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Aliases for CRAT Gene

Aliases for CRAT Gene

  • Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase 2 3 5
  • Carnitine Acetyltransferase 2 4
  • Carnitine Acetylase 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • CAT1 3 4
  • CAT 3 4
  • EC 2.3.1 61
  • CrAT 4

External Ids for CRAT Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CRAT Gene

  • GC09M122971
  • GC09M123503
  • GC09M125310
  • GC09M127233
  • GC09M128936
  • GC09M130896
  • GC09M131857
  • GC09M101464

Summaries for CRAT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CRAT Gene

  • This gene encodes carnitine O-acetyltransferase, a member of the carnitine acyltransferase family and a key metabolic pathway enzyme which plays an important role in energy homeostasis and fat metabolism. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible transfer of acyl groups from an acyl-CoA thioester to carnitine and regulates the ratio of acyl-CoA/CoA. It is found in both the mitochondria and the peroxisome. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants encoding different isoforms that may localize to different subcellular compartments. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016]

GeneCards Summary for CRAT Gene

CRAT (Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CRAT include Carnitine Acetyltransferase Deficiency and Overnutrition. Among its related pathways are Peroxisomal lipid metabolism and AMPK Enzyme Complex Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include receptor binding and carnitine O-acetyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CHAT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CRAT Gene

  • Carnitine acetylase is specific for short chain fatty acids. Carnitine acetylase seems to affect the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. It may be involved as well in the transport of acetyl-CoA into mitochondria.

Gene Wiki entry for CRAT Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CRAT Gene

Genomics for CRAT Gene

Regulatory Elements for CRAT Gene

Enhancers for CRAT Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH09G129136 1.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 29.5 -29.3 -29305 8.2 HDGF PKNOX1 CREB3L1 ZFP64 WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 YBX1 ZNF2 CRAT ENSG00000268707 CERCAM PHYHD1 IER5L ENDOG PIR35395 PIR48172 GC09P129145 GC09P129138
GH09G129131 1.1 ENCODE dbSUPER 40 -20.6 -20619 0.7 HDGF CBX3 RB1 WRNIP1 KLF17 BRCA1 ZNF2 ZNF48 RAD21 ZEB1 CRAT ENSG00000234055 URM1 NTMT1 C9orf50 PIR47941 GC09P129130 GC09P129138 PIR48172
GH09G129108 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 29.2 +0.7 661 4.3 HDGF PKNOX1 CREB3L1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF766 CRAT ENSG00000234055 PTPA
GH09G129172 1.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 22.4 -64.6 -64571 7.5 CREB3L1 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 NFYC TBX21 PPARGC1A CRAT LOC101929314 SPOUT1 ENSG00000272696 USP20 PTPA ENDOG NTMT1 IER5L PHYHD1
GH09G129144 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 24.7 -35.6 -35637 3.9 CTCF BHLHE40 NR2F1 TEAD4 TBX21 NR2F2 ZNF121 JUND POLR2A ZNF341 CRAT ENSG00000268707 PHYHD1 NTMT1 PIR46185 PIR38394
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around CRAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for CRAT Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CRAT gene promoter:

Genomic Location for CRAT Gene

129,094,794 bp from pter
129,111,189 bp from pter
16,396 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CRAT Gene

Genes around CRAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CRAT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CRAT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CRAT Gene

Proteins for CRAT Gene

  • Protein details for CRAT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Carnitine O-acetyltransferase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5T952
    • Q9BW16

    Protein attributes for CRAT Gene

    626 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    70858 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CRAT Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for CRAT Gene


neXtProt entry for CRAT Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for CRAT Gene


Post-translational modifications for CRAT Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for CRAT Gene

Protein Domains for CRAT Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CRAT Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family.
  • Belongs to the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CRAT: view

No data available for Gene Families for CRAT Gene

Function for CRAT Gene

Molecular function for CRAT Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
carnitine acetyltransferase,localized in mitochondrial matrix,peroxisomes,and endoplasmic reticulum,specific for short chain fatty acyl-CoA (C2-C14)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Acetyl-CoA + carnitine = CoA + O-acetylcarnitine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Carnitine acetylase is specific for short chain fatty acids. Carnitine acetylase seems to affect the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. It may be involved as well in the transport of acetyl-CoA into mitochondria.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for CRAT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CRAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004092 carnitine O-acetyltransferase activity TAS --
GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI 20178365
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016746 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CRAT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CRAT: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for CRAT Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CRAT

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CRAT Gene

Localization for CRAT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CRAT Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum. Peroxisome. Mitochondrion inner membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Matrix side.
Isoform 1: Mitochondrion.
Isoform 2: Peroxisome.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CRAT gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
peroxisome 5
nucleus 3
endoplasmic reticulum 3
cytosol 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CRAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA 2351134
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA --
GO:0005777 peroxisome IEA,IDA 2351134
GO:0005782 peroxisomal matrix TAS --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CRAT: view

Pathways & Interactions for CRAT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CRAT: view

Pathways by source for CRAT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CRAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006810 transport IEA --
GO:0019254 carnitine metabolic process, CoA-linked IDA 2351134
GO:0033540 fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA oxidase TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CRAT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CRAT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CRAT Gene

