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Aliases for CRAT Gene

Aliases for CRAT Gene

  • Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase 2 3
  • Carnitine Acetyltransferase 2 3 4
  • CAT1 3 4 6
  • Carnitine Acetylase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • CAT 3 4
  • EC 2.3.1 63
  • CrAT 4

External Ids for CRAT Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CRAT Gene

  • GC09M122971
  • GC09M123503
  • GC09M125310
  • GC09M127233
  • GC09M128936
  • GC09M130896
  • GC09M131857
  • GC09M101464

Summaries for CRAT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CRAT Gene

  • This gene encodes carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT), which is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway in mitochondria, peroxisomes and endoplasmic reticulum. CRAT catalyzes the reversible transfer of acyl groups from an acyl-CoA thioester to carnitine and regulates the ratio of acylCoA/CoA in the subcellular compartments. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

GeneCards Summary for CRAT Gene

CRAT (Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CRAT include carnitine acetyltransferase deficiency and overnutrition. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include receptor binding and carnitine O-acetyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CROT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CRAT Gene

  • Carnitine acetylase is specific for short chain fatty acids. Carnitine acetylase seems to affect the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. It may be involved as well in the transport of acetyl-CoA into mitochondria

Gene Wiki entry for CRAT Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CRAT Gene

Genomics for CRAT Gene

Regulatory Elements for CRAT Gene

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CRAT gene promoter:

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for CRAT Gene

129,094,794 bp from pter
129,111,189 bp from pter
16,396 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CRAT Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for CRAT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CRAT Gene

Proteins for CRAT Gene

  • Protein details for CRAT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Carnitine O-acetyltransferase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5T952
    • Q9BW16

    Protein attributes for CRAT Gene

    626 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    70858 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CRAT Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for CRAT Gene


neXtProt entry for CRAT Gene

Proteomics data for CRAT Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for CRAT Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for CRAT Gene

Domains for CRAT Gene

Protein Domains for CRAT Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CRAT Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P43155
  • Belongs to the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CRAT: view

No data available for Gene Families for CRAT Gene

Function for CRAT Gene

Molecular function for CRAT Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: carnitine acetyltransferase,localized in mitochondrial matrix,peroxisomes,and endoplasmic reticulum,specific for short chain fatty acyl-CoA (C2-C14)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Acetyl-CoA + carnitine = CoA + O-acetylcarnitine
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Carnitine acetylase is specific for short chain fatty acids. Carnitine acetylase seems to affect the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. It may be involved as well in the transport of acetyl-CoA into mitochondria

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for CRAT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CRAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004092 carnitine O-acetyltransferase activity IDA 15099582
GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI 20178365
GO:0016746 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CRAT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CRAT: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for CRAT Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CRAT

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for CRAT Gene

Localization for CRAT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CRAT Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum. Peroxisome. Mitochondrion inner membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Matrix side.
Isoform 1: Mitochondrion.
Isoform 2: Peroxisome.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for CRAT Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CRAT gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
peroxisome 4
endoplasmic reticulum 3
cytosol 1
golgi apparatus 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CRAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 20833797
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA --
GO:0005777 peroxisome IDA 2351134
GO:0005782 peroxisomal matrix TAS --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CRAT: view

Pathways for CRAT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CRAT: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CRAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006810 transport IEA --
GO:0008152 metabolic process --
GO:0019254 carnitine metabolic process, CoA-linked IDA 15099582
GO:0033540 fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA oxidase TAS --
GO:0044255 cellular lipid metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CRAT: view

Compounds for CRAT Gene

(7) HMDB Compounds for CRAT Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • S-Acetyl coenzyme A
Coenzyme A
  • Acetoacetyl coenzyme A sodium salt
  • (-)-Acetylcarnitine
  • (-)-(R)-3-Hydroxy-4-(trimethylammonio)butyrate
  • Phytanoyl-coenzyme A

(3) Drugbank Compounds for CRAT Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
461-06-3 target
Coenzyme A
85-61-0 target
  • (-)-Carnitine
541-15-1 target

(112) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CRAT Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
chloramphenicol 96.9 104
carnitine 74.8 102
acetyl-l-carnitine 58 9
thymidine 57.1 33
acetyl-coa 53 17
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CRAT: view

Transcripts for CRAT Gene

Unigene Clusters for CRAT Gene

Carnitine O-acetyltransferase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CRAT

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CRAT Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a ·
SP1: -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP5: -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - -

