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Aliases for CLU Gene

Aliases for CLU Gene

  • Clusterin 2 3
  • Testosterone-Repressed Prostate Message 2 2 3 4
  • Sulfated Glycoprotein 2 2 3 6
  • Apolipoprotein J 2 3 4
  • Complement-Associated Protein SP-40,40 3 4
  • Complement Cytolysis Inhibitor 3 4
  • Complement Lysis Inhibitor 2 3
  • Ku70-Binding Protein 1 3 4
  • NA1/NA2 3 4
  • TRPM-2 3 4
  • APO-J 3 4
  • APOJ 3 4
  • KUB1 3 4
  • CLI 3 4
  • Clusterin (Complement Lysis Inhibitor, SP-40,40, Sulfated Glycoprotein 2, Testosterone-Repressed Prostate Message 2, Apolipoprotein J) 2
  • Aging-Associated Gene 4 Protein 4
  • Aging-Associated Protein 4 3
  • TRPM2 3
  • SGP-2 3
  • SP-40 3
  • AAG4 3
  • CLU1 3
  • CLU2 3
  • SGP2 3

External Ids for CLU Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for CLU Gene

  • CLI
  • APOJ

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CLU Gene

  • GC08M027237
  • GC08M027960
  • GC08M027477
  • GC08M027462
  • GC08M027510
  • GC08M025999
  • GC08M027454

Summaries for CLU Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CLU Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted chaperone that can under some stress conditions also be found in the cell cytosol. It has been suggested to be involved in several basic biological events such as cell death, tumor progression, and neurodegenerative disorders. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

GeneCards Summary for CLU Gene

CLU (Clusterin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CLU include cystadenoma and ovarian cystadenoma. Among its related pathways are CREB Pathway and Hemostasis. GO annotations related to this gene include ubiquitin protein ligase binding and misfolded protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is CLUL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CLU Gene

  • Isoform 1 functions as extracellular chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. Prevents stress-induced aggregation of blood plasma proteins. Inhibits formation of amyloid fibrils by APP, APOC2, B2M, CALCA, CSN3, SNCA and aggregation-prone LYZ variants (in vitro). Does not require ATP. Maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state appropriate for subsequent refolding by other chaperones, such as HSPA8/HSC70. Does not refold proteins by itself. Binding to cell surface receptors triggers internalization of the chaperone-client complex and subsequent lysosomal or proteasomal degradation. Secreted isoform 1 protects cells against apoptosis and against cytolysis by complement. Intracellular isoforms interact with ubiquitin and SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes and promote the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Promotes proteasomal degradation of COMMD1 and IKBKB. Modulates NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity. Nuclear isoforms promote apoptosis. Mitochondrial isoforms suppress BAX-dependent release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and inhibit apoptosis. Plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation.

Gene Wiki entry for CLU Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CLU Gene

Genomics for CLU Gene

Regulatