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Aliases for CROT Gene

Aliases for CROT Gene

  • Carnitine O-Octanoyltransferase 2 3 5
  • EC 4 63
  • COT 3 4
  • Peroxisomal Carnitine Acyltransferase 3
  • EC 2.3.1 63

External Ids for CROT Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CROT Gene

  • GC07P085510
  • GC07P086573
  • GC07P086587
  • GC07P086619
  • GC07P086812
  • GC07P086974
  • GC07P081585
  • GC07P087347
  • GC07P087349

Summaries for CROT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CROT Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family. The encoded protein converts 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA to its corresponding carnitine ester. This transesterification occurs in the peroxisome and is necessary for transport of medium- and long- chain acyl-CoA molecules out of the peroxisome to the cytosol and mitochondria. The protein thus plays a role in lipid metabolism and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

GeneCards Summary for CROT Gene

CROT (Carnitine O-Octanoyltransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Peroxisome. GO annotations related to this gene include receptor binding and carnitine O-octanoyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CRAT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CROT Gene

  • Beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The highest activity concerns the C6 to C10 chain length substrate. Converts the end product of pristanic acid beta oxidation, 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, to its corresponding carnitine ester.

Gene Wiki entry for CROT Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CROT Gene

Genomics for CROT Gene

Regulatory Elements for CROT Gene

Enhancers for CROT Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around CROT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for CROT Gene

87,345,635 bp from pter
87,399,796 bp from pter
54,162 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for CROT Gene

Genes around CROT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CROT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CROT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CROT Gene

Proteins for CROT Gene

  • Protein details for CROT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Peroxisomal carnitine O-octanoyltransferase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D1D6
    • E7EQF2
    • Q86V17
    • Q8IUW9
    • Q9Y6I2

    Protein attributes for CROT Gene

    612 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    70178 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Alternative splice isoforms for CROT Gene


neXtProt entry for CROT Gene

Proteomics data for CROT Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for CROT Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for CROT Gene

Domains & Families for CROT Gene

Protein Domains for CROT Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CROT Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family.
  • Belongs to the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CROT: view

No data available for Gene Families for CROT Gene

Function for CROT Gene

Molecular function for CROT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Octanoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = CoA + L-octanoylcarnitine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The highest activity concerns the C6 to C10 chain length substrate. Converts the end product of pristanic acid beta oxidation, 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, to its corresponding carnitine ester.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for CROT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CROT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008458 carnitine O-octanoyltransferase activity IDA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CROT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CROT: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for CROT

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CROT Gene

Localization for CROT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CROT Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for CROT Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CROT gene
Compartment Confidence
peroxisome 5
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 2

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CROT Gene

Pathways & Interactions for CROT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CROT: view

Pathways by source for CROT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q9UKG9-OCTC_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; fatty acid beta-oxidation.

Interacting Proteins for CROT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CROT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006091 generation of precursor metabolites and energy IDA 10486279
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0009437 carnitine metabolic process ISS --
GO:0010243 response to organonitrogen compound IEA --
GO:0015936 coenzyme A metabolic process ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CROT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CROT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CROT Gene

(9) Drugs for CROT Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Carnitine Approved Pharma Target 0
(3-Carboxy-2-(R)-Hydroxy-Propyl)-Trimethyl-Ammonium Experimental Pharma Target 0
3-Carboxy-N,N,N-Trimethyl-2-(Octanoyloxy)Propan-1-Aminium Experimental Pharma Target 0
Caprylic acid Experimental Pharma 0
decanoic acid Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 142

(10) Additional Compounds for CROT Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
4,8 Dimethylnonanoyl carnitine
  • 4,8-Dimethylnonanoylcarnitine
  • 4(R)-8-Dimethyl-nonanoyl-CoA
  • 4(R)-8-Dimethyl-nonanoyl-Coenzyme A
  • S-(4,8-Dimethylnonanoate
  • S-(4,8-Dimethylnonanoate)-CoA
  • S-(4,8-Dimethylnonanoate)-Coenzyme A
Caproic acid
  • 1-Hexanoate
  • 1-Hexanoic acid
  • 1-Pentanecarboxylate
  • 1-Pentanecarboxylic acid
  • Butylacetate
Ceramide (d18:1/20:0)
  • (2S,3R,4E)-2-acylamino-1,3-octadec-4-enediol
  • (2S,3R,4E)-2-acylaminooctadec-4-ene-1,3-diol
  • Cer
  • Ceramide
  • N-Acylsphingosine
Dodecanoic acid
  • 1-Undecanecarboxylate
  • 1-Undecanecarboxylic acid
  • ABL
  • Aliphat No. 4
  • Dodecanoate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CROT: view

