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CX3CL1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 62
GCID: GC16P057406

Chemokine (C-X3-C Motif) Ligand 1

(Previous names: small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member...)
(Previous symbol: SCYD1)
  See CX3CL1-related diseases

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Chemokine (C-X3-C Motif) Ligand 11 2     C3Xkine2
SCYD11 2 3 5     CXC32
NTT2 3 5     CXC3C2
Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), Member 1 (Fractalkine,
Neurotactin)1 2
Small-Inducible Cytokine D12 3     neurotactin2
C-X3-C Motif Chemokine 12 3     Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), Member-12
CX3C Membrane-Anchored Chemokine2 3     FKN3
NTN2 5     Neurotactin3

External Ids:    HGNC: 106471   Entrez Gene: 63762   Ensembl: ENSG000000062107   OMIM: 6018805   UniProtKB: P784233   

Export aliases for CX3CL1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifiers: GC16P047801 GC16P057466 GC16P057140 GC16P057181 GC16P057162 GC16P055963 GC16P043274

(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

GeneCards Summary for CX3CL1 Gene:
CX3CL1 (chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with CX3CL1 include chorioretinitis, and pityriasis rosea. GO annotations related to this gene include chemokine activity and receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: X3CL1_HUMAN, P78423
Function: The soluble form is chemotactic for T-cells and monocytes, but not for neutrophils. The membrane-bound
form promotes adhesion of those leukocytes to endothelial cells. May play a role in regulating leukocyte adhesion
and migration processes at the endothelium. Binds to CX3CR1

Gene Wiki entry for CX3CL1 Gene

(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section

RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000016.9  NC_018927.2  NT_010498.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the CX3CL1 gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   c-Jun   NF-kappaB   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidCX3CL1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CX3CL1

DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CX3CL1

Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 16q13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  16q21   HGNC cytogenetic band: 16q13

CX3CL1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CX3CL1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 16         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC16P057406:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

57,406,370 bp from pter      End:
57,418,960 bp from pter
12,591 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: X3CL1_HUMAN, P78423 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Fractalkine precursor  
Size: 397 amino acids; 42203 Da
Subunit: Monomer. Interacts with pox virus crmD; this inhibits cell migration mediated by CX3CL1
3 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for CX3CL1:
1B2T (3D)        1F2L (3D)        3ONA (3D)    
Secondary accessions: O00672

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CX3CL1: NX_P78423

Explore proteomics data for CX3CL1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • A soluble short 95 kDa form may be released by proteolytic cleavage from the long membrane-anchored form (By
  • O-glycosylated with core 1 or possibly core 8 glycans1
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn33, Thr183, Ser253, Thr318, Thr329
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See CX3CL1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_002987.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000006053   ENSP00000456830   ENSP00000457996   ENSP00000464114  
    Reactome Protein details: P78423

    CX3CL1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for CX3CL1 (CX3CL1/Fractalkine)
    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for CX3CL1
    OriGene Purified Protein for CX3CL1
    Browse OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysates
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for CX3CL1
    GenScript Purified and Recombinant Proteins for CX3CL1
    Novus Biologicals CX3CL1 Proteins
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for CX3CL1
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for CX3CL1
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for CX3CL1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for CX3CL1

    Search eBioscience for Proteins for CX3CL1 

    antibodies-online proteins for CX3CL1 (68 products) 

    antibodies-online peptides for CX3CL1

    GeneTex Proteins for CX3CL1: (see all 2
                        Fractalkine Recombinant Protein (Active) (GTX48357-PRO)

    CX3CL1 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of CX3CL1
    R&D Systems Antibodies for CX3CL1 (CX3CL1/Fractalkine)
    OriGene Antibodies for CX3CL1
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for CX3CL1
    Novus Biologicals CX3CL1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for CX3CL1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for CX3CL1
    ThermoFisher Antibody for CX3CL1
    antibodies-online antibodies for CX3CL1 (105 products) 

    GeneTex Antibodies for CX3CL1:  
                        CX3CL1 Antibodies

    CX3CL1 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for CX3CL1
    R&D Systems Flow Cytometry Kits for CX3CL1 (CX3CL1/Fractalkine)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for CX3CL1
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for CX3CL1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for CX3CL1
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for CX3CL1 
    antibodies-online kits for CX3CL1 (48 products) 

    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    HGNC Gene Families:
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR008097 Chemokine_CX3CL1
     IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P78423

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P78423

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB008097 Fractalkine/neurotactin precursor signature

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: X3CL1_HUMAN, P78423
    Similarity: Belongs to the intercrine delta family

    Find genes that share domains with CX3CL1           About GenesLikeMe

    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway, and/or Taconic Biosciences, CRISPR knockouts from OriGene, transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: X3CL1_HUMAN, P78423
    Function: The soluble form is chemotactic for T-cells and monocytes, but not for neutrophils. The membrane-bound
    form promotes adhesion of those leukocytes to endothelial cells. May play a role in regulating leukocyte adhesion
    and migration processes at the endothelium. Binds to CX3CR1
    Induction: By TNF and IL1/interleukin-1 in pulmonary endothelial cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005102receptor binding TAS12714508
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI9931005
    GO:0008009chemokine activity TAS12714508
    Find genes that share ontologies with CX3CL1           About GenesLikeMe

         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for CX3CL1:
     Decreased viability of wild-ty  Increased circadian period len 

         7 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Cx3cl1):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  nervous system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with CX3CL1           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for CX3CL1: Cx3cl1tm1Sgs Cx3cl1tm1Lira

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for CX3CL1

        Taconic Biosicences: Generate A Custom CRISPR Mouse Model For Your Study 

    CRISPR Knockouts: 
       OriGene CRISPR knockouts for CX3CL1

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CX3CL1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CX3CL1 (see all 35):
    hsa-miR-21* hsa-miR-185* hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-509-5p hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-29c hsa-let-7a-2*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCX3CL1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for CX3CL1
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CX3CL1

    OriGene clones in human, mouse for CX3CL1 (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for CX3CL1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CX3CL1 (NM_002996)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for CX3CL1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CX3CL1

    Cell Line
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for CX3CL1
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for CX3CL1 
    In Situ Assay

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CX3CL1

    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    X3CL1_HUMAN, P78423: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein
    X3CL1_HUMAN, P78423: Processed fractalkine: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    plasma membrane5

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region IDA12714508
    GO:0005615extracellular space IEA--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0009986cell surface IDA12714508
    GO:0016020membrane ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with CX3CL1           About GenesLikeMe

    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for CX3CL1 About   (see all 12)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1PEDF Induced Signaling
    MIF Regulation of Innate Immune Cells0.94
    IL-6 Pathway0.61
    MIF Mediated Glucocorticoid Regulation0.94
    STAT3 Pathway0.47
    PEDF Induced Signaling0.73
    Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway0.46
    all-trans-Retinoic Acid Signaling in Brain0.71
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction0.43
    2Chemokine Superfamily: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions
    Chemokine receptors bind chemokines0.81
    Chemokine Superfamily: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions0.81
    3Chemokine Signaling
    Chemokine Signaling0.33
    Chemokine signaling pathway0.33
    4Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    5ERK Signaling
    ERK Signaling0.61
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer0.51
    Rho Family GTPases0.61

    Find genes that share SuperPaths with CX3CL1           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                   See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 R&D Systems Pathways for CX3CL1
        A-beta Uptake & Degradation
    Chemokine Superfamily: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for CX3CL1 (see all 17)
        Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C
    Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes
    MIF Mediated Glucocorticoid Regulation

