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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

CTU1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 48
GCID: GC19M051601

Cytosolic Thiouridylase Subunit 1

(Previous names: ATP binding domain 3, cytosolic thiouridylase subunit 1...)
(Previous symbol: ATPBD3)
  Search for CTU1
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Cytosolic Thiouridylase Subunit 11 2     Cytosolic Thiouridylase Subunit 1 Homolog (S. Pombe)1
ATPBD31 2 3 5     Cancer-Associated Protein2
ATP Binding Domain 31 2     Cytoplasmic TRNA 2-Thiolation Protein 12
Cancer-Associated Gene Protein2 3     Cytosolic Thiouridylase Subunit 1 Homolog2
Cytoplasmic TRNA Adenylyltransferase 12 3     EC 2.7.7.-3
NCS62 3     EC 2.7.78
ATP-Binding Domain-Containing Protein 32 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 295901   Entrez Gene: 903532   Ensembl: ENSG000001425447   OMIM: 6126945   UniProtKB: Q7Z7A33   

Export aliases for CTU1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC19M056295 GC19M047934


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

GeneCards Summary for CTU1 Gene: 
CTU1 (cytosolic thiouridylase subunit 1) is a protein-coding gene. Among its related super-pathways are Molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis. GO annotations related to this gene include tRNA binding and transferase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTU1_HUMAN, Q7Z7A3
Function: Plays a central role in 2-thiolation of mcm(5)S(2)U at tRNA wobble positions of tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Glu) and
tRNA(Gln). Directly binds tRNAs and probably acts by catalyzing adenylation of tRNAs, an intermediate required
for 2-thiolation. It is unclear whether it acts as a sulfurtransferase that transfers sulfur from
thiocarboxylated URM1 onto the uridine of tRNAs at wobble position




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000019.9  NC_018930.2  NT_011109.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Search SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites for CTU1
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for CTU1

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat CTU1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 19q13.41   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  19q13.41   HGNC cytogenetic band: 19q13.41

CTU1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CTU1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 19         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC19M051601:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
51,600,863 bp from pter      End:
51,611,647 bp from pter
Size:
10,785 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTU1_HUMAN, Q7Z7A3 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 1  
Size: 348 amino acids; 36450 Da
Subunit: Component of a complex at least composed of URM1, CTU2/NCS2 and CTU1/ATPBD3. May form a heterodimer with
CTU2/NCS2
Subcellular location: Cytoplasm
Secondary accessions: A8K558 Q96GZ7

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CTU1: NX_Q7Z7A3

Explore proteomics data for CTU1 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q7Z7A3

  • 4/8 DME Specific Peptides for CTU1 (Q7Z7A3) (see all 8)
     AETVLMN  SGQALCG  TGHNADD  LEAARPSA 

    CTU1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    CTU1 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_660275.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000390011  

    Human Recombinant Protein Products for CTU1: 
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    Novus Biologicals CTU1 Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for CTU1 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--
    GO:0005829cytosol ISS--

    CTU1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    CTU1 Antibody Products: 
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for CTU1 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for CTU1


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR011063 tRNA-lysidine/thiocyt_synth
     IPR012089 2-thiocytidine_tRNA_synth_TtcA
     IPR014729 Rossmann-like_a/b/a_fold

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q7Z7A3

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q7Z7A3

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000541 Protein of unknown function UPF0021
    IPB011063 PP-loop


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTU1_HUMAN, Q7Z7A3
    Similarity: Belongs to the TtcA family. CTU1/NCS6/ATPBD3 subfamily


    CTU1 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CTU1_HUMAN, Q7Z7A3
    Function: Plays a central role in 2-thiolation of mcm(5)S(2)U at tRNA wobble positions of tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Glu) and
    tRNA(Gln). Directly binds tRNAs and probably acts by catalyzing adenylation of tRNAs, an intermediate required
    for 2-thiolation. It is unclear whether it acts as a sulfurtransferase that transfers sulfur from
    thiocarboxylated URM1 onto the uridine of tRNAs at wobble position

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.7.-1 EC 2.7.72

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000049tRNA binding IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI19017811
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
    GO:0016740transferase activity IEA--
         
    CTU1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for CTU1 
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    miRNA
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CTU1


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for CTU1 About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis
    Sulfur relay system0.33

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways



    1         Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for CTU1):
        Sulfur relay system

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTU1_HUMAN, Q7Z7A3
    Pathway: tRNA modification; 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine-tRNA biosynthesis


    CTU1 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for CTU1

    5/66 Interacting proteins for CTU1 (Q7Z7A33) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 66)

    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PIN1Q135263I2D: score=3 
    COTL1Q140193I2D: score=2 
    CTPS1P178123I2D: score=2 
    MAPRE1Q156913I2D: score=2 
    RPSAP088653I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002098tRNA wobble uridine modification NAS19017811
    GO:0008033tRNA processing ----
    GO:0034227tRNA thio-modification NAS19017811

