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Aliases for CSH2 Gene

Aliases for CSH2 Gene

  • Chorionic Somatomammotropin Hormone 2 2 3
  • Placental Lactogen 2 3 4
  • Chorionic Somatomammotropin B 2 3
  • Choriomammotropin 3 4
  • Lactogen 3 4
  • CSB 3 6
  • PL 3 4
  • HCS-B 3
  • CS-2 3

External Ids for CSH2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CSH2 Gene

  • GC17M061599
  • GC17M064375
  • GC17M062290
  • GC17M062423
  • GC17M062426
  • GC17M059303
  • GC17M061949
  • GC17M057317

Summaries for CSH2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CSH2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the somatotropin/prolactin family of hormones and plays an important role in growth control. The gene is located at the growth hormone locus on chromosome 17 along with four other related genes in the same transcriptional orientation; an arrangement which is thought to have evolved by a series of gene duplications. Although the five genes share a remarkably high degree of sequence identity, they are expressed selectively in different tissues. Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms of each of the five growth hormones. This particular family member is expressed mainly in the placenta and utilizes multiple transcription initiation sites. Expression of the identical mature proteins for chorionic somatomammotropin hormones 1 and 2 is upregulated during development, while the ratio of 1 to 2 increases by term. Structural and expression differences provide avenues for developmental regulation and tissue specificity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for CSH2 Gene

CSH2 (Chorionic Somatomammotropin Hormone 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CSH2 include gestational trophoblastic neoplasm and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. An important paralog of this gene is CSHL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CSH2 Gene

  • Produced only during pregnancy and is involved in stimulating lactation, fetal growth and metabolism. Does not interact with GHR but only activates PRLR through zinc-induced dimerization.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CSH2 Gene

Genomics for CSH2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for CSH2 Gene

Genomic Location for CSH2 Gene

63,872,012 bp from pter
63,881,863 bp from pter
9,852 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CSH2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for CSH2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CSH2 Gene

Proteins for CSH2 Gene

  • Protein details for CSH2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P01243
    • Q0VDB1
    • Q14407

    Protein attributes for CSH2 Gene

    217 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    24994 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Can be found in a monomeric as well as dimeric form.
    • CSH2 sequence only differs from CSH1 sequence in 1 aa

    Alternative splice isoforms for CSH2 Gene


neXtProt entry for CSH2 Gene

Proteomics data for CSH2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for CSH2 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for CSH2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CSH2 Gene

Domains for CSH2 Gene

Protein Domains for CSH2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CSH2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P0DML3
  • Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CSH2: view

No data available for Gene Families for CSH2 Gene

Function for CSH2 Gene

Molecular function for CSH2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2 (see GH@)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Produced only during pregnancy and is involved in stimulating lactation, fetal growth and metabolism. Does not interact with GHR but only activates PRLR through zinc-induced dimerization.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CSH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CSH2: view

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CSH2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for CSH2 Gene

Localization for CSH2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CSH2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for CSH2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CSH2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CSH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CSH2: view

Pathways for CSH2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CSH2: view

Pathways by source for CSH2 Gene

Interacting Proteins for CSH2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CSH2 Gene


Transcripts for CSH2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for CSH2 Gene

Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CSH2

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CSH2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CSH2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CSH2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CSH2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CSH2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (29.0), Pituitary (6.8), Adipose - Subcutaneous (5.0), Brain - Cerebellum (4.8), and Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (4.5).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CSH2 Gene Hs.654515

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with CSH2: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Expression partners for CSH2 Gene

Orthologs for CSH2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CSH2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PL-D 35
  • 98.16 (n)
  • 97.24 (a)
CSHL1 36
  • 98 (a)
CSHL1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GH1 36
  • 63 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GH1 36
  • 63 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GH1 36
  • 57 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gh 36
  • 60 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GH1 36
  • 53 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 46 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gh1 36
  • 34 (a)
Species with no ortholog for CSH2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CSH2 Gene

Gene Tree for CSH2 (if available)
Gene Tree for CSH2 (if available)

Paralogs for CSH2 Gene

Paralogs for CSH2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for CSH2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CSH2: view

Variants for CSH2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CSH2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1050724 -- 63,872,252(-) AACTC(A/G)CACAA reference, synonymous-codon, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1058052 -- 63,872,388(-) TGGAT(A/G)AATGA intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1130670 -- 63,873,619(-) CCTAG(C/T)GGCAA utr-variant-5-prime
rs1811082 -- 63,872,555(-) GGGTC(A/G)CCAAT intron-variant, missense, reference
rs1811083 -- 63,872,425(-) AGGCC(C/T)TTCTC intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CSH2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv833510 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv510720 CNV Loss 20534489
nsv517272 CNV Gain+Loss 19592680
esv2716098 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv833511 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv436234 CNV Deletion 17901297
esv2716099 CNV Deletion 23290073

Relevant External Links for CSH2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CSH2 Gene

Disorders for CSH2 Gene

(1) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CSH2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
choriocarcinoma 73 2

Relevant External Links for CSH2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CSH2: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CSH2 Gene

Publications for CSH2 Gene

  1. Construction and analysis of recombinant DNA for human chorionic somatomammotropin. (PMID: 593368) Shine J. … Goodman H.M. (Nature 1977) 2 3 4
  2. Complex signatures of locus-specific selective pressures and gene conversion on human growth hormone/chorionic somatomammotropin genes. (PMID: 18473352) Sedman L. … Laan M. (Hum. Mutat. 2008) 4 23
  3. The human growth hormone locus: nucleotide sequence, biology, and evolution. (PMID: 2744760) Chen E.Y. … Seeburg P.H. (Genomics 1989) 3 4
  4. The human growth hormone gene locus: structure, evolution, and allelic variations. (PMID: 3030680) Hirt H. … Barta A. (DNA 1987) 3 4
  5. Amino acid sequence of human chorionic somatomammotropin. (PMID: 4712450) Li C.H. … Chung D. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1973) 3 4

Products for CSH2 Gene

Sources for CSH2 Gene

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