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CTU2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 46
GCID: GC16P088773

Cytosolic Thiouridylase Subunit 2 Homolog (S. Pombe)

(Previous name: chromosome 16 open reading frame 84)
(Previous symbol: C16orf84)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Cytosolic Thiouridylase Subunit 2 Homolog (S. Pombe)1 2
C16orf841 2 3
NCS22 3
Chromosome 16 Open Reading Frame 841
UPF04322
Cytoplasmic TRNA 2-Thiolation Protein 22

External Ids:    HGNC: 280051   Entrez Gene: 3481802   Ensembl: ENSG000001741777   UniProtKB: Q2VPK53   

Export aliases for CTU2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC16P087301 GC16P074467


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for CTU2 Gene:
CTU2 (cytosolic thiouridylase subunit 2 homolog (S. pombe)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with CTU2 include exotropia, and malaria.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTU2_HUMAN, Q2VPK5
Function: Plays a central role in 2-thiolation of mcm(5)S(2)U at tRNA wobble positions of tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Glu) and
tRNA(Gln). May act by forming a heterodimer with CTU1/ATPBD3 that ligates sulfur from thiocarboxylated URM1 onto
the uridine of tRNAs at wobble position

Gene Wiki entry for CTU2 (C16orf84) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000016.10  NC_018927.2  NT_010498.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for CTU2
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CTU2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CTU2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 16q24.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  16q24.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 16q24.3

CTU2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CTU2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 16         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC16P088773:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
88,772,871 bp from pter      End:
88,781,794 bp from pter
Size:
8,924 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTU2_HUMAN, Q2VPK5 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 2  
Size: 515 amino acids; 56107 Da
Subunit: Component of a complex at least composed of URM1, CTU2/NCS2 and CTU1/ATPBD3
Secondary accessions: B2RXK0 Q0P511 Q66K78 Q6P4C8 Q86SV4
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  Q2VPK5-1   Q2VPK5-3   Q2VPK5-5   (Incomplete sequence)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CTU2: NX_Q2VPK5

Explore proteomics data for CTU2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See CTU2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001012777.1  NP_001012780.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000388320   ENSP00000454923   ENSP00000308617   ENSP00000456908   ENSP00000455010  
     ENSP00000455305   ENSP00000367635  

    CTU2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals CTU2 Lysate
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for CTU2


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR019407 Ncs2/Tuc2/Ctu2

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q2VPK5

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q2VPK5

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTU2_HUMAN, Q2VPK5
    Similarity: Belongs to the CTU2/NCS2 family


    CTU2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CTU2_HUMAN, Q2VPK5
    Function: Plays a central role in 2-thiolation of mcm(5)S(2)U at tRNA wobble positions of tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Glu) and
    tRNA(Gln). May act by forming a heterodimer with CTU1/ATPBD3 that ligates sulfur from thiocarboxylated URM1 onto
    the uridine of tRNAs at wobble position

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000049tRNA binding IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI19017811
    GO:0016779nucleotidyltransferase activity IEA--
         
    CTU2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for CTU2
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    miRNA
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    3 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CTU2:
    hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-381 hsa-let-7f-2*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCTU2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Gene Editing
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): CTU2 (NM_001012759)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    CTU2_HUMAN, Q2VPK5: Cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion4
    cytosol3
    nucleus3
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IEA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion ----
    GO:0043234protein complex IDA19017811

    CTU2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for CTU2 About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Sulfur relay system
    Sulfur relay system

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways



    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for CTU2):
        Sulfur relay system

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTU2_HUMAN, Q2VPK5
    Pathway: tRNA modification; 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine-tRNA biosynthesis


    CTU2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for CTU2
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CTU2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for CTU2 (Q2VPK53 ENSP000003883204) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 32)

    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SLC9B2Q86UD53I2D: score=5 
    MOCS3ENSP000002440514STRING: ENSP00000244051
    URM1ENSP000004129224STRING: ENSP00000412922
    AIMP1ENSP000003781914STRING: ENSP00000378191
    HMGCS1ENSP000003227064STRING: ENSP00000322706
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002098tRNA wobble uridine modification NAS19017811
    GO:0008033tRNA processing ----
    GO:0032447protein urmylation IEA--
    GO:0034227tRNA thio-modification NAS19017811

    CTU2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for CTU2



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for CTU2 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001012759.1  NM_001012762.1  

    Unigene Cluster for CTU2:

    Cytosolic thiouridylase subunit 2 homolog (S. pombe)
    Hs.592074  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001012759
    11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000453996(uc002flm.3 uc010cia.3) ENST00000564105 ENST00000312060(uc002fln.3)
    ENST00000567949(uc010chz.3) ENST00000565071 ENST00000564921 ENST00000566637
    ENST00000564584 ENST00000567316 ENST00000562011 ENST00000378384
    miRNA
    Products:
         