Transcripts for CROT Gene

Unigene Clusters for CROT Gene

Carnitine O-octanoyltransferase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CROT Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CROT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CROT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CROT Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CROT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Cervix (19.7), Fetal Liver (17.0), Liver (7.9), and Urine (6.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, and MaxQB for CROT Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CROT Gene Hs.125039

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CROT: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Protein tissue co-expression partners for CROT Gene

Orthologs for CROT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for CROT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CROT 35
  • 87.47 (n)
  • 84.8 (a)
  • 83 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CROT 35
  • 87.8 (n)
  • 84.64 (a)
  • 84 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Crot 35
  • 85.29 (n)
  • 85.62 (a)
Crot 16
Crot 36
  • 86 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CROT 35
  • 99.74 (n)
  • 99.69 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Crot 35
  • 83.66 (n)
  • 84.8 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CROT 36
  • 80 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CROT 36
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CROT 35
  • 69.83 (n)
  • 67.16 (a)
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CROT 36
  • 67 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia crot 35
  • 67.58 (n)
  • 65.89 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.15914 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii crot 35
  • 63.18 (n)
  • 61.44 (a)
crot 36
  • 62 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.7341 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG12428 37
  • 31 (a)
CG12428 35
  • 42.79 (n)
  • 32.7 (a)
CG12428 36
  • 32 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002329 35
  • 45.43 (n)
  • 36.13 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F41E7.6 37
  • 31 (a)
T20B3.1 37
  • 32 (a)
CELE_T20B3.1 35
  • 45.18 (n)
  • 35 (a)
F41E7.6 36
  • 31 (a)
T20B3.1 36
  • 31 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 44 (a)
Species with no ortholog for CROT:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CROT Gene

Gene Tree for CROT (if available)
Gene Tree for CROT (if available)

Paralogs for CROT Gene

Paralogs for CROT Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for CROT Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CROT: view

Variants for CROT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CROT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs3827653 - 87,361,430(-) GTATA(C/T)GAACA reference, missense
rs7785206 - 87,391,707(+) CTTCT(C/G)TCAAT reference, missense
rs765254 -- 87,397,786(+) CATGT(G/T)GAAGA intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs802023 -- 87,356,252(+) atgac(C/T)cagat intron-variant
rs802024 -- 87,356,403(+) TCTAA(C/T)ATGTA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CROT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv888677 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv464622 CNV Gain 19166990
nsv428177 CNV Loss 18775914
nsv888678 CNV Loss 21882294
esv270404 CNV Insertion 20981092
esv259427 OTHER Complex 20981092
esv259930 OTHER Complex 20981092
esv992601 CNV Insertion 20482838
nsv366901 CNV Insertion 16902084

Variation tolerance for CROT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 84.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.85; 48.06% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for CROT Gene

Disorders for CROT Gene

Relevant External Links for CROT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for CROT Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CROT Gene

Publications for CROT Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of human carnitine octanoyltransferase: evidence for its role in the peroxisomal beta- oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids. (PMID: 10486279) Ferdinandusse S. … Wanders R.J.A. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1999) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Mutagenesis of specific amino acids converts carnitine acetyltransferase into carnitine palmitoyltransferase. (PMID: 16681386) Cordente A.G. … Hegardt F.G. (Biochemistry 2006) 25 26
  3. Redesign of carnitine acetyltransferase specificity by protein engineering. (PMID: 15155769) Cordente A.G. … Serra D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 25 26
  4. Structural model of a malonyl-CoA-binding site of carnitine octanoyltransferase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I: mutational analysis of a malonyl-CoA affinity domain. (PMID: 11790793) Morillas M. … Asins G. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002) 3 23
  5. Genomics of the human carnitine acyltransferase genes. (PMID: 11001805) van der Leij F.R. … Bartelds B. (Mol. Genet. Metab. 2000) 3 23

Products for CROT Gene

Sources for CROT Gene