 2005)
  379. CCR2 and CXCR3 agonistic chemokines are differently expressed and regulated in human alveolar epithelial cells type II. (PubMed id 16033640)9 Pechkovsky D.V....Zissel G. (Respir. Res. 2005)
  380. Gene expression profile in the muscles of patients with inflammatory myopathies: effect of therapy with IVIg and biological validation of clinically relevant genes. (PubMed id 15857930)9 Raju R. and Dalakas M.C. (Brain 2005)
  381. Immunological mechanisms elicited at the tumour site by lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) versus IL-12: sharing a common Th1 anti-tumour immune pathway. (PubMed id 15586367)9 Di Carlo E....Triebel F. (J. Pathol. 2005)
  382. Early enhanced expression of interferon-inducible protein-10 (CXCL-10) and other chemokines predicts adverse outcome in severe acute respiratory syndrome. (PubMed id 16195357)9 Tang N.L....Lam C.W. (Clin. Chem. 2005)
  383. Analysis of the biliary transcriptome in experimental biliary atresia. (PubMed id 16083724)9 Carvalho E....Bezerra J.A. (Gastroenterology 2005)
  384. The production of CXCR3-agonistic chemokines by synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 15004722)9 Ueno A....Makino H. (Rheumatol. Int. 2005)
  385. L-Arginine modulates CXC chemokines in the human intestinal epithelial cell line HCT-8 by the NO pathway. (PubMed id 16040184)9 Marion R....DAcchelotte P. (Biochimie 2005)
  386. The CXCR3 targeting chemokine CXCL11 has potent antitumor activity in vivo involving attraction of CD8+ T lymphocytes but not inhibition of angiogenesis. (PubMed id 16000952)9 Hensbergen P.J....Tensen C.P. (J. Immunother. 2005)
  387. Alpha-chemokine receptors CXCR1-3 and their ligands in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. (PubMed id 15937690)9 De Paepe B....De Bleecker J.L. (Acta Neuropathol. 2005)
  388. Acute and long-term alteration of chemokine mRNA expression after anti-viral and anti-inflammatory treatment in herpes simplex virus encephalitis. (PubMed id 15663962)9 Sellner J....Meyding-LamadA" U. (Neurosci. Lett. 2005)
  389. Discovery of structurally diverse natural product antagonists of chemokine receptor CXCR3. (PubMed id 15789559)9 Ondeykal J.G....Singh S.B. (Mol. Divers. 2005)
  390. Polarized helper T cells in tubercular pleural effusion: phenotypic identity and selective recruitment. (PubMed id 16025563)9 Mitra D.K....Ghosh B. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2005)
  391. Unique phenotype of human uterine NK cells and their regulation by endogenous TGF-beta. (PubMed id 15178706)9 Eriksson M....Sentman C.L. (J. Leukoc. Biol. 2004)
  392. Activation of cytokines and NF-kappa B in corneal epithelial cells infected by respiratory syncytial virus: potential relevance in ocular inflammation and respiratory infection. (PubMed id 15256003)9 Bitko V....Barik S. (BMC Microbiol. 2004)
  393. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides directly induce CXCR3 chemokines in human B cells. (PubMed id 15249208)9 Kato A....Matsumoto K. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2004)
  394. Description of B lymphocytes and plasma cells, complement, and chemokines/receptors in acute liver allograft rejection. (PubMed id 15257040)9 Krukemeyer M.G....Krenn V. (Transplantation 2004)
  395. Elevation of CXCR3-binding chemokines in urine indicates acute renal-allograft dysfunction. (PubMed id 14961998)9 Hu H....Knechtle S.J. (Am. J. Transplant. 2004)
  396. NMR structure of CXCR3 binding chemokine CXCL11 (ITAC). (PubMed id 15273303)9 Booth V.... Sykes B.D. (Protein Sci. 2004)
  397. CXCR3-binding chemokines in multiple myeloma. (PubMed id 15072832)9 Pellegrino A....Dammacco F. (Cancer Lett. 2004)
  398. IFN-alpha priming results in a gain of proinflammatory function by IL-10: implications for systemic lupus erythematosus pathogenesis. (PubMed id 15128840)9 Sharif M.N....Ivashkiv L.B. (J. Immunol. 2004)
  399. Selective immune redirection in humans with ragweed allergy by injecting Amb a 1 linked to immunostimulatory DNA. (PubMed id 15208597)9 Simons F.E....HayGlass K.T. (J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2004)
  400. MyD88 primes macrophages for full-scale activation by interferon-gamma yet mediates few responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (PubMed id 14517275)9 Shi S....Ehrt S. (J. Exp. Med. 2003)
  401. Chemokine and receptor-gene expression during early and late acute rejection episodes in human cardiac allografts. (PubMed id 12829909)9 Fahmy N.M....Fairchild R.L. (Transplantation 2003)
  402. High CXCR3 expression in synovial mast cells associated with CXCL9 and CXCL10 expression in inflammatory synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 12932287)9 Ruschpler P....Stiehl P. (amp 2003)
  403. Molecular characterization of the chemokine receptor CXCR3: evidence for the involvement of distinct extracellular domains in a multi-step model of ligand binding and receptor activation. (PubMed id 14515277)9 Xanthou G....Pease J.E. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2003)
  404. IL-1beta and IFN-gamma induce the expression of diverse chemokines and IL-15 in human and rat pancreatic islet cells, and in islets from pre-diabetic NOD mice. (PubMed id 12627325)9 Cardozo A.K....Eizirik D.L. (Diabetologia 2003)
  405. Re-evaluation of fibrogenic cytokines in lung fibrosis. (PubMed id 12570673)9 Kelly M....Gauldie J. (Curr. Pharm. Des. 2003)