    1 BioSystems Pathway for CX3CL1
        Direct p53 effectors

    1 Reactome Pathway for CX3CL1
        Chemokine receptors bind chemokines

    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for CX3CL1):
        Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
    Chemokine signaling pathway
    TNF signaling pathway

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CX3CL1 (see all 9): 
              HIV Host Response in human mouse rat
              T-cell & B-cell Activation in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat
              Notch Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              Th17 Response in human mouse rat


        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CX3CL1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 19)

    Selected Interacting proteins for CX3CL1 (P784233 ENSP000000060534) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 19)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CX3CR1P492383, ENSP000003821664I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000382166
    TP53ENSP000002693054STRING: ENSP00000269305
    CCR1ENSP000002961404STRING: ENSP00000296140
    CCR10ENSP000003325044STRING: ENSP00000332504
    CCR2ENSP000002923014STRING: ENSP00000292301
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 18):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006935chemotaxis IDA--
    GO:0006952defense response TAS12714508
    GO:0006955immune response TAS12714508
    GO:0007155cell adhesion IEA--
    GO:0019221cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS11777952

    Find genes that share ontologies with CX3CL1           About GenesLikeMe

    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for CX3CL1 (X3CL1)

    7 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CX3CL1 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tarc 60.3 3 11397698 (1), 9691168 (1), 10372118 (1)
    ccl4 26.1 4 16452465 (3), 18565769 (1)
    forskolin 0 9 11163337 (3), 1360635 (3)
    calcium 0 1 16166268 (1)
    glutamate 0 1 10640747 (1)
    serine 0 4 2100266 (2), 2120047 (1), 18436581 (1)
    cysteine 0 3 15361546 (1), 9177350 (1)

    Find genes that share compounds with CX3CL1           About GenesLikeMe

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for CX3CL1 gene: 

    Unigene Cluster for CX3CL1:

    Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1
    Hs.531668  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AB209037
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000006053(uc002eli.3) ENST00000563383 ENST00000564948 ENST00000565912

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CX3CL1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CX3CL1 (see all 35):
    hsa-miR-21* hsa-miR-185* hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-509-5p hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-29c hsa-let-7a-2*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCX3CL1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for CX3CL1
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CX3CL1
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for CX3CL1 (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for CX3CL1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CX3CL1 (NM_002996)
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CX3CL1
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for CX3CL1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for CX3CL1
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat CX3CL1
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CX3CL1
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CX3CL1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB209037.1 AK222692.1 AK223351.1 AK313806.1 BC001163.1 BC016164.1 CR457426.1 GU047346.1 
    U84487.1 U91835.1 

    7 DOTS entries:

    DT.445170  DT.100754639  DT.100027835  DT.100663663  DT.92430608  DT.100027838  DT.100677031 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 192):

    BI765277 BI766891 BI822306 AI560343 AA595197 BI754355 CA395409 AL536123 
    BQ878197 BC001163 BQ893231 BM709856 AA349609 AA349491 BI752894 BI914377 
    CR595915 BQ045219 BE263269 T31247 CB960463 AI369215 BI769456 CA396869 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    2 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CX3CL1    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b
    SP2:              -               

    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for CX3CL1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    CX3CL1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CX3CL1 Expression
    About this image

    CX3CL1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 11) fully expand
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Mesenchymal Condensate Cells Zeugopod
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)
             Mesenchymal Condensate Cells Zeugopod
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
     Ovary (Reproductive System)
    CX3CL1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    CX3CL1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.531668

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: X3CL1_HUMAN, P78423
    Tissue specificity: Small intestine, colon, testis, prostate, heart, brain, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney and

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CX3CL1 (see all 9): 
              HIV Host Response in human mouse rat
              T-cell & B-cell Activation in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat
              Notch Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              Th17 Response in human mouse rat

    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for CX3CL1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for CX3CL1
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat CX3CL1
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CX3CL1
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CX3CL1
    In Situ
    Assay Products:

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CX3CL1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and mouse.

    Orthologs for CX3CL1 gene from Selected species (see all 7)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    Gene Description Human
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Cx3cl11 , 5 chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 11, 5 73.33(n)1
      8 (46.79 cM)5
    203121  NM_009142.31  NP_033168.21 

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CX3CL1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CX3CL1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to Build 68,Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Paralogs for CX3CL1 gene
    17 SIMAP similar genes for CX3CL1 using alignment to 6 protein entries:     X3CL1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    CCL11    CCL8    CCL2    CCL7    MCP-3    LOC728835
    CCL18    CCL3    CCL3L1    CCL3L3    CCL4L2    CCL14
    CCL4L1    CCL4    CCL13    CCL17    CCL26

    Find genes that share paralogs with CX3CL1           About GenesLikeMe

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, and 4UniProtKB, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

    Selected SNPs for CX3CL1 (see all 404)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    Chr 16 posSequence#AA
    C--57413239(+) AACTC-/AAAAAA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    C,F--58417566(+) TATGGA/GCATAA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.04WA 118
    --58417596(+) TGGTCC/TTCGCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    C--58417601(+) CTCGCA/GGTGAG 1 -- us2k10--------
    C--58417671(+) GGGACA/GAATCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    --58417761(+) TCACCC/GAGGCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    --58417779(+) AGTGGC/TGTGAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    C--58417800(+) tgcaaC/Tcctct 1 -- us2k10--------
    --58417827(+) CGATTC/TTCCTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    C--58417896(+) ATTTTC/TAGTAG 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CX3CL1 (57406370 - 57418960 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for CX3CL1: --
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing CX3CL1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    OMIM gene information: 601880    OMIM disorders: --

    4 diseases for CX3CL1:    
    About MalaCards
    chorioretinitis    pityriasis rosea    rheumatoid vasculitis    tuberculosis

    Find genes that share disorders with CX3CL1           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CX3CL1 gene (see all 16)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    chorioretinitis 40.5 1 12657599 (1)
    atherosclerosis 30.1 2 17679613 (1), 17885215 (1)
    rheumatoid arthritis 29.6 1 11465708 (1)
    inflammation 29 10 20512991 (1), 15131578 (1), 17804530 (1), 17616549 (1) (see all 11)
    necrosis 18.9 11 17679613 (1), 12824004 (1), 17665439 (1), 15013759 (1) (see all 8)
    encephalitis 17.8 3 9177350 (2), 10640747 (1)
    atherosclerotic plaque 15.4 2 14581400 (1), 15886814 (1)
    brain diseases 15.4 2 12742664 (1), 12476352 (1)
    inflammatory bowel diseases 6.56 3 17241867 (1), 12940913 (1), 17285595 (1)
    tumors 4.09 16 16391873 (4), 17679613 (1), 12824004 (1), 17665439 (1) (see all 9)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): CX3CL1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: CX3CL1 (153 documents)

    Export disorders for CX3CL1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for CX3CL1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 253) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CX3CL1)