(66) Drugs for CRAT Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Carnitine Approved Pharma Target 0
Acetylcarnitine Approved, Investigational Pharma 44
(3-Carboxy-2-(R)-Hydroxy-Propyl)-Trimethyl-Ammonium Experimental Pharma Target 0
Propionyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0
Coenzyme A Nutra Target 0

(54) Additional Compounds for CRAT Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Ac-CoA
  • Ac-Coenzyme A
  • Ac-S-CoA
  • Ac-S-Coenzyme A
  • Acetyl coenzyme-A
  • 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl hexadecanoyl CoA
  • 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl hexadecanoyl coenzyme A
  • Phytanoyl CoA
  • Phytanoyl Coenzyme A
  • Phytanoyl-CoA
  • (+/-)-Propionylcarnitine chloride
  • (3-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethyl-hydroxide Ammonium inner salt
  • 3-Carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-(1-oxopropoxy)-1-propanaminium inner salt
  • L-Propionylcarnitine
  • O-Propanoylcarnitine
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CRAT: view

Transcripts for CRAT Gene

Unigene Clusters for CRAT Gene

Carnitine O-acetyltransferase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CRAT Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a ·
SP1: -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP5: -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - -

ExUns: 17b · 17c

Relevant External Links for CRAT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CRAT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CRAT Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CRAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x5.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CRAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (10.9), Tonsil (8.3), and Liver (6.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for CRAT Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for CRAT Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CRAT Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CRAT Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CRAT Gene:

Tissue specificity: Mostly in skeletal muscle, less in heart, liver and pancreas, only weakly detectable in brain, placenta, lung and kidney.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CRAT Gene

  • Liver(4.6)
  • Muscle(3.4)
  • Nervous system(2.8)
  • Skin(2.7)
  • Heart(2.5)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CRAT: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CRAT Gene

Orthologs for CRAT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for CRAT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CRAT 34 35
  • 99.36 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MGC142781 35
  • 93 (a)
  • 89.51 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CRAT 34 35
  • 89.3 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Crat 34 16 35
  • 86.42 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Crat 34
  • 86.26 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CRAT 35
  • 85 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CRAT 35
  • 82 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CRAT 34 35
  • 73.91 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CRAT 35
  • 79 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia crat.1 34
  • 73.17 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii crata 34 35
  • 71.19 (n)
CRAT (2 of 3) 35
  • 67 (a)
cratb 35
  • 54 (a)
hmzeh0248 34
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.9411 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG5122 36 34 35
  • 50.65 (n)
CG1041 36 35
  • 35 (a)
Cha 36
  • 35 (a)
CG5265 36 35
  • 34 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea B0395.3 36 34 35
  • 47.85 (n)
cha-1 36
  • 31 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAR124C 34
  • 47.34 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CAT2 34 35 37
  • 42.6 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A02123g 34
  • 41.08 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU08002 34
  • 52.86 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.15540 34
Species where no ortholog for CRAT was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CRAT Gene

Gene Tree for CRAT (if available)
Gene Tree for CRAT (if available)

Paralogs for CRAT Gene

Paralogs for CRAT Gene

(7) SIMAP similar genes for CRAT Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CRAT: view

Variants for CRAT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CRAT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000015998 -- 129,110,231(+) CTAAC(-/T)GAAGC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000387986 -- 129,106,052(+) AACCC(-/GTG)GTGAA intron-variant
rs1001043969 -- 129,095,865(+) AGAGA(A/G)GCCCC intron-variant
rs1001104761 -- 129,103,971(+) TAGAG(C/G)TGGAG intron-variant
rs1001349921 -- 129,106,976(+) GGGGT(C/G)ATGTC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CRAT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv509323 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv818725 CNV gain 17921354
nsv831729 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for CRAT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 83.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.19; 61.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for CRAT Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CRAT Gene

Disorders for CRAT Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for CRAT Gene - From: OMIM, DISEASES, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CRAT in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for CRAT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CRAT: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CRAT Gene

Publications for CRAT Gene

  1. Structural and mutational characterization of L-carnitine binding to human carnitine acetyltransferase. (PMID: 15099582) Govindasamy L. … Wu D. (J. Struct. Biol. 2004) 3 4 22 25 64
  2. Structure of human carnitine acetyltransferase. Molecular basis for fatty acyl transfer. (PMID: 12562770) Wu D. … McKenna R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 4 22 25 64
  3. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding human carnitine acetyltransferase and mapping of the corresponding gene to chromosome 9q34.1. (PMID: 7829107) Corti O. … Didonato S. (Genomics 1994) 2 3 4 22 64
  4. Divergent sequences in the 5' region of cDNA suggest alternative splicing as a mechanism for the generation of carnitine acetyltransferases with different subcellular localizations. (PMID: 7945262) Corti O. … Finocchiaro G. (Biochem. J. 1994) 3 4 22 64
  5. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey S.D. … Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010) 3 46 64

Products for CRAT Gene

Sources for CRAT Gene

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