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Aliases for CST4 Gene

Aliases for CST4 Gene

  • Cystatin S 2 3
  • Salivary Acidic Protein 1 3 4
  • Cystatin-SA-III 3 4
  • Cystatin-4 3 4
  • Cystatin 4 3
  • Cystatin-S 3

External Ids for CST4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CST4 Gene

  • GC20M023654
  • GC20M023661
  • GC20M023614
  • GC20M023666
  • GC20M023626

Summaries for CST4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CST4 Gene

  • The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a type 2 salivary cysteine peptidase inhibitor. The protein is an S-type cystatin, based on its high level of expression in saliva, tears and seminal plasma. The specific role in these fluids is unclear but antibacterial and antiviral activity is present, consistent with a protective function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for CST4 Gene

CST4 (Cystatin S) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CST4 include blepharitis and colorectal cancer. Among its related pathways are Salivary secretion. GO annotations related to this gene include cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is CST2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CST4 Gene

  • This protein strongly inhibits papain and ficin, partially inhibits stem bromelain and bovine cathepsin C, but does not inhibit porcine cathepsin B or clostripain. Papain is inhibited non-competitively

Gene Wiki entry for CST4 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CST4 Gene

Genomics for CST4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for CST4 Gene

Genomic Location for CST4 Gene

23,685,640 bp from pter
23,689,040 bp from pter
3,401 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CST4 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for CST4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CST4 Gene

Proteins for CST4 Gene

  • Protein details for CST4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UBI5
    • Q9UCS9

    Protein attributes for CST4 Gene

    141 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    16214 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for CST4 Gene

Proteomics data for CST4 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for CST4 Gene

Other Protein References for CST4 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CST4 Gene

Domains for CST4 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CST4 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P01036
  • Belongs to the cystatin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CST4: view

No data available for Gene Families for CST4 Gene

Function for CST4 Gene

Molecular function for CST4 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: cystatin S,cysteine proteinase inhibitor,expressed at high levels in saliva,tears,seminal plasma,type 2 family
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: This protein strongly inhibits papain and ficin, partially inhibits stem bromelain and bovine cathepsin C, but does not inhibit porcine cathepsin B or clostripain. Papain is inhibited non-competitively

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CST4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004869 cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IDA 3488317
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CST4: view

Phenotypes for CST4 Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for CST4:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CST4: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for CST4 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CST4

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CST4

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for CST4 Gene

Localization for CST4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CST4 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for CST4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CST4 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
lysosome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CST4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 22664934
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19199708
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CST4: view

Pathways for CST4 Gene

SuperPathways for CST4 Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Salivary secretion
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CST4: view

Pathways by source for CST4 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for CST4 Gene

Interacting Proteins for CST4 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 2 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000217423 P01036-CYTS_HUMAN for CST4 Gene via STRING I2D

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CST4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001580 detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste IDA 24248522
GO:0001895 retina homeostasis IEP 23580065
GO:0010951 negative regulation of endopeptidase activity IEA --
GO:0045861 negative regulation of proteolysis IDA 3488317
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CST4: view

Transcripts for CST4 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CST4 Gene

(198) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(4) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for CST4 Gene

Cystatin S:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CST4

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CST4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CST4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CST4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CST4 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CST4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (21.3), Prostate (19.3), and Uterus (5.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for CST4 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CST4 Gene Hs.654549

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CST4 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in submandibular and sublingual saliva but not in parotid saliva (at protein level). Expressed in saliva, tears, urine and seminal fluid.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with CST4: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for CST4 Gene

Orthologs for CST4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CST4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CST4 36
  • 94 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CST3 36
  • 47 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 52 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cst10 36
  • 36 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 39 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 34 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves gga-mir-3526 36
  • 36 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 39 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cst3 36
  • 30 (a)
Species with no ortholog for CST4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CST4 Gene

Gene Tree for CST4 (if available)
Gene Tree for CST4 (if available)

Paralogs for CST4 Gene

Paralogs for CST4 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for CST4 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins: Pseudogenes for CST4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CST4: view

Variants for CST4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CST4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2282378 -- 23,686,053(+) TGTCA(C/G)AGCCT intron-variant
rs2405661 -- 23,686,104(+) CCCCT(A/G)CTGAG intron-variant
rs2405662 -- 23,686,118(+) CAGAG(C/T)ACTGA intron-variant
rs2405663 -- 23,686,119(+) AGAGC(A/G)CTGAA intron-variant
rs2405664 -- 23,686,134(+) AATGA(A/G)TAGTG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CST4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv458950 CNV Loss 19166990
esv2722303 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv458952 CNV Gain 19166990
nsv912821 CNV Gain+Loss 21882294
nsv482066 CNV Gain 20164927

Relevant External Links for CST4 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CST4 Gene

Disorders for CST4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (2) Diseases for CST4 Gene including...

Search for CST4 Gene in MalaCards »

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for CST4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CST4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CST4 Gene

Publications for CST4 Gene

  1. Salivary cystatin SA-III, a potential precursor of the acquired enamel pellicle, is phosphorylated at both its amino- and carboxyl- terminal regions. (PMID: 1898055) Lamkin M.S. … Oppenheim F.G. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1991) 3 4 23
  2. Characterization of two members (CST4 and CST5) of the cystatin gene family and molecular evolution of cystatin genes. (PMID: 1334620) Saitoh E. … Ohnishi K. (Agents Actions 1992) 3 4
  3. The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20. (PMID: 11780052) Deloukas P. … Rogers J. (Nature 2001) 3 4
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4
  5. The effects of human salivary cystatins and statherin on hydroxyapatite crystallization. (PMID: 1741693) Johnsson M. … Nancollas G.H. (Arch. Oral Biol. 1991) 3 4

Products for CST4 Gene

Sources for CST4 Gene

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