    1. A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif. (PubMed id 9024663)1, 2, 3, 9 Bazan J.F.... Schall T.J. (Nature 1997)
    2. Neurotactin, a membrane-anchored chemokine upregulated in brain inflammation. (PubMed id 9177350)1, 3, 9 Pan Y....Gearing D. (Nature 1997)
    3. Polymorphisms of Fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and plasma levels of its ligand CX3CL1 in colorectal cancer patients. (PubMed id 17611763)1, 4, 9 Dimberg J....WAYgsAoter D. (Int J Colorectal Dis 2007)
    4. Fractalkine receptor/ligand genetic variants and carotid intima-media thickness. (PubMed id 19372452)1, 4, 9 Debette S....Markus H.S. ( a journal of cerebral circulation 2009)
    5. Solution structure and dynamics of the CX3C chemokine domain of fractalkine and its interaction with an N-terminal fragment of CX3CR1. (PubMed id 9931005)1, 2, 9 Mizoue L.S.... Handel T.M. (Biochemistry 1999)
    6. Common polymorphisms in ITGA2, PON1 and THBS2 are associated with coronary atherosclerosis in a candidate gene association study of the Chinese Han population. (PubMed id 20485444)1, 4 Wang Y....Huang W. (J. Hum. Genet. 2010)
    7. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    8. Candidate gene polymorphisms for ischemic stroke. (PubMed id 19729601)1, 4 Matarin M....Meschia J.F. ( a journal of cerebral circulation 2009)
    9. CX3CR1 polymorphisms are associated with atopy but not asthma in German children. (PubMed id 17505143)1, 4 Depner M....Kabesch M. (Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2007)
    10. Polymorphisms in the 3' untranslated region of the fractalkine (CX3CL1) gene and the risk of HIV-1 infection and disease progression. (PubMed id 17415055)1, 4 Peraire J....Broch M. (AIDS 2007)
    11. The CX3CL1-CX3CR1 system and psoriasis. (PubMed id 17002687)1, 4 Plant D....Griffiths C.E. (Exp. Dermatol. 2006)
    12. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    13. The crystal structure of the chemokine domain of fractalkine shows a novel quaternary arrangement. (PubMed id 10770945)1, 2 Hoover D.M.... Lubkowski J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000)
    14. Genome duplications and other features in 12 Mb of DNA sequence from human chromosome 16p and 16q. (PubMed id 10493829)1, 2 Loftus B.J.... Adams M.D. (Genomics 1999)
    15. Constitutive endocytosis of the chemokine CX3CL1 prevents its degradation by cell surface metalloproteases. (PubMed id 19723636)1, 9 Huang Y.W....Robinson L.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)
    16. Thrombin-induced expression of endothelial CX3CL1 potentiates monocyte CCL2 production and transendothelial migration. (PubMed id 18436581)1, 9 Popovic M....Simmet T. (J. Leukoc. Biol. 2008)
    17. Characterization of synergistic induction of CX3CL1/fractalkine by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in vascular endothelial cells: an essential role for TNF-alpha in post-transcriptional regulation of CX3CL1. (PubMed id 20231691)1, 9 Matsumiya T....Satoh K. (J. Immunol. 2010)
    18. Recycling of the membrane-anchored chemokine, CX3CL1. (PubMed id 15774461)1, 9 Liu G.Y....Robinson L.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005)
    19. Viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II and fractalkine (CX3CL1) chimeras identify molecular determinants of affinity, efficacy, and selectivity at CX3CR1. (PubMed id 15361546)1, 9 Davis C.N....Harrison J.K. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2004)
    20. Thromboxane prostanoid receptor stimulation induces shedding of the transmembrane chemokine CX3CL1 yet enhances CX3CL1-dependent leukocyte adhesion. (PubMed id 20237149)1, 9 Tole S....Robinson L.A. (Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 2010)
    21. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 production by human aortic smooth muscle cells impairs monocyte procoagulant and inflammatory responses. (PubMed id 12824004)1, 9 Ollivier Prost D. (Cytokine 2003)
    22. Recruitment of CD16+ monocytes into synovial tissues is mediated by fractalkine and CX3CR1 in rheumatoid arthritis patients. (PubMed id 17471309)1, 9 Yano R....Makino H. (Acta Med. Okayama 2007)
    23. Expression of fractalkine and its receptor, CX3CR1, in atopic dermatitis: possible contribution to skin inflammation. (PubMed id 15131578)1, 9 Echigo T....Sato S. (J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2004)
    24. Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to the membrane-bound form of Fractalkine/CX3CL1. (PubMed id 14665693)1, 9 Hatabu T....Kano S. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003)
    25. Enhanced recruitment of CX3CR1+ T cells by mucosal endothelial cell-derived fractalkine in inflammatory bowel disease. (PubMed id 17241867)1, 9 Sans M....Fiocchi C. (Gastroenterology 2007)
    26. Glucocorticoid suppression of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) by reduced gene promoter recruitment of NF-kappaB. (PubMed id 18230685)1, 9 Bhavsar P.K....Chung K.F. (FASEB J. 2008)
    27. Fractalkine upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in endothelial cells through CX3CR1 and the Jak Stat5 pathway. (PubMed id 17885215)1, 9 Yang X.P....Becker L.C. (Circ. Res. 2007)
    28. Fractalkine and CX3CR1 mediate leukocyte capture by endothelium in response to Shiga toxin. (PubMed id 18606701)1, 9 Zanchi C....Hawiger J. (J. Immunol. 2008)
    29. TNF-alpha and IL-4 regulate expression of fractalkine (CX3CL1) as a membrane-anchored proadhesive protein and soluble chemotactic peptide on human fibroblasts. (PubMed id 15013759)1, 9 Yoshikawa M....Saito H. (FEBS Lett. 2004)
    30. Quantitative gene expression analysis of fractalkine using laser microdissection in biopsies from kidney allografts with acute rejection. (PubMed id 15621116)1, 9 Pietrzyk M.C....Fischereder M. (Transplant. Proc. 2004)
    31. Involvement of fractalkine and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha in moderate-severe depression. (PubMed id 15223613)1, 9 Merendino R.A....Gangemi S. (Mediators Inflamm. 2004)
    32. CX(3)CR1 and vascular adhesion protein-1-dependent recruitment of CD16(+) monocytes across human liver sinusoidal endothelium. (PubMed id 20512991)1, 9 Aspinall A.I....Adams D.H. (Hepatology 2010)
    33. Rosiglitazone activation of PPARgamma suppresses fractalkine signaling. (PubMed id 19850645)1, 9 Wan Y. and Evans R.M. (J. Mol. Endocrinol. 2010)
    34. Upregulation of fractalkine and its receptor, CX3CR1, is associated with coronary plaque rupture in patients with unstable angina pectoris. (PubMed id 20019415)1, 9 Ikejima H....Akasaka T. (Circ. J. 2010)
    35. Fractalkine mediates T cell-dependent proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 17907166)1, 9 Sawai H....Weyand C.M. (Arthritis Rheum. 2007)
    36. Neuronal fractalkine expression in HIV-1 encephalitis: roles for macrophage recruitment and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. (PubMed id 10640747)1, 9 Tong N....Gelbard H.A. (J. Immunol. 2000)
    37. Smooth muscle cells in human atherosclerotic plaques express the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and undergo chemotaxis to the CX3C chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1). (PubMed id 14581400)1, 9 Lucas A.D....Greaves D.R. (Circulation 2003)
    38. Fractalkine, a CX3C chemokine, is expressed by dendritic cells and is up-regulated upon dendritic cell maturation. (PubMed id 10458770)1, 9 Papadopoulos E.J....Hwang S.T. (Eur. J. Immunol. 1999)
    39. Chemokines and common variable immunodeficiency; possible contribution of the fractalkine system (CX3CL1/CX3CR1) to chronic inflammation. (PubMed id 18938112)1, 9 Fevang S.S. (Clin. Immunol. 2009)
    40. The CX3C-chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) is detectable in serum of patients affected by active pityriasis rosea. (PubMed id 17062081)1, 9 Gangemi S....Rebora A. (J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2006)
    41. Human chemokines fractalkine (SCYD1), MDC (SCYA22) and TARC (SCYA17) are clustered on chromosome 16q13. (PubMed id 9691168)1, 9 Nomiyama H....Yoshie O. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1998)