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    3 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CTU2:
    hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-381 hsa-let-7f-2*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCTU2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CTU2
    Clone
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): CTU2 (NM_001012759)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for CTU2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CTU2
    Primer
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    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for CTU2
    Search Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assays in human, mouse, rat CTU2
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CTU2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CTU2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK092494.1 AK299521.1 BC021056.1 BC021829.1 BC080540.1 BC108659.1 BC121805.1 BC125269.1 
    BC157881.1 

    9 DOTS entries:

    DT.97841523  DT.40220682  DT.445633  DT.86855754  DT.95358523  DT.121610873  DT.92027643  DT.100794098 
    DT.91759488 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    CTU2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AAGGACTTGC
    CTU2 Expression
    About this image

    CTU2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    CTU2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.592074
        Custom PCR Arrays for CTU2
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CTU2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for CTU2 gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ctu21 , 5 cytosolic thiouridylase subunit 2 homolog (S. pombe)1, 5 79.07(n)1
    78.15(a)1
      8 (71.26 cM)5
    669651  NM_153775.21  NP_722470.21 
     1224761435 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves CTU21 cytosolic thiouridylase subunit 2 homolog (S. pombe) 63.85(n)
    55.56(a)
      415850  XM_004944303.1  XP_004944360.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia CTU26
    cytosolic thiouridylase subunit 2 homolog (S. pomb...
    53(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343670.1(159150-168526)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia ctu21 cytosolic thiouridylase subunit 2 homolog 56.53(n)
    51.57(a)
      548371  NM_001039740.1  NP_001034829.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii wufe06e112 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 72.29(n)    BQ133195.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG101891 CG10189 46.23(n)
    34.43(a)
      35234  NM_001273656.1  NP_001260585.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CTU2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CTU2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for CTU2 (see all 420)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 16 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1822776091,2
    --88774840(+) CACCAC/TGCTTG 2 -- int10--------
    rs1159427891,2
    C,F--88774871(+) GGCGCA/GGAGGC 2 -- int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.07WA 118
    rs1865478341,2
    --88774895(+) AGTGCA/GGAGGT 2 -- int10--------
    rs1500761911,2
    --88774912(+) CAGCAC/TCTGTG 2 -- int10--------
    rs74048451,2
    C,F,A,H--88774921(+) TGTCTC/TCTTGT 2 -- int118Minor allele frequency- T:0.17NS EA NA CSA WA 2220
    rs1383819601,2
    C--88774996(+) TGCCAA/GTTACC 2 -- int10--------
    rs1909364701,2
    --88775017(+) CACCTA/GGCATC 2 -- int10--------
    rs1418965751,2
    --88775035(+) TAAACA/GCAGAC 2 -- int10--------
    rs1179001871,2
    C,F--88775036(+) AAACAC/GAGACT 2 -- int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.03EA 120
    rs1153261091,2
    F--88775109(+) TCAACG/ATAGGG 2 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.03WA 118

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CTU2 (88772871 - 88781794 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for CTU2 (see all 29):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2715025CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2715026CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv1927CNV Insertion18451855
    esv1056304CNV Insertion17803354
    nsv907311CNV Loss21882294
    nsv833327CNV Loss17160897
    nsv907278CNV Loss21882294
    nsv907268CNV Loss21882294
    dgv2987n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv2986n71CNV Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing CTU2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for CTU2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    2 diseases for CTU2:    About MalaCards
    exotropia    malaria

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for CTU2:
    Exotropia

    CTU2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Export disorders for CTU2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for CTU2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 15):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CTU2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A functional proteomics approach links the ubiquitin-related modifier Urm1 to a tRNA modification pathway. (PubMed id 19017811)1, 2, 3 Schlieker C.D....Ploegh H.L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008)
    2. MMS19 assembles iron-sulfur proteins required for DNA metabolism and genomic integrity. (PubMed id 22678362)1 Stehling O.... Lill R. (Science 2012)
    3. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin-modified proteome. (PubMed id 21906983)1 Kim W....Gygi S.P. (Mol. Cell 2011)
    4. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    5. Global identification of modular cullin-RING ligase substrates. (PubMed id 21963094)1 Emanuele M.J....Elledge S.J. (Cell 2011)
    6. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis. (PubMed id 20068231)2 Olsen J.V....Mann M. (Sci. Signal. 2010)
    7. Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height. (PubMed id 20881960)1 Lango Allen H....Hirschhorn J.N. (Nature 2010)
    8. Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. (PubMed id 19413330)2 Gauci S....Mohammed S. (Anal. Chem. 2009)
    9. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions. (PubMed id 19690332)2 Mayya V.... Han D.K. (Sci. Signal. 2009)
    10. A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation. (PubMed id 18669648)2 Dephoure N.... Gygi S.P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    NCBI Bookshelf
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 348180 HGNC: 28005 Ensembl:ENSG00000174177 euGenes: HUgn348180 ECgene: CTU2 Kegg: 348180
    H-InvDB: CTU2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for CTU2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for CTU2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving CTU2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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