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CST6 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 54
GCID: GC11P065779

Cystatin E/M

  See CST6-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Cystatin E/M1 2     cystatin-E2
Cystatin 62     cystatin-M2
Cystatin M2     Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitor2
Cystatin M/E2     Cystatin-63
cystatin-62     Cystatin-E3

External Ids:    HGNC: 24781   Entrez Gene: 14742   Ensembl: ENSG000001753157   OMIM: 6018915   UniProtKB: Q158283   

Export aliases for CST6 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC11P068313 GC11P067460 GC11P066029 GC11P065554 GC11P065536 GC11P062105


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for CST6 Gene:
The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members
are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory
activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type
2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found
in a variety of human fluids and secretions, where they appear to provide protective functions. This gene encodes
a cystatin from the type 2 family, which is down-regulated in metastatic breast tumor cells as compared to
primary tumor cells. Loss of expression is likely associated with the progression of a primary tumor to a
metastatic phenotype. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for CST6 Gene:
CST6 (cystatin E/M) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with CST6 include papillary thyroid carcinoma, and breast cancer. GO annotations related to this gene include cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is CST7.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CYTM_HUMAN, Q15828
Function: Shows moderate inhibition of cathepsin B but is not active against cathepsin C

Gene Wiki entry for CST6 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000011.9  NC_018922.2  NT_167190.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the CST6 gene promoter:
         NF-1   NF-1/L   E47   RORalpha1   STAT3   Hand1   c-Myb   FOXO1a   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): CST6 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CST6

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CST6


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11q13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11q13.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11q13

CST6 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CST6 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11P065779:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
65,779,312 bp from pter      End:
65,780,976 bp from pter
Size:
1,665 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CYTM_HUMAN, Q15828 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Cystatin-M precursor  
Size: 149 amino acids; 16511 Da
Secondary accessions: Q540N7

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CST6: NX_Q15828

Explore proteomics data for CST6 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Substrate for transglutaminases. Acts as an acyl acceptor but not as an acyl donor1
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn137

  • See CST6 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_001314.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000311313  

    CST6 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for CST6
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for CST6

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for CST6 

    CST6 Antibody Products:

    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
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    Novus Biologicals CST6 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for CST6 (Q15828, P04080, Q76LA1)
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for CST6
    Search ThermoFisher Antibodies for CST6
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for CST6

    CST6 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for CST6
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for CST6
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for CST6 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR018073 Prot_inh_cystat_CS
     IPR000010 Prot_inh_cystat
     IPR027214 Cystatin

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q15828

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q15828

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000010 Cysteine protease inhibitor
    IPB003243 Proteinase inhibitor I25A and I25B


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CYTM_HUMAN, Q15828
    Similarity: Belongs to the cystatin family


    Find genes that share domains with CST6           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CYTM_HUMAN, Q15828
    Function: Shows moderate inhibition of cathepsin B but is not active against cathepsin C

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for CST6:
    cystatin M,member of type 2 cystatin gene family,found at high levels in saliva,tears,seminal plasma,type 2 family

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004869cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with CST6           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         5 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Cst6):
     cellular  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  integument  mortality/aging 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with CST6           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for CST6
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for CST6

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for CST6
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for CST6

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target CST6:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT018413)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CST6 using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CST6
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CST6

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CST6 (NM_001323)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for CST6
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CST6

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CST6


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    CYTM_HUMAN, Q15828: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    cytoskeleton2
    cytosol1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001533cornified envelope IEA--
    GO:0005576extracellular region IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with CST6           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including CST6: 
              Breast Cancer in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CST6

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see more details)

    3 Interacting proteins for CST6 (Q158282, 3 ENSP000003113134) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GSK3BP498412, 3MINT-8257053 I2D: score=2 
    PRKAB1Q9Y4783I2D: score=1 
    VHLENSP000002564744STRING: ENSP00000256474
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0008544epidermis development IEA--
    GO:0009653anatomical structure morphogenesis TAS9099741
    GO:0010951negative regulation of endopeptidase activity TAS8995380

    Find genes that share ontologies with CST6           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for CST6 (CYTM)

    4 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CST6 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cysteine 69.8 25 9099741 (3), 16150465 (3), 14676833 (2), 12839564 (1) (see all 17)
    5-aza-2'deoxycytidine 62.4 5 17043665 (1), 17099723 (1), 16912163 (1)
    matrigel 57.6 6 20074384 (2), 19503093 (1), 14676833 (1), 15466187 (1)
    kininogen 54.5 1 9099741 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with CST6           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for CST6 gene: 
    NM_001323.3  

    Unigene Cluster for CST6:

    Cystatin E/M
    Hs.139389  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK092391
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000312134(uc001ogr.3)
    miRNA
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    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CST6
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for CST6 (see all 6)
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CST6 (NM_001323)
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CST6
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for CST6
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for CST6
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat CST6
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CST6
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CST6

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK092391.1 BC031334.1 CR456872.1 U62800.1 U81233.1 

    2 DOTS entries:

    DT.114401  DT.120738888 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 72):

    AI188465 AI198474 NM_001323 BF765573 BM761733 BE503775 AW129328 AI916287 
    BC031334 AA128615 AI127958 AA418973 AI333946 AI160877 AI431604 AA410568 
    AI368578 BF195591 U62800 AX747517 AA778147 BF198119 BM761376 CF529874 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    CST6 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GTGGAGGGCA
    CST6 Expression
    About this image


    CST6 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
     
     Hair (Integumentary System)
             Bulge Stem Cells Bulge
     
     Heart (Cardiovascular System)
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)
     