    42. CSF and serum levels of soluble fractalkine (CX3CL1) in inflammatory diseases of the nervous system. (PubMed id 12667665)1, 9 Kastenbauer S....Pfister H.W. (J. Neuroimmunol. 2003)
    43. Elevated plasma fractalkine levels are associated with higher levels of IL-6, Apo-B, LDL-C and insulin, but not with body composition in a large female twin sample. (PubMed id 23477808)1 Franco L....Livshits G. (Metab. Clin. Exp. 2013)
    44. Arterial and venous endothelia display differential functional fractalkine (CX3CL1) expression by angiotensin-II. (PubMed id 23117657)1 Rius C....Sanz M.J. (Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2013)
    45. Contribution of putative genetic factors and candidate gene variants to inter-individual variation of circulating fractalkine (CX3CL1) levels in a large UK twins' sample. (PubMed id 23261412)1 Franco L....Livshits G. (Hum. Immunol. 2013)
    46. Inflammatory effects of resistin on human smooth muscle cells: up-regulation of fractalkine and its receptor, CX3CR1 expression by TLR4 and Gi-protein pathways. (PubMed id 23086480)1 Gan A.M....Simionescu M. (Cell Tissue Res. 2013)
    47. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 may contribute to increased angiogenesis in diabetic placenta. (PubMed id 23956503)1 Szukiewicz D....Mittal T.K. (Mediators Inflamm. 2013)
    48. Chemokines and atherosclerosis: focus on the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 pathway. (PubMed id 23974513)1 Apostolakis S. and Spandidos D. (Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 2013)
    49. Immunohistohemical expression of the chemokine fractalkine and its receptor in the human brain cortex after severe traumatic brain injury and brain hemorrhage. (PubMed id 23584220)1 Gaetani P....Allavena P. (J Neurosurg Sci 2013)
    50. Histone deacetylases and NF-kB signaling coordinate expression of CX3CL1 in epithelial cells in response to microbial challenge by suppressing miR-424 and miR-503. (PubMed id 23724129)1 Zhou R....Chen X.M. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    51. Pharmacological inhibition of the chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, reduces atherosclerosis in mice. (PubMed id 23887641)1 Poupel L....Combadiere C. (Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2013)
    52. Human cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor US28 induces migration of cells on a CX3CL1-presenting surface. (PubMed id 23303826)1 HjortA...Larsen N.B. (J. Gen. Virol. 2013)
    53. Fractalkine overexpression suppresses tau pathology in a mouse model of tauopathy. (PubMed id 23332170)1 Nash K.R....Morgan D. (Neurobiol. Aging 2013)
    54. Role of ADAM-17, p38 MAPK, cathepsins, and the proteasome pathway in the synthesis and shedding of fractalkine/CXa88 CL1 in rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 23897050)1 Jones B.A....Ahmed S. (Arthritis Rheum. 2013)
    55. Glomerular expression of fractalkine is induced by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid in human mesangial cells: possible involvement of fractalkine after viral infection. (PubMed id 23168573)1 Aizawa-Yashiro T....Tanaka H. (Pediatr. Res. 2013)
    56. The transmembrane chemokines CXCL16 and CX3CL1 and their receptors are expressed in human meningiomas. (PubMed id 23229614)1 Li G....Held-Feindt J. (Oncol. Rep. 2013)
    57. Interaction between CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 regulates vasculitis induced by immune complex deposition. (PubMed id 23470165)1 Morimura S....Sato S. (Am. J. Pathol. 2013)
    58. High expression of CX3CL1 by tumor cells correlates with a good prognosis and increased tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells in breast carcinoma. (PubMed id 22422195)1 Park M.H....Yoon J.H. (J Surg Oncol 2012)
    59. Serum level of soluble CX3CL1/fractalkine is elevated in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis, which is correlated with disease activity. (PubMed id 22394569)1 Suzuki F....Nanki T. (amp 2012)
    60. Activated innate immunity and the involvement of CX3CR1-fractalkine in promoting hematuria in patients with IgA nephropathy. (PubMed id 22572859)1 Cox S.N....Schena F.P. (Kidney Int. 2012)
    61. Hypoxia-induced endothelial CX3CL1 triggers lung smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching and proliferative expansion. (PubMed id 23002075)1 Zhang J....Patel J.M. (Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 2012)
    62. Higher plasma fractalkine is associated with better 6-month outcome from ischemic stroke. (PubMed id 22798324)1 Donohue M.M....Becker K.J. ( a journal of cerebral circulation 2012)
    63. siRNA knockdown of ADAM-10, but not ADAM-17, significantly reduces fractalkine shedding following pro-inflammatory cytokine treatment in a human adult brain endothelial cell line. (PubMed id 22641052)1 Hurst L.A....Woodroofe M.N. (Neurosci. Lett. 2012)
    64. Fractalkine is expressed in early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions and supports monocyte recruitment via CX3CR1. (PubMed id 22916279)1 Stolla M....Schulz C. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    65. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 activation in mammary tumor cells promotes macrophage recruitment in a CX3CL1-dependent manner. (PubMed id 23029290)1 Reed J.R....Schwertfeger K.L. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    66. CX3CL1 expression in the conjunctiva is involved in immune cell trafficking during toxic ocular surface inflammation. (PubMed id 22692452)1 Denoyer A....Baudouin C. (Mucosal Immunol 2012)
    67. Fractalkine is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with advanced heart failure. (PubMed id 23014777)1 Richter B....Niessner A. (Thromb. Haemost. 2012)
    68. High expression of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis predicts a poor prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. (PubMed id 22639377)1 Xu X....Jin G. (J. Gastrointest. Surg. 2012)
    69. CX(3)CR1 drives cytotoxic CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells into the brain of multiple sclerosis patients. (PubMed id 22123179)1 Broux B....Hellings N. (J. Autoimmun. 2012)
    70. Fractalkine--a local inflammatory marker aggravating platelet activation at the vulnerable plaque. (PubMed id 22739755)1 Flierl U. and SchAofer A. (Thromb. Haemost. 2012)
    71. Fractalkine stimulates cell growth and increases its expression via NF-I_B pathway in RA-FLS. (PubMed id 22709495)1 Guo X....Gu J. (Int J Rheum Dis 2012)
    72. Fractalkine and its receptor (CX3CR1) in patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus. (PubMed id 22897138)1 Njerve I.U....Seljeflot I. (Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2012)
    73. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) levels in patients with BehAset's disease and neuro-BehAset's disease. (PubMed id 22177089)1 Ceyla I....Banu B. (J. Neurol. Sci. 2012)
    74. Correlation of serum CX3CL1 level with disease activity in adult-onset Still's disease and significant involvement in hemophagocytic syndrome. (PubMed id 22322207)1 Kasama T....Kobayashi K. (Clin. Rheumatol. 2012)
    75. Integrins I+vI^3 and I+4I^1 act as coreceptors for fractalkine, and the integrin-binding defective mutant of fractalkine is an antagonist of CX3CR1. (PubMed id 23125415)1 Fujita M....Takada Y. (J. Immunol. 2012)
    76. Independent roles of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted and fractalkine in the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. (PubMed id 22664781)1 Li J....Chen W. (Circ. J. 2012)
    77. Fractalkine activates a signal transduction pathway similar to P2Y12 and is associated with impaired clopidogrel responsiveness. (PubMed id 22652599)1 Flierl U....SchAofer A. (Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2012)
    78. Serine protease autotransporters from Shigella flexneri and pathogenic Escherichia coli target a broad range of leukocyte glycoproteins. (PubMed id 21768350)1 Ruiz-Perez F....Nataro J.P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2011)
