Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for CSF2 Gene

Aliases for CSF2 Gene

  • Colony Stimulating Factor 2 (Granulocyte-Macrophage) 2 3
  • Sargramostim 2 3 4
  • Molgramostin 2 3 4
  • GMCSF 3 4 6
  • CSF 3 4
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor 2
  • Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor 3
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor 3
  • Colony-Stimulating Factor 4
  • GM-CSF 4

External Ids for CSF2 Gene

Summaries for CSF2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CSF2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. The active form of the protein is found extracellularly as a homodimer. This gene has been localized to a cluster of related genes at chromosome region 5q31, which is known to be associated with interstitial deletions in the 5q- syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia. Other genes in the cluster include those encoding interleukins 4, 5, and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for CSF2 Gene

CSF2 (Colony Stimulating Factor 2 (Granulocyte-Macrophage)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CSF2 include ecthyma and leukemoid reaction. Among its related pathways are Akt Signaling and Akt Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CSF2 Gene

  • Cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, including granulocytes, macrophages, eosinophils and erythrocytes

Gene Wiki entry for CSF2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CSF2 Gene

Genomics for CSF2 Gene

Genomic Location for CSF2 Gene

132,073,790 bp from pter
132,076,170 bp from pter
2,381 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for CSF2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for CSF2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CSF2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for CSF2 Gene

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CSF2 gene promoter:

Proteins for CSF2 Gene

  • Protein details for CSF2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14CE8
    • Q2VPI8
    • Q8NFI6

    Protein attributes for CSF2 Gene

    144 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    16295 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. The signaling GM-CSF receptor complex is a dodecamer of two head-to-head hexamers of two alpha, two beta, and two ligand subunits.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CSF2 Gene

neXtProt entry for CSF2 Gene

Proteomics data for CSF2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for CSF2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Ser22, Ser24, Ser26, Thr27, Asn44, and Asn54

Other Protein References for CSF2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CSF2 Gene

Domains for CSF2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CSF2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GM-CSF family.:
    • P04141
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CSF2: view

No data available for Gene Families for CSF2 Gene

Function for CSF2 Gene

Molecular function for CSF2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: colony-stimulating factor 2,16.3kDa,(granulocyte-macrophage)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, including granulocytes, macrophages, eosinophils and erythrocytes

LifeMap Function Summary for CSF2 Gene

CSF2 as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CSF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IEA --
GO:0005129 granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18692472
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CSF2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CSF2: view

Animal Models for CSF2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CSF2:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for CSF2 Gene

Localization for CSF2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CSF2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for CSF2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CSF2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 3
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
vacuole 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CSF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CSF2: view

Pathways for CSF2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CSF2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CSF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001892 embryonic placenta development IEA --
GO:0006955 immune response IEA --
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation IEA --
GO:0010468 regulation of gene expression --
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression IDA 10666185
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CSF2: view

Compounds for CSF2 Gene


Pharmaceutical: Available under the names Leukine (Immunex) and Leucomax (Novartis). Used in myeloid reconstitution following bone marrow transplant, bone marrow transplant engraftment failure or delay, mobilization and following transplantation of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells, and following induction chemotherapy in older adults with acute myelogenous leukemia

(145) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CSF2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
gm-csf 94.5 227
pixy321 79 20
molgramostim 77.1 8
fmlp 71 45
rantes 66.6 59
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CSF2: view

Transcripts for CSF2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CSF2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(20) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for CSF2 Gene

Colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CSF2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CSF2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CSF2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CSF2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CSF2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (19.8) and Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (8.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for CSF2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CSF2 Gene Hs.1349

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with CSF2: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CSF2 Gene

Orthologs for CSF2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for CSF2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CSF2 35
  • 99.31 (n)
  • 98.61 (a)
CSF2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CSF2 35
  • 82.98 (n)
  • 70.63 (a)
CSF2 36
  • 70 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CSF2 35
  • 81.48 (n)
  • 70.14 (a)
CSF2 36
  • 66 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Csf2 35
  • 71.16 (n)
  • 56.03 (a)
Csf2 16
Csf2 36
  • 55 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Csf2 35
  • 74.31 (n)
  • 63.19 (a)
Species with no ortholog for CSF2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for CSF2 Gene

Gene Tree for CSF2 (if available)
Gene Tree for CSF2 (if available)

Paralogs for CSF2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for CSF2 Gene

Variants for CSF2 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CSF2 Gene

Variant Ile-117 may be a risk factor for atopic asthma

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CSF2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs25880 -- 132,074,278(+) AGGCT(A/G)CTGGC intron-variant
rs25881 -- 132,075,445(+) TCAGC(C/T)CAGCT intron-variant
rs25882 - 132,075,767(+) CCAGA(C/T)TATCA missense, reference
rs25883 -- 132,076,239(+) CAGGG(A/G)AGGGA downstream-variant-500B
rs25884 -- 132,076,545(+) GGCAA(A/G)ACACC downstream-variant-500B

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CSF2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv25745 CNV Gain 19812545
nsv882889 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for CSF2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for CSF2 Gene

(91) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CSF2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
necrosis 84 146
neutropenia 78.9 110
pulmonary alveolar proteinosis 77.2 32
tumors 74.6 158
juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia 70.9 10

Relevant External Links for CSF2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CSF2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CSF2 Gene

Publications for CSF2 Gene

  1. Analysis of GM-CSF gene polymorphisms (3606T/C and 3928C/T) in Japanese patients with atopic dermatitis. (PMID: 16487109) Saeki H. … Tamaki K. (Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 2006) 3 23 48
  2. The structure of the GM-CSF receptor complex reveals a distinct mode of cytokine receptor activation. (PMID: 18692472) Hansen G. … Parker M.W. (Cell 2008) 3 4 23
  3. Association of genetic variations in the CSF2 and CSF3 genes with lung function in smoking-induced COPD. (PMID: 18353856) He J.Q. … Sandford A.J. (Eur. Respir. J. 2008) 3 23 48
  4. Cloning, sequence, and expression of a human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (PMID: 3898082) Cantrell M.A. … Cosman D. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1985) 2 3 4
  5. Human GM-CSF: molecular cloning of the complementary DNA and purification of the natural and recombinant proteins. (PMID: 3923623) Wong G.G. … Clark S.C. (Science 1985) 3 4

Products for CSF2 Gene

Sources for CSF2 Gene

Back to Top