  406. High expression of chemokines Gro-alpha (CXCL-1), IL-8 (CXCL-8), and MCP-1 (CCL-2) in inflamed human corneas in vivo. (PubMed id 12796254)9 Spandau U.H....Kruse F.E. (Arch. Ophthalmol. 2003)
  407. Cytokine- and chemokine-based gene therapy for cancer. (PubMed id 14601514)9 Chada S....Mhashilkar A.M. (Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther. 2003)
  408. Quinolinic acid upregulates chemokine production and chemokine receptor expression in astrocytes. (PubMed id 12555204)9 Guillemin G.J....Brew B.J. (Glia 2003)
  409. Quinolinic acid up-regulates chemokine production and chemokine receptor expression in astrocytes. (PubMed id 15206714)9 Croitoru-Lamoury J....Brew B.J. (Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2003)
  410. Recruitment of lymphocytes to the human liver. (PubMed id 11869363)9 Lalor P.F....Adams D.H. (Immunol. Cell Biol. 2002)
  411. [Chemokines and tumors]. (PubMed id 12489485)9 Pellegrino A....Dammacco F. (Recenti Prog Med 2002)
  412. Peripheral blood cell-specific cytokines in persons with untreated HIV infection in Malawi, Africa. (PubMed id 12487808)9 Chatt J.A....Jarvis W.R. (AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 2002)
  413. Cytokine and adhesion molecule expression in primary human endothelial cells stimulated with fever-range hyperthermia. (PubMed id 12537753)9 Shah A....Evans S.S. (Int J Hyperthermia 2002)
  414. Neutralization of the chemokine CXCL10 reduces inflammatory cell invasion and demyelination and improves neurological function in a viral model of multiple sclerosis. (PubMed id 11564831)9 Liu M.T....Lane T.E. (J. Immunol. 2001)
  415. Prevalence of CD8(+)alpha beta T cells in Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited myocarditis is associated with acquisition of CD62L(Low)LFA-1(High)VLA-4(High) activation phenotype and expression of IFN-gamma-inducible adhesion and chemoattractant molecules. (PubMed id 11580984)9 dos Santos P.V....Lannes-Vieira J. (Microbes Infect. 2001)
  416. Chemokine gene expression and clonal analysis of B cells in tissues involved by lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis from HIV-infected pediatric patients. (PubMed id 11598160)9 Teruya-Feldstein J....Jaffe E.S. (Mod. Pathol. 2001)
  417. Chemokines, chemokine receptors and allergy. (PubMed id 11340325)9 Kaplan A.P. (Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2001)
  418. Differential and sequential expression of multiple chemokines during elicitation of allergic contact hypersensitivity. (PubMed id 11159181)9 Goebeler M....Gillitzer R. (Am. J. Pathol. 2001)
  419. CXCR3 internalization following T cell-endothelial cell contact: preferential role of IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (CXCL11). (PubMed id 11739530)9 Sauty A....Luster A.D. (J. Immunol. 2001)
  420. Induction of multiple chemokine and colony-stimulating factor genes in experimental Burkholderia pseudomallei infection. (PubMed id 11564157)9 Barnes J.L....Hirst R.G. (Immunol. Cell Biol. 2001)
  421. Expression of functional chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4 on human melanoma cells. (PubMed id 11571298)9 Robledo M.M....TeixidA^ J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
  422. The T-cell chemokine receptor CXCR3 is expressed highly in low-grade mycosis fungoides. (PubMed id 11242798)9 Lu D....Jones D. (Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 2001)
  423. The development of clinical signs of rheumatoid synovial inflammation is associated with increased synthesis of the chemokine CXCL8 (interleukin-8). (PubMed id 11178128)9 Kraan M.C....Tak P.P. (Arthritis Res. 2001)
  424. Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligand IP-10 during human cardiac allograft rejection. (PubMed id 11714650)9 Melter M....Briscoe D.M. (Circulation 2001)
  425. Activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by nonpathogenic bacteria in vitro: evidence of NK cells as primary targets. (PubMed id 10639443)9 Haller D....Schiffrin E.J. (Infect. Immun. 2000)
  426. Differential expression and responsiveness of chemokine receptors (CXCR1-3) by human microvascular endothelial cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells. (PubMed id 11023990)9 Salcedo R....Oppenheim J.J. (FASEB J. 2000)
  427. Requirement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 for acute allograft rejection. (PubMed id 11085753)9 Hancock W.W....Gerard C. (J. Exp. Med. 2000)
  428. Cytokines and soluble cytokine receptor induction after IL-12 administration in cancer patients. (PubMed id 10606961)9 Haicheur N....Tartour E. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2000)

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(According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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Entrez Gene: 4283 HGNC: 7098 AceView: CXCL9 Ensembl:ENSG00000138755 euGenes: HUgn4283
ECgene: CXCL9 Kegg: 4283 H-InvDB: CXCL9

(According to HUGE)
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(According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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PharmGKB entry for CXCL9 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

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Patent Information for CXCL9 gene:
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