    79. The CX3C chemokine fractalkine mediates platelet adhesion via the von Willebrand receptor glycoprotein Ib. (PubMed id 21398580)1 Meyer dos Santos S....Harder S. (Blood 2011)
    80. [Roles of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES and Fractalkine on promoting vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques]. (PubMed id 22321225)1 Qi T.J....Li J.F. (Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 2011)
    81. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 protects striatal neurons from synergistic morphine and HIV-1 Tat-induced dendritic losses and death. (PubMed id 22093090)1 Suzuki M....Hauser K.F. (Mol Neurodegener 2011)
    82. Identification of the chemokine CX3CL1 as a new regulator of malignant cell proliferation in epithelial ovarian cancer. (PubMed id 21750716)1 Gaudin F....Balabanian K. (PLoS ONE 2011)
    83. Structural basis of chemokine sequestration by CrmD, a poxvirus- encoded tumor necrosis factor receptor. (PubMed id 21829356)2 Xue X....Wang X. (PLoS Pathog. 2011)
    84. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation modulates neuroinflammation in focal cerebral ischemia: contribution of fractalkine and IL-5. (PubMed id 21168500)1 Sheikh A.M....Kim S.U. (Neurobiol. Dis. 2011)
    85. Human urinary glycoproteomics; attachment site specific analysis of N-and O-linked glycosylations by CID and ECD. (PubMed id 22171320)2 Halim A.... Larson G. (Mol. Cell. Proteomics 2011)
    86. Amyloid beta enhances migration of endothelial progenitor cells by upregulating CX3CR1 in response to fractalkine, which may be associated with development of choroidal neovascularization. (PubMed id 21527754)1 Wang J....Morita I. (Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2011)
    87. Fractalkine is a novel human adipochemokine associated with type 2 diabetes. (PubMed id 21525510)1 Shah R....Reilly M.P. (Diabetes 2011)
    88. Enhanced platelet adhesion induces angiogenesis in intestinal inflammation and inflammatory bowel disease microvasculature. (PubMed id 20158572)1 Rutella S....Danese S. (J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2011)
    89. CCL5, CXCL16, and CX3CL1 are associated with Henoch-Schonlein purpura. (PubMed id 21638128)1 Chen T....Lai T. (Arch. Dermatol. Res. 2011)
    90. High plasma fractalkine (CX3CL1) levels are associated with severe liver disease in HIV/HCV co-infected patients with HCV genotype 1. (PubMed id 21463954)1 GarcA-a-A8lvarez M....Resino S. (Cytokine 2011)
    91. A novel role of the CX3CR1/CX3CL1 system in the cross-talk between chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and tumor microenvironment. (PubMed id 21546901)1 Ferretti E....Corcione A. (Leukemia 2011)
    92. Down-regulation of fractalkine inhibits the in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis of the hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. (PubMed id 20664972)1 Li F....Li J. (Oncol. Rep. 2010)
    93. ATP secreted by endothelial cells blocks CXa88CL 1-elicited natural killer cell chemotaxis and cytotoxicity via P2Ya88a88 receptor activation. (PubMed id 20668227)1 Gorini Sala A. (Blood 2010)
    94. CX3CL1 expression induced by Candida albicans in oral fibroblasts. (PubMed id 20880200)1 Ohta K....Kamata N. (FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 2010)
    95. Similar effects of resistin and high glucose on P-selectin and fractalkine expression and monocyte adhesion in human endothelial cells. (PubMed id 20034466)1 Manduteanu I....Simionescu M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2010)
    96. Fractalkine has anti-apoptotic and proliferative effects on human vascular smooth muscle cells via epidermal growth factor receptor signalling. (PubMed id 19840952)1 White G.E....Greaves D.R. (Cardiovasc. Res. 2010)
    97. Delta chemokine (fractalkine)--a novel mediator of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children undergoing cardiac surgery. (PubMed id 20869263)1 Avni T....Dalal I. (Cytokine 2010)
    98. Requirements for leukocyte transmigration via the transmembrane chemokine CX3CL1. (PubMed id 20559678)1 Schwarz N....Ludwig A. (Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2010)
    99. New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine. (PubMed id 20237496)1 Davila S....Seielstad M. (Genes Immun. 2010)
    100. Exploration of disease mechanism in acute kidney injury using a multiplex bead array assay: a nested case-control pilot study. (PubMed id 20482449)1 Liangos O....Jaber B.L. (Biomarkers 2010)
    101. Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the production of soluble fractalkine and ADAM17 by HepG2 cells. (PubMed id 20922190)1 Turner S.L....Bunning R.A. (J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2010)
    102. CX3CR1/CX3CL1 axis negatively controls glioma cell invasion and is modulated by transforming growth factor-I^1. (PubMed id 20511186)1 SciumA" G....Bernardini G. (Neuro-oncology 2010)
    103. Expression of ADAM-17, TIMP-3 and fractalkine in the human adult brain endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3, following pro-inflammatory cytokine treatment. (PubMed id 19324423)1 Hurst L.A....Woodroofe M.N. (J. Neuroimmunol. 2009)
    104. Fractalkine and CX3CR1 are involved in the migration of intravenously grafted human bone marrow stromal cells toward ischemic brain lesion in rats. (PubMed id 19563789)1 Zhu J....Zheng J. (Brain Res. 2009)
    105. Elevated serum levels of soluble CX3CL1 in patients with microscopic polyangiitis. (PubMed id 19327232)1 Matsunawa M....Kasama T. (Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 2009)
    106. Correlation of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 levels with response to infliximab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 19369458)1 Odai T....Kasama T. (J. Rheumatol. 2009)
    107. The carboxy-terminal tail of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US28 regulates both chemokine-independent and chemokine-dependent signaling in HCMV-infected cells. (PubMed id 19605482)1 Stropes M.P....Miller W.E. (J. Virol. 2009)
    108. Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip. (PubMed id 19913121)1 Talmud P.J.... . (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2009)
    109. Genetic analysis of Alzheimer's disease in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men. (PubMed id 19141999)4 Giedraitis V....Glaser A. (Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009)
    110. CX3CL1/fractalkine shedding by human hepatic stellate cells: contribution to chronic inflammation in the liver. (PubMed id 19432809)1 Bourd-Boittin K....ThAcret N. (J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2009)
    111. CX3CR1 is expressed by human B lymphocytes and mediates [corrected] CX3CL1 driven chemotaxis of tonsil centrocytes. (PubMed id 20041188)1 Corcione A....Pistoia V. (PLoS ONE 2009)
    112. The involvement of the fractalkine receptor in the transmigration of neuroblastoma cells through bone-marrow endothelial cells. (PubMed id 18778890)1 Nevo I....Witz I.P. (Cancer Lett. 2009)
    113. WIN55,212-2 inhibits production of CX3CL1 by human astrocytes: involvement of p38 MAP kinase. (PubMed id 19214751)1 Sheng W.S....Peterson P.K. (J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2009)
    114. Membrane microvesicles as actors in the establishment of a favorable prostatic tumoral niche: a role for activated fibroblasts and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis. (PubMed id 19155311)1 Castellana D....Kunzelmann C. (Cancer Res. 2009)
    115. Enrichment of glycopeptides for glycan structure and attachment site identification. (PubMed id 19838169)2 Nilsson J.... Larson G. (Nat. Methods 2009)
    116. Role of CX3CL1/fractalkine in osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. (PubMed id 19923448)1 Koizumi K....Saiki I. (J. Immunol. 2009)
    117. Resistin up-regulates fractalkine expression in human endothelial cells: lack of additive effect with TNF-alpha. (PubMed id 19351602)1 Manduteanu I....Simionescu M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2009)
