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Aliases for CST9 Gene

Aliases for CST9 Gene

  • Cystatin 9 2 3 5
  • Cystatin-Like Molecule 3 4
  • Testatin 2 3
  • CTES7A 3 4
  • CLM 3 4
  • Cystatin-9 3

External Ids for CST9 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CST9 Gene

  • GC20M023579
  • GC20M023532
  • GC20M023534
  • GC20M023535
  • GC20M023536
  • GC20M023537
  • GC20M023538
  • GC20M023539
  • GC20M023541

Summaries for CST9 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CST9 Gene

  • The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions, where they appear to provide protective functions. The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a secreted protein that may play a role in hematopoietic differentiation or inflammation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for CST9 Gene

CST9 (Cystatin 9) is a Protein Coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is CST9L.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CST9 Gene

  • May be involved in testis development (By similarity). May play a role in hematopoietic differentiation or inflammation (PubMed:12535658). Has immunomodulatory and antimicrobial functions against Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:23922243).

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CST9 Gene

Genomics for CST9 Gene

Regulatory Elements for CST9 Gene

Enhancers for CST9 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH20F023658 1.4 FANTOM5 ENCODE 12.5 -54.3 -54317 3.9 HDGF MLX ZFP64 ARID4B YBX1 DMAP1 SLC30A9 ZNF207 FOS PAF1 ENSG00000230908 CST13P ENSG00000260202 CST8 CST12P CST11 POM121L3P LOC100419956 CST9L CST9
GH20F023628 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 11.1 -23.6 -23591 2.3 PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF48 SLC30A9 FOS PAF1 SP5 NFYC CST3 CST9 GZF1 ENSG00000270001
GH20F023653 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 10.8 -48.9 -48929 3.8 HDGF ATF1 ZNF76 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 RAD21 YY1 ZNF335 ZNF121 CST9 CSTL1 NAPB CST3 ENSG00000225056
GH20F023657 1 Ensembl 10.8 -51.2 -51228 0.4 ATF1 CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 ZNF121 GLIS2 ZNF143 KLF7 CST9 CSTL1 CST3 ENSG00000225056 LOC105372573
GH20F023404 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 9.7 +201.7 201673 0.6 MXI1 SAP130 HLF SIN3A CEBPB MNT CEBPG TEAD3 CEBPA FOSL2 NAPB ENSG00000234832 NXT1 CST9 CSTL1 RNA5SP479 GC20M023381
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around CST9 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for CST9 Gene

23,602,410 bp from pter
23,605,973 bp from pter
3,564 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CST9 Gene

Genes around CST9 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CST9 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CST9 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CST9 Gene

Proteins for CST9 Gene

  • Protein details for CST9 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RP76
    • Q8TD53

    Protein attributes for CST9 Gene

    159 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18135 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for CST9 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CST9 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for CST9 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CST9 Gene

Domains & Families for CST9 Gene

Gene Families for CST9 Gene

Protein Domains for CST9 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CST9 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the cystatin family.
  • Belongs to the cystatin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CST9: view

Function for CST9 Gene

Molecular function for CST9 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May be involved in testis development (By similarity). May play a role in hematopoietic differentiation or inflammation (PubMed:12535658). Has immunomodulatory and antimicrobial functions against Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:23922243).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), in some cancer cells such as promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) or myelomonocytic leukemia cells (U-937).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CST9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002020 protease binding IBA --
GO:0004869 cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IBA --
GO:0030414 peptidase inhibitor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CST9: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CST9: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for CST9

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CST9 Gene

Localization for CST9 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CST9 Gene

Secreted. Note=May be targeted through the Golgi via the secretory pathway. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12535658}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CST9 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 1
cytosol 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CST9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CST9: view

Pathways & Interactions for CST9 Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for CST9 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CST9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0010466 negative regulation of peptidase activity IEA --
GO:0019730 antimicrobial humoral response IDA 23922243
GO:2000117 negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CST9: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for CST9 Gene

Transcripts for CST9 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CST9 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(32) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for CST9 Gene

Cystatin 9 (testatin):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CST9 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CST9 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CST9 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for CST9 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CST9 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast - Mammary Tissue (x26.5), Esophagus - Muscularis (x11.8), Kidney - Cortex (x5.4), and Esophagus - Gastroesophageal Junction (x4.3).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CST9 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CST9 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CST9 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas (PubMed:12535658). Not expressed in brain (PubMed:12535658). Expressed in epididymis, kidney, testis, spinal cord, and thymus with a strong expression in epididymis and kidney and a weak expression in the spinal cord and thymus (PubMed:20565543).
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CST9: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for CST9 Gene

Orthologs for CST9 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for CST9 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CST9 34 35
  • 98.53 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cst9 35
  • 42 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MGC133636 35
  • 30 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 26 (a)
Species where no ortholog for CST9 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for CST9 Gene

Gene Tree for CST9 (if available)
Gene Tree for CST9 (if available)

Paralogs for CST9 Gene

Paralogs for CST9 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for CST9 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins: Pseudogenes for CST9 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CST9: view

Variants for CST9 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CST9 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs111449996 -- 23,605,216(+) TCTGT(C/T)TCTCT intron-variant
rs111652256 -- 23,607,106(+) ATACT(G/T)TGAGT upstream-variant-2KB
rs111811865 -- 23,605,212(+) TCTGT(C/G/T)TGTCT intron-variant
rs112519856 -- 23,605,214(+) TGTCT(C/G)TCTCT intron-variant
rs112739827 -- 23,603,974(+) CAGAC(C/T)CCACT intron-variant

Variation tolerance for CST9 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 81.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.03; 75.08% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for CST9 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CST9 Gene

Disorders for CST9 Gene

Relevant External Links for CST9

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for CST9 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CST9 Gene

Publications for CST9 Gene

  1. Evolution and human tissue expression of the Cres/Testatin subgroup genes, a reproductive tissue specific subgroup of the type 2 cystatins. (PMID: 20565543) Frygelius J. … TAPhAPnen V. (Evol. Dev. 2010) 2 3 4 64
  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel cystatin-like molecule, CLM, from human bone marrow stromal cells. (PMID: 12535658) Sun H. … Cao X. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003) 3 4 22 64
  3. Immunomodulatory and antibacterial effects of cystatin 9 against Francisella tularensis. (PMID: 23922243) Eaves-Pyles T. … Almeida I.C. (Mol. Med. 2013) 3 4 64
  4. New loci associated with kidney function and chronic kidney disease. (PMID: 20383146) KAPttgen A. … Fox C.S. (Nat. Genet. 2010) 3 46 64
  5. A genome-wide association for kidney function and endocrine-related traits in the NHLBI's Framingham Heart Study. (PMID: 17903292) Hwang S.J. … Fox C.S. (BMC Med. Genet. 2007) 3 46 64

Products for CST9 Gene

Sources for CST9 Gene

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