Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for CST4 Gene

Aliases for CST4 Gene

  • Cystatin S 2 3 5
  • Salivary Acidic Protein 1 3 4
  • Cystatin-SA-III 3 4
  • Cystatin-4 3 4
  • Cystatin 4 3

External Ids for CST4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CST4 Gene

  • GC20M023654
  • GC20M023661
  • GC20M023614
  • GC20M023666
  • GC20M023626

Summaries for CST4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CST4 Gene

  • The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a type 2 salivary cysteine peptidase inhibitor. The protein is an S-type cystatin, based on its high level of expression in saliva, tears and seminal plasma. The specific role in these fluids is unclear but antibacterial and antiviral activity is present, consistent with a protective function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for CST4 Gene

CST4 (Cystatin S) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Salivary secretion. GO annotations related to this gene include cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is CST2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CST4 Gene

  • This protein strongly inhibits papain and ficin, partially inhibits stem bromelain and bovine cathepsin C, but does not inhibit porcine cathepsin B or clostripain. Papain is inhibited non-competitively.

Gene Wiki entry for CST4 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CST4 Gene

Genomics for CST4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for CST4 Gene

Enhancers for CST4 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around CST4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for CST4 Gene

23,685,640 bp from pter
23,689,040 bp from pter
3,401 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CST4 Gene

Genes around CST4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CST4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CST4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CST4 Gene

Proteins for CST4 Gene

  • Protein details for CST4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UBI5
    • Q9UCS9

    Protein attributes for CST4 Gene

    141 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    16214 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for CST4 Gene

Proteomics data for CST4 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for CST4 Gene

Other Protein References for CST4 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CST4 Gene

Domains & Families for CST4 Gene

Gene Families for CST4 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CST4 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the cystatin family.
  • Belongs to the cystatin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CST4: view

Function for CST4 Gene

Molecular function for CST4 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
cystatin S,cysteine proteinase inhibitor,expressed at high levels in saliva,tears,seminal plasma,type 2 family
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
This protein strongly inhibits papain and ficin, partially inhibits stem bromelain and bovine cathepsin C, but does not inhibit porcine cathepsin B or clostripain. Papain is inhibited non-competitively.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CST4: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for CST4 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CST4

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CST4 Gene

Localization for CST4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CST4 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for CST4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CST4 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
lysosome 2
vacuole 2
cytosol 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CST4 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for CST4 Gene

SuperPathways for CST4 Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Salivary secretion
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CST4: view

Pathways by source for CST4 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for CST4 Gene

Interacting Proteins for CST4 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 2 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000217423 P01036-CYTS_HUMAN for CST4 Gene via STRING I2D

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CST4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001580 detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste IDA 24248522
GO:0001895 retina homeostasis IEP 23580065
GO:0010951 negative regulation of endopeptidase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CST4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CST4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CST4 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for CST4 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CST4 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(4) Additional mRNA sequences :
(198) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for CST4 Gene

Cystatin S:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CST4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CST4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CST4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CST4 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CST4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (x21.3), Prostate (x19.3), and Uterus (x5.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CST4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin (32.6), Salivary gland (24.9), and Saliva (10.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for CST4 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CST4 Gene Hs.654549

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CST4 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in submandibular and sublingual saliva but not in parotid saliva (at protein level). Expressed in saliva, tears, urine and seminal fluid.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CST4: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for CST4 Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for CST4 Gene

Orthologs for CST4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CST4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CST3 36
  • 47 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 52 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 39 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cst10 36
  • 36 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 34 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CST4 36
  • 94 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves gga-mir-3526 36
  • 36 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 39 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cst3 36
  • 30 (a)
Species with no ortholog for CST4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CST4 Gene

Gene Tree for CST4 (if available)
Gene Tree for CST4 (if available)

Paralogs for CST4 Gene

Paralogs for CST4 Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for CST4 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins: Pseudogenes for CST4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CST4: view

Variants for CST4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CST4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_036549 A breast cancer sample
rs3210291 - 23,688,864(-) TCTAT(A/G)ACGCA reference, missense
rs2282378 -- 23,686,053(+) TGTCA(C/G)AGCCT intron-variant
rs3761284 -- 23,689,819(+) taata(C/T)agcca upstream-variant-2KB
rs3761285 -- 23,689,843(+) GCTAA(C/T)GGGAA upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CST4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv458950 CNV Loss 19166990
esv2722303 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv458952 CNV Gain 19166990
nsv912821 CNV Gain+Loss 21882294
nsv482066 CNV Gain 20164927

Variation tolerance for CST4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 94% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.69; 14.61% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for CST4 Gene

Disorders for CST4 Gene

Relevant External Links for CST4

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for CST4 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CST4 Gene

Publications for CST4 Gene

  1. Salivary cystatin SA-III, a potential precursor of the acquired enamel pellicle, is phosphorylated at both its amino- and carboxyl- terminal regions. (PMID: 1898055) Lamkin M.S. … Oppenheim F.G. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1991) 3 4 23 67
  2. The human cystatin gene family: cloning of three members and evolutionary relationship between cystatins and Bowman-Birk type proteinase inhibitors. (PMID: 1801729) Saitoh E. … Ohnishi K. (Biomed. Biochim. Acta 1991) 2 3
  3. Studies on the interactions of SAP-1 (an N-terminal truncated form of cystatin S) with its binding partners by CD-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. (PMID: 24261636) Yadav V.K. … Yadav S. (J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 2015) 3
  4. Proteomic analysis and identification of cellular interactors of the giant ubiquitin ligase HERC2. (PMID: 25476789) Galligan J.T. … Howley P.M. (J. Proteome Res. 2015) 3
  5. The BioPlex Network: A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome. (PMID: 26186194) Huttlin E.L. … Gygi S.P. (Cell 2015) 3

Products for CST4 Gene

Sources for CST4 Gene