    118. Neural fractalkine expression is closely linked to pain and pancreatic neuritis in human chronic pancreatitis. (PubMed id 19153557)1 Ceyhan G.O....Friess H. ( a journal of technical methods and pathology 2009)
    119. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes or coronary heart disease following rehabilitation express serum fractalkine levels similar to those in healthy control subjects. (PubMed id 19851523)1 Maegdefessel L....Loppnow H. (Vasc Health Risk Manag 2009)
    120. Activation of fractalkine/CX3CR1 by vascular endothelial cells induces angiogenesis through VEGF-A/KDR and reverses hindlimb ischaemia. (PubMed id 18006432)1 Ryu J....Han K.H. (Cardiovasc. Res. 2008)
    121. CX3CL1 and CCL14 regulate extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules in the trophoblast: potential roles in human embryo implantation. (PubMed id 18367676)1 Hannan N.J. and Salamonsen L.A. (Biol. Reprod. 2008)
    122. Chemokine markers predict biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer following prostatectomy. (PubMed id 19047106)1 Blum D.L....Bhowmick N.A. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2008)
    123. Endothelial damage from cytomegalovirus-specific host immune response can be prevented by targeted disruption of fractalkine-CX3CR1 interaction. (PubMed id 17895402)1 Bolovan-Fritts C.A. and Spector S.A. (Blood 2008)
    124. High glucose conditions induce upregulation of fractalkine and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in human smooth muscle cells. (PubMed id 19132243)1 Dragomir E....Simionescu M. (Thromb. Haemost. 2008)
    125. Urinary fractalkine is a marker of acute rejection. (PubMed id 18800027)1 Peng W....Wang H. (Kidney Int. 2008)
    126. Increased serum fractalkine in systemic sclerosis. Down-regulation by prostaglandin E1. (PubMed id 18799080)1 Sicinska J....Rudnicka L. (Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 2008)
    127. Functional adhesiveness of the CX3CL1 chemokine requires its aggregation. Role of the transmembrane domain. (PubMed id 18725411)1 Hermand P....Deterre P. (J. Biol. Chem. 2008)
    128. Characterisation of fractalkine/CX3CL1 and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) expression in abdominal aortic aneurysm disease. (PubMed id 18296082)1 Patel A....Carding S.R. (Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2008)
    129. CX3CL1/fractalkine is released from apoptotic lymphocytes to stimulate macrophage chemotaxis. (PubMed id 18799722)1 Truman L.A....Gregory C.D. (Blood 2008)
    130. Antigen presentation by human microvascular endothelial cells triggers ICAM-1-dependent transendothelial protrusion by, and fractalkine-dependent transendothelial migration of, effector memory CD4+ T cells. (PubMed id 18523306)1 Manes T.D. and Pober J.S. (J. Immunol. 2008)
    131. Fractalkine and TGF-beta1 levels reflect the severity of chronic pancreatitis in humans. (PubMed id 19030200)1 Yasuda M....Takayanagi R. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2008)
    132. Involvement of the fractalkine pathway in the pathogenesis of childhood hemolytic uremic syndrome. (PubMed id 17132725)1 Ramos M.V....Palermo M.S. (Blood 2007)
    133. Activation of human natural killer cells by recombinant membrane-expressed fractalkine on the surface of tumor cells. (PubMed id 17487393)1 Zhang X....Tian Z. (Oncol. Rep. 2007)
    134. The CX3C chemokine fractalkine induces vascular dysfunction by generation of superoxide anions. (PubMed id 17082482)1 SchAofer A....Bauersachs J. (Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2007)
    135. The spreading of HIV-1 infection in the human organism is caused by fractalkine trafficking of the infected lymphocytes--a review, hypothesis and implications for treatment. (PubMed id 17151939)1 Becker Y. (Virus Genes 2007)
    136. T280M variation of the CX3C receptor gene is associated with increased risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. (PubMed id 16645504)1 Amanatidou V....Spandidos D.A. (Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2006)
    137. Fractalkine stimulates angiogenesis by activating the Raf-1/MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways. (PubMed id 16877565)1 Lee S.J....Kim Y.M. (Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2006)
    138. Increased serum levels of soluble fractalkine (CX3CL1) correlate with disease activity in rheumatoid vasculitis. (PubMed id 17075825)1 Matsunawa M....Kasama T. (Arthritis Rheum. 2006)
    139. Fractalkine in rheumatoid arthritis and allied conditions. (PubMed id 16767549)1 Umehara H....Okazaki T. (Mod Rheumatol 2006)
    140. Fractalkine and CX3CR1 are involved in the recruitment of intraepithelial lymphocytes of intrahepatic bile ducts. (PubMed id 15726664)1 Isse K....Nakanuma Y. (Hepatology 2005)
    141. Expression of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor, CX3CR1, is elevated in coronary artery disease and is reduced during statin therapy. (PubMed id 16224053)1 DamAYs J.K....Quehenberger O. (Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2005)
    142. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces fractalkine expression preferentially in arterial endothelial cells and mithramycin A suppresses TNF-alpha-induced fractalkine expression. (PubMed id 15111313)1 Ahn S.Y....Koh G.Y. (Am. J. Pathol. 2004)
    143. Coexpression of fractalkine and its receptor in normal human endometrium and in endometrium from users of progestin-only contraception supports a role for fractalkine in leukocyte recruitment and endometrial remodeling. (PubMed id 15579768)1 Hannan N.J....Salamonsen L.A. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2004)
    144. Fractalkine in vascular biology: from basic research to clinical disease. (PubMed id 12969992)1 Umehara H....Imai T. (Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2004)
    145. Soluble fractalkine prevents monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced monocyte migration via inhibition of stress-activated protein kinase 2/p38 and matrix metalloproteinase activities. (PubMed id 14688370)1 Vitale S....Schmid-Antomarchi H. (J. Immunol. 2004)
    146. Expression of fractalkine in the Fallopian tube and of CX3CR1 in sperm. (PubMed id 14747189)1 Zhang Q....Murata Y. (Hum. Reprod. 2004)
    147. Novel role of the membrane-bound chemokine fractalkine in platelet activation and adhesion. (PubMed id 12969973)1 SchAofer A....Bauersachs J. (Blood 2004)
    148. The chemokine fractalkine in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and a mouse model of closed head injury. (PubMed id 15529011)1 Rancan M....Morganti-Kossmann M.C. (J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 2004)
    149. Increased intrathecal release of soluble fractalkine in HIV-infected patients. (PubMed id 12639246)1 Sporer B....Pfister H.W. (AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 2003)
    150. Fractalkine (FRK) levels in amniotic fluid and its production during pregnancy. (PubMed id 12569179)1 Shimoya K....Murata Y. (Mol. Hum. Reprod. 2003)
    151. Genomic organization and evolution of the CX3CR1/CCR8 chemokine receptor locus. (PubMed id 12551893)1 DeVries M.E.... Kelvin D.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    152. Human keratinocytes express fractalkine/CX3CL1. (PubMed id 12727021)1 Sugaya M....Tamaki K. (J. Dermatol. Sci. 2003)
    153. CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 expression in human brain tissue: noninflammatory control versus multiple sclerosis. (PubMed id 14533779)1 Hulshof S....Biber K. (J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 2003)
    154. Protein overload induces fractalkine upregulation in proximal tubular cells through nuclear factor kappaB- and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways. (PubMed id 14514721)1 Donadelli R....Zoja C. (J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2003)