    CTU1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for CTU1

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about CTU1

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for CTU1 gene: 
    NM_145232.3  

    Unigene Cluster for CTU1:

    Cytosolic thiouridylase subunit 1 homolog (S. pombe)
    Hs.148425  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_145232
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000421832(uc010eop.3)
    miRNA
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    Clone
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CTU1
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of CTU1 
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    Primer
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      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CTU1
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CTU1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK291173.1 BC009037.2 

    2 DOTS entries:

    DT.95369229  DT.75103154 

    24/41 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 41):

    CK823003 CR608929 BX282661 CR597220 CK823037 CK823002 BU632056 AI651542 
    NM_145232 BC009037 CA424069 BE407299 BX440723 BQ100968 BX380318 AI376601 
    AI831882 CK823036 AW262002 BE409635 BX363108 BU633522 BQ684480 CD515538 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    CTU1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AACTTCCTAC
    CTU1 Expression
    About this image


    See CTU1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.148425
        SABiosciences Custom PCR Arrays for CTU1
    Primer
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CTU1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for CTU1 gene from 5/13 species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ctu11 , 5 cytosolic thiouridylase subunit 1 homolog (S. pombe)1, 5 81.78(n)1
    88.08(a)1
      7 (28.26 cM)5
    2331891  NM_145582.11  NP_663557.11 
     436720165 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc553952 hypothetical protein MGC55395 77.74(n)   393098  BC044158.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG80786
    --
    48(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    2R(4984436-4985972)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea tut-16
    Cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 1
    39(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    IV(119274-121711)
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes NCS66
    Protein required for thiolation of the uridine at ...
    43(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    VII(92512-93591)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CTU1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CTU1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for CTU1 gene

    CTU1 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for CTU1
    PGOHUM00000259416


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/273 SNPs in CTU1 are shown (see all 273)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 19 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1396237081,2
    C--51600398(+) TGATG-/TG    
       CTTAC
    TGCTT
    1 -- ds50010--------
    rs25695031,2
    C,A--51600404(+) TGCTTA/GCTGTC 1 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- G:0.20WA NA CSA 5
    rs25695041,2
    C,F,A--51600576(+) AGTGAG/AGACAG 1 -- ds500112Minor allele frequency- A:0.30NA WA CSA EA 375
    rs1168236651,2
    C,F--51600638(+) GAGGAG/CAGAAT 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- C:0.03WA 118
    rs730510821,2
    C,F--51600666(+) GGACCC/TTGGAG 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- T:0.05NA 120
    rs361204991,2
    C--51600772(+) AGTTT-/GAGATTC 1 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- GA:0.25NA CSA 4
    rs104033521,2
    C,F--51600909(+) TCTTCC/TATTTC 1 -- ut312Minor allele frequency- T:0.15WA 120
    rs104039421,2
    C,F,A,H--51600921(+) TCCCAA/GTGGTG 1 -- ut3120Minor allele frequency- G:0.46NS EA WA NA CSA 2227
    rs671228411,2
    C--51600945(-) CCCCG-/CCCCCC 1 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA 2
    rs129740981,2
    C--51600952(+) GGGGGC/GGGGGG 1 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CTU1 (51600863 - 51611647 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for CTU1:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv912293CNV Loss21882294
    esv34104CNV Loss18971310
    nsv912292CNV Loss21882294

    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

    CTU1 for disorders           About MalaCards
    OMIM gene information: 612694    OMIM disorders: --


    CTU1 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): CTU1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: CTU1 (1 document)

    Export disorders for CTU1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for CTU1 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 11):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CTU1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A functional proteomics approach links the ubiquitin-related modifier Urm1 to a tRNA modification pathway. (PubMed id 19017811)1, 2, 3 Schlieker C.D....Ploegh H.L. (2008)
    2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gen es influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (2010)
    3. A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization. (PubMed id 16964243)1, 2 Beausoleil S.A.... Gygi S.P. (2006)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)
    5. MMS19 assembles iron-sulfur proteins required for DNA metabolism and genomic integrity. (PubMed id 22678362)1 Stehling O....Lill R. (2012)
    6. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis. (PubMed id 20068231)2 Olsen J.V....Mann M. (2010)
    7. Kinase-selective enrichment enables quantitative phosphoproteomics of the kinome across the cell cycle. (PubMed id 18691976)2 Daub H.... Mann M. (2008)
    8. A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation. (PubMed id 18669648)2 Dephoure N.... Gygi S.P. (2008)
    9. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (2004)
    10. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (2002)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 90353 HGNC: 29590 AceView: LOC90353 Ensembl:ENSG00000142544 euGenes: HUgn90353
    ECgene: CTU1 Kegg: 90353 H-InvDB: CTU1

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for CTU1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for CTU1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving CTU1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
    About This Section

     
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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    (GIFtS: 73)
    transforming growth factor, beta 1
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