ExUns: 17b · 17c

Relevant External Links for CRAT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CRAT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CRAT Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CRAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (5.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for CRAT Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CRAT Gene Hs.12068

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CRAT Gene

Tissue specificity: Mostly in skeletal muscle, less in heart, liver and pancreas, only weakly detectable in brain, placenta, lung and kidney
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with CRAT: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for CRAT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for CRAT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CRAT 35
  • 99.36 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CRAT 35
  • 89.51 (n)
  • 92.81 (a)
MGC142781 36
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CRAT 35
  • 89.3 (n)
  • 93.29 (a)
  • 92 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Crat 35
  • 86.42 (n)
  • 91.05 (a)
Crat 16
Crat 36
  • 91 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CRAT 36
  • 85 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CRAT 36
  • 82 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Crat 35
  • 86.26 (n)
  • 90.73 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CRAT 35
  • 73.91 (n)
  • 78.12 (a)
  • 77 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CRAT 36
  • 79 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia crat.1 35
  • 73.17 (n)
  • 79.04 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.9411 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CRAT (2 of 3) 36
  • 67 (a)
crata 35
  • 71.19 (n)
  • 73.32 (a)
crata 36
  • 73 (a)
cratb 36
  • 54 (a)
hmzeh0248 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1041 36
  • 34 (a)
CG5122 35
  • 50.65 (n)
  • 40.28 (a)
CG5122 36
  • 19 (a)
CG5265 36
  • 33 (a)
CG5122 37
  • 40 (a)
CG1041 37
  • 35 (a)
Cha 37
  • 35 (a)
CG5265 37
  • 34 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea B0395.3 35
  • 47.85 (n)
  • 39.59 (a)
B0395.3 36
  • 37 (a)
B0395.3 37
  • 37 (a)
cha-1 37
  • 31 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAR124C 35
  • 47.34 (n)
  • 33.51 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CAT2 35
  • 42.6 (n)
  • 33.28 (a)
CAT2 36
  • 28 (a)
CAT2 38
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A02123g 35
  • 41.08 (n)
  • 33.22 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU08002 35
  • 52.86 (n)
  • 37.59 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.15540 35
Species with no ortholog for CRAT:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CRAT Gene

Gene Tree for CRAT (if available)
Gene Tree for CRAT (if available)

Paralogs for CRAT Gene

Paralogs for CRAT Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for CRAT Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CRAT: view

Variants for CRAT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CRAT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs719494 -- 129,102,826(-) TTATT(C/T)GCTGC intron-variant
rs746871 -- 129,102,760(-) GATGA(C/T)TTCTG intron-variant
rs746872 -- 129,102,748(-) ACAGG(A/G)CCCAT intron-variant
rs746873 -- 129,102,671(-) GAGCA(A/G)GGACA intron-variant
rs746874 -- 129,102,592(-) AGTGG(C/T)GGCCT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CRAT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv893902 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv831729 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv509323 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv818725 CNV Gain 17921354

Relevant External Links for CRAT Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CRAT Gene

Disorders for CRAT Gene

(63) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CRAT Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
sarcoma rous 60.1 6
immunodeficiency 54.2 11
leukemia t-cell 52.5 3
mammary tumor 48.6 15
visna 38 1

Relevant External Links for CRAT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CRAT: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CRAT Gene

Publications for CRAT Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding human carnitine acetyltransferase and mapping of the corresponding gene to chromosome 9q34.1. (PMID: 7829107) Corti O. … Didonato S. (Genomics 1994) 2 3 4 23
  2. Structure of human carnitine acetyltransferase. Molecular basis for fatty acyl transfer. (PMID: 12562770) Wu D. … McKenna R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 4 23 25
  3. Structural and mutational characterization of L-carnitine binding to human carnitine acetyltransferase. (PMID: 15099582) Govindasamy L. … Wu D. (J. Struct. Biol. 2004) 3 4 23 25
  4. Divergent sequences in the 5' region of cDNA suggest alternative splicing as a mechanism for the generation of carnitine acetyltransferases with different subcellular localizations. (PMID: 7945262) Corti O. … Finocchiaro G. (Biochem. J. 1994) 3 4 23
  5. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity in the human brain and its microvessels is decreased in Alzheimer's disease. (PMID: 1456745) Kalaria R.N. … Harik S.I. (Ann. Neurol. 1992) 3 23

Products for CRAT Gene

Sources for CRAT Gene

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