    155. Human fractalkine mediates leukocyte adhesion but not capture under physiological shear conditions; a mechanism for selective monocyte recruitment. (PubMed id 12616493)1 Kerfoot S.M....Kubes P. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2003)
    156. Effect of hypoxia on the expression of fractalkine in human endothelial cells. (PubMed id 14580149)1 Yamashita K....Satoh K. (Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 2003)
    157. The CX3C chemokine fractalkine in allergic asthma and rhinitis. (PubMed id 14657873)1 Rimaniol A.C....Humbert M. (J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2003)
    158. The disintegrin-like metalloproteinase ADAM10 is involved in constitutive cleavage of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and regulates CX3CL1-mediated cell-cell adhesion. (PubMed id 12714508)1 Hundhausen C....Ludwig A. (Blood 2003)
    159. Fractalkine preferentially mediates arrest and migration of CD16+ monocytes. (PubMed id 12810688)1 Ancuta P....Gabuzda D. (J. Exp. Med. 2003)
    160. Dual functions of fractalkine/CX3C ligand 1 in trafficking of perforin+/granzyme B+ cytotoxic effector lymphocytes that are defined by CX3CR1 expression. (PubMed id 12055230)1 Nishimura M....Imai T. (J. Immunol. 2002)
    161. Fractalkine is expressed by smooth muscle cells in response to IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and is modulated by metalloproteinase activity. (PubMed id 11777952)1 Ludwig A....Chapman G. (J. Immunol. 2002)
    162. Detection of fractalkine in human seminal plasma and its role in infertile patients. (PubMed id 12042278)1 Zhang Q....Murata Y. (Hum. Reprod. 2002)
    163. CX3CR1 tyrosine sulfation enhances fractalkine-induced cell adhesion. (PubMed id 11909868)1 Fong A.M....Patel D.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    164. Fractalkine expression on human renal tubular epithelial cells: potential role in mononuclear cell adhesion. (PubMed id 12100035)1 Chakravorty S.J....Savage C.O. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2002)
    165. Molecular cloning and sequencing of 25 different rhesus macaque chemokine cDNAs reveals evolutionary conservation among C, CC, CXC, AND CX3C families of chemokines. (PubMed id 12126650)1 Basu S....Reinhart T.A. (Cytokine 2002)
    166. Fractalkine and fractalkine receptors in human neurons and glial cells. (PubMed id 12125082)1 Hatori K....Kim S.U. (J. Neurosci. Res. 2002)
    167. CX(3)C chemokine fractalkine in pulmonary arterial hypertension. (PubMed id 12016106)1 Balabanian K....Humbert M. (Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2002)
    168. Up-regulated expression of fractalkine and its receptor CX3CR1 during liver injury in humans. (PubMed id 12076860)1 Efsen E....Marra F. (J. Hepatol. 2002)
    169. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    170. The transmembrane form of the CX3CL1 chemokine fractalkine is expressed predominantly by epithelial cells in vivo. (PubMed id 11238035)1 Lucas A.D....Greaves D.R. (Am. J. Pathol. 2001)
    171. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (ADAM17) mediates the cleavage and shedding of fractalkine (CX3CL1). (PubMed id 11495925)1 Garton K.J....Raines E.W. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    172. Mast cells migrate, but do not degranulate, in response to fractalkine, a membrane-bound chemokine expressed constitutively in diverse cells of the skin. (PubMed id 10940926)1 Papadopoulos E.J....Hwang S.T. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2000)
    173. Rapid progression to AIDS in HIV+ individuals with a structural variant of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1. (PubMed id 10731151)1 Faure S.... Combadiere C. (Science 2000)
    174. Expression of CX3CR1 chemokine receptors on neurons and their role in neuronal survival. (PubMed id 10869418)1 Meucci O....Miller R.J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000)
    175. Identification of CX3CR1. A chemotactic receptor for the human CX3C chemokine fractalkine and a fusion coreceptor for HIV-1. (PubMed id 9726990)1 Combadiere C....Murphy P.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998)
    176. Chemokines regulate hippocampal neuronal signaling and gp120 neurotoxicity. (PubMed id 9826729)1 Meucci O....Miller R.J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1998)
    177. Identification and molecular characterization of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, which mediates both leukocyte migration and adhesion. (PubMed id 9390561)1 Imai T.... Yoshie O. (Cell 1997)
    178. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. (PubMed id 8125298)1 Maruyama K. and Sugano S. (Gene 1994)
    179. Fractalkine, a CX3C chemokine, as a mediator of ocular angiogenesis. (PubMed id 17962485)9 You J.J....Yang C.M. (amp 2007)
    180. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) as an amplification circuit of polarized Th1 responses. (PubMed id 11342581)9 Fraticelli P....Mantovani A. (J. Clin. Invest. 2001)
    181. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 enhances GABA synaptic activity at serotonin neurons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus. (PubMed id 19748551)9 Heinisch S. and Kirby L.G. (Neuroscience 2009)
    182. Cytokine expression profiling of the myocardium reveals a role for CX3CL1 (fractalkine) in heart failure. (PubMed id 18585734)9 Husberg C....Christensen G. (J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2008)
    183. Constitutive and inflammatory mediator-regulated fractalkine expression in human ocular tissues and cultured cells. (PubMed id 12657599)9 Silverman M.D....Rosenbaum J.T. (amp 2003)
    184. [Complete sequence determination and phylogenetic analysis of FKN among seven higher primates including homonids and Old World Monkeys]. (PubMed id 18487149)9 Hong X.W....Xiong S.D. (Yi Chuan 2008)
    185. Fractalkine is a novel chemoattractant for rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocyte signaling through MAP kinases and Akt. (PubMed id 17665439)9 Volin M.V....Woods J.M. (Arthritis Rheum. 2007)
    186. Fractalkine, a novel chemokine in rheumatoid arthritis and in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. (PubMed id 11465708)9 Ruth J.H....Koch A.E. (Arthritis Rheum. 2001)
    187. Chemokine fractalkine/CX3CL1 negatively modulates active glutamatergic synapses in rat hippocampal neurons. (PubMed id 17035533)9 Ragozzino D....Eusebi F. (J. Neurosci. 2006)
    188. Fractalkine-induced MFG-E8 leads to enhanced apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages. (PubMed id 17673941)9 Miksa M....Wang P. (Mol. Med. 2007)
    189. T cell costimulation by fractalkine-expressing synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 15880821)9 Sawai H....Weyand C.M. (Arthritis Rheum. 2005)
    190. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 production by human airway smooth muscle cells: induction by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and regulation by TGF-beta and corticosteroids. (PubMed id 15321787)9 Sukkar M.B....Chung K.F. (Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 2004)
    191. Drosophila neurotactin mediates heterophilic cell adhesion. (PubMed id 2120048)9 Barthalay Y....Piovant M. (EMBO J. 1990)
    192. Diabetic conditions promote binding of monocytes to vascular smooth muscle cells and their subsequent differentiation. (PubMed id 20008269)9 Meng L....Natarajan R. (Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2010)
    193. Fractalkine functions as a chemoattractant for osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts and stimulates phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt. (PubMed id 19302240)9 Klosowska K....Woods J.M. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2009)
    194. CX3CL1 up-regulation is associated with recruitment of CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes in the lungs during cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. (PubMed id 18772344)9 McComb J.G....Lee J.S. (Am. J. Pathol. 2008)
    195. Involvement of interaction between Fractalkine and CX3CR1 in cytotoxicity of natural killer cells against tumor cells. (PubMed id 16391873)9 Zhang X....Tian Z. (Oncol. Rep. 2006)