     Placenta (Extraembryonic Tissues)
    CST6 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    CST6 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.139389

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CYTM_HUMAN, Q15828
    Tissue specificity: Restricted to the stratum granulosum of normal skin, the stratum granulosum/spinosum of
    psoriatic skin, and the secretory coils of eccrine sweat glands. Low expression levels are found in the nasal
    cavity

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including CST6: 
              Breast Cancer in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CST6

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for CST6 gene from Selected species (see all 8)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Cst61 , 5 cystatin E/M1, 5 80.09(n)1
    69.13(a)1
      19 (4.30 cM)5
    737201  NM_028623.51  NP_082899.11 
     53447055 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    Uncharacterized protein
    41(a)
    28(a)
    1 ↔ many
    1 ↔ many
    GL343575.1(312504-329722)
    GL343575.1(289224-296527)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CST6 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CST6 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for CST6 gene
    CST72  
    8 SIMAP similar genes for CST6 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     CYTM_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    CSTL1    CST3    CST5    CST2    CST7    CST1
    CST8    CST4

    Find genes that share paralogs with CST6           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for CST6 (see all 99)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs6160731,2
    C,A,H--62103546(-) CTGGGC/TGTGGT 1 -- us2k15Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 10
    rs1874603381,2
    --65777539(+) TCAGCA/GTTCCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs6156461,2
    C--65777544(-) ttcagC/Tggaat 1 -- us2k18Minor allele frequency- T:0.14NA WA CSA 133
    rs71136611,2
    C--65777665(+) tccctA/Gaagtt 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1905701591,2
    --65777746(+) TGACCA/GACAAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs790775461,2
    C--65777754(+) AATTAA/CCTGAC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1871334871,2
    --65777782(+) TCCCCC/GTTTCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1479827961,2
    C--65777899(+) GTCTC-/TTGTCTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1919147871,2
    --65777921(+) GTTTGC/TCCGGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1478549631,2
    C--65777936(+) TTCAGA/TCCCCC 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CST6 (65779312 - 65780976 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for CST6:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv1186n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv832191CNV Loss17160897
    nsv825952CNV Gain20364138

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing CST6
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for CST6

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 601891    OMIM disorders: --

    2 diseases for CST6:    
    About MalaCards
    papillary thyroid carcinoma    breast cancer


    Find genes that share disorders with CST6           About GenesLikeMe

    10 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CST6 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    harlequin ichthyosis 84.3 7 12839564 (4), 15044380 (1)
    primary tumor 51.2 13 17540367 (4), 12798398 (2), 15466187 (1), 20004178 (1) (see all 6)
    breast cancer metastatic 42.3 4 17043665 (1), 15792117 (1), 17540367 (1)
    breast cancer 40.7 31 17043665 (5), 19551853 (4), 15466187 (3), 17099723 (3) (see all 10)
    breast carcinoma 36.3 12 17099723 (6), 14676833 (1), 16912163 (1), 15792117 (1)
    metastasis 34.7 16 17540367 (4), 12798398 (2), 15466187 (2), 19503093 (1) (see all 6)
    premalignant 31.2 3 17043665 (1), 14676833 (1)
    tumors 30 43 19551853 (5), 16912163 (4), 17540367 (3), 15466187 (3) (see all 14)
    nsclc 14.4 1 17043644 (1)
    cancer 7.65 3 14676833 (1), 17099723 (1), 16912163 (1)


    Export disorders for CST6 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for CST6 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 54):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CST6)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cystatin E is a novel human cysteine proteinase inhibitor with structural resemblance to family 2 cystatins. (PubMed id 9099741)1, 2, 3, 9 Ni J.... Gentz R. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997)
    2. The human cystatin M/E gene (CST6): exclusion candidate gene for harlequin ichthyosis. (PubMed id 12839564)1, 2, 9 Zeeuwen P.L.... Schalkwijk J. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 2003)
    3. Cystatin M/E expression is restricted to differentiated epidermal keratinocytes and sweat glands: a new skin-specific proteinase inhibitor that is a target for cross-linking by transglutaminase. (PubMed id 11348457)1, 2, 9 Zeeuwen P.L.... Schalkwijk J. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 2001)
    4. Identification, cloning, and characterization of cystatin M, a novel cysteine proteinase inhibitor, down-regulated in breast cancer. (PubMed id 8995380)1, 2, 9 Sotiropoulou G.... Sager R. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997)
    5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    6. Assignment of a novel cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CST6) to 11q13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (PubMed id 9154125)1, 3 Stenman G....Sager R. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1997)
    7. Methylation-dependent silencing of CST6 in primary human breast tumors and metastatic lesions. (PubMed id 17540367)1, 9 Rivenbark A.G....Coleman W.B. (Exp. Mol. Pathol. 2007)
    8. DNA methylation-dependent silencing of CST6 in human breast cancer cell lines. (PubMed id 17043665)1, 9 Rivenbark A.G....Coleman W.B. ( a journal of technical methods and pathology 2006)
    9. Invasion suppressor cystatin E/M (CST6): high-level cell type-specific expression in normal brain and epigenetic silencing in gliomas. (PubMed id 18607344)1, 9 Qiu J....Robertson K.D. ( a journal of technical methods and pathology 2008)
    10. Frequent epigenetic inactivation of cystatin M in breast carcinoma. (PubMed id 17099723)1, 9 Schagdarsurengin U....Dammann R. (Oncogene 2007)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 1474 HGNC: 2478 AceView: CST6 Ensembl:ENSG00000175315 euGenes: HUgn1474
    ECgene: CST6 H-InvDB: CST6

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for CST6 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for CST6 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

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    Patent Information for CST6 gene:
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