    196. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and brain inflammation: Implications for HIV-1-associated dementia. (PubMed id 12476352)9 Cotter R....Zheng J. (J. Neurovirol. 2002)
    197. Neurotactin functions in concert with other identified CAMs in growth cone guidance in Drosophila. (PubMed id 9491984)9 Speicher S....JimAcnez F. (Neuron 1998)
    198. Characterization and gene cloning of neurotactin, a Drosophila transmembrane protein related to cholinesterases. (PubMed id 2120047)9 de la Escalera S....JimAcnez F. (EMBO J. 1990)
    199. Exclusive increase of CX3CR1+CD28-CD4+ T cells in inflammatory bowel disease and their recruitment as intraepithelial lymphocytes. (PubMed id 17285595)9 Kobayashi T....Hibi T. (Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 2007)
    200. The chemokines, CX3CL1, CCL14, and CCL4, promote human trophoblast migration at the feto-maternal interface. (PubMed id 16452465)9 Hannan N.J....Salamonsen L.A. (Biol. Reprod. 2006)
    201. Transendothelial migration of CD16+ monocytes in response to fractalkine under constitutive and inflammatory conditions. (PubMed id 15481136)9 Ancuta P....Gabuzda D. (Immunobiology 2004)
    202. Neuronal injury regulates fractalkine: relevance for HIV-1 associated dementia. (PubMed id 12742664)9 Erichsen D....Zheng J. (J. Neuroimmunol. 2003)
    203. Drosophila neurotactin, a surface glycoprotein with homology to serine esterases, is dynamically expressed during embryogenesis. (PubMed id 2100266)9 Hortsch M....Goodman C.S. (Development 1990)
    204. Proline 326 in the C terminus of murine CX3CR1 prevents G-protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (PubMed id 16166268)9 Davis C.N. and Harrison J.K. (J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2006)
    205. C and CX3C chemokines: cell sources and physiopathological implications. (PubMed id 15482255)9 Stievano L....Amadori A. (Crit. Rev. Immunol. 2004)
    206. Tear cytokine and chemokine analysis and clinical correlations in evaporative-type dry eye disease. (PubMed id 20508732)9 EnrA-quez-de-Salamanca A....Calonge M. (Mol. Vis. 2010)
    207. Selective human endothelial cell activation by chemokines as a guide to cell homing. (PubMed id 18800989)9 Crola Da Silva C....Kieda C. (Immunology 2009)
    208. Respiratory syncytial virus(RSV)-induced allergy may be controlled by IL-4 and CX3C fractalkine antagonists and CpG ODN as adjuvant: hypothesis and implications for treatment. (PubMed id 16972041)9 Becker Y. (Virus Genes 2006)
    209. Elevated levels of soluble fractalkine in active systemic lupus erythematosus: potential involvement in neuropsychiatric manifestations. (PubMed id 15934075)9 Yajima N....Adachi M. (Arthritis Rheum. 2005)
    210. CC and CX3C chemokines differentially interact with the N terminus of the human cytomegalovirus-encoded US28 receptor. (PubMed id 15546882)9 Casarosa P....Leurs R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005)
    211. Identification of differentially regulated genes during elongation and early implantation in the ovine trophoblast using complementary DNA array screening. (PubMed id 15616222)9 Cammas L....Charpigny G. (Biol. Reprod. 2005)
    212. Expression of CX3C chemokine, fractalkine, and its receptor CX3CR1 in experimental autoimmune anterior uveitis. (PubMed id 16030495)9 Fang I.M....Yang C.H. (Mol. Vis. 2005)
    213. Opposite effects of CX3CR1 receptor polymorphisms V249I and T280M on the development of acute coronary syndrome. A possible implication of fractalkine in inflammatory activation. (PubMed id 15886814)9 Niessner A....Huber K. (Thromb. Haemost. 2005)
    214. [Infection of Coxsackievirus group B type 3 regulates the expression profile of chemokines in myocardial tissue/cells]. (PubMed id 12899801)9 Shen Y....Xiong S.D. (Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2003)
    215. Fractalkine, a CX3C-chemokine, functions predominantly as an adhesion molecule in monocytic cell line THP-1. (PubMed id 11380684)9 Umehara H....Domae N. (Immunol. Cell Biol. 2001)
    216. Inhibition of stimulated Jurkat cell adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate synthesis by the immunomodulatory compound HR325. (PubMed id 11163337)9 Curnock A.P....Ruuthb E. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 2001)
    217. CX3C-chemokine, fractalkine-enhanced adhesion of THP-1 cells to endothelial cells through integrin-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (PubMed id 10754331)9 Goda S....Umehara H. (J. Immunol. 2000)
    218. Effects of CC, CXC, C, and CX3C chemokines on proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells, and insights into SDF-1-induced chemotaxis of progenitors. (PubMed id 10372118)9 Broxmeyer H.E....Pelus L.M. (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1999)
    219. Selective recognition of the membrane-bound CX3C chemokine, fractalkine, by the human cytomegalovirus-encoded broad-spectrum receptor US28. (PubMed id 9883886)9 Kledal T.N....Schwartz T.W. (FEBS Lett. 1998)
    220. The structure-function relationships in Drosophila neurotactin show that cholinesterasic domains may have adhesive properties. (PubMed id 8890157)9 Darboux I....Hipeau-Jacquotte R. (EMBO J. 1996)
    221. Modulation of cholecystokinin (CCK) gene-expression in a human neuroblastoma cell line: effects of serum on enhanced CCK and c-fos mRNA expression. (PubMed id 1360635)9 Monstein H.J....Haahr P.M. (Neuropeptides 1992)
    222. Chemokines, neuronal-glial interactions, and central processing of neuropathic pain. (PubMed id 20117131)9 Gao Y.J. and Ji R.R. (amp 2010)
    223. Interleukin-10 and interferon-gamma modulate surface expression of fractalkine-receptor (CX(3)CR1) via PI3K in monocytes. (PubMed id 20102414)9 Ramos M.V....Palermo M.S. (Immunology 2010)
    224. Exuberant expression of chemokine genes by adult human articular chondrocytes in response to IL-1beta. (PubMed id 18565769)9 Sandell L.J....Patra D. (Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2008)
    225. Chemokine fractalkine mediates leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory endothelial cells in flowing whole blood: a critical role for P-selectin expressed on activated platelets. (PubMed id 17679613)9 Schulz C....Massberg S. (Circulation 2007)
    226. Fractalkine-CX3CR1 axis regulates tumor cell cycle and deteriorates prognosis after radical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed id 17323338)9 Matsubara T....Nagasue N. (J Surg Oncol 2007)
    227. Increased expression of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor, CX3CR1, in Wegener's granulomatosis--possible role in vascular inflammation. (PubMed id 17616549)9 Bjerkeli S.S. (Rheumatology (Oxford) 2007)
    228. Surface expression of fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) on CD4+/CD28 T cells in RA patients and correlation with atherosclerotic damage. (PubMed id 17804530)9 Pingiotti E....Giacomelli R. (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2007)
    229. An analysis of acetylcholinesterase sequence for predicting mechanisms of its non-catalytic actions. (PubMed id 17597908)9 Srivatsan M. (Bioinformation 2006)
    230. [Activation of innate and specific immune responses in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)-patients]. (PubMed id 17354472)9 Palermo M.S....Isturiz M.A. (Medicina (B Aires) 2006)
    231. Autocrine role of vascular IL-15 in intimal thickening. (PubMed id 16321364)9 Cercek M....Dimayuga P.C. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2006)
    232. The CX3C chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) is detectable in serum of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with lymph node involvement. (PubMed id 15802897)9 Morabito F....Gangemi S. (Acta Haematol. 2005)
    233. Fractalkine receptor polymorphisms V2491 and T280M as genetic risk factors for restenosis. (PubMed id 16411402)9 Niessner A....Huber K. (Thromb. Haemost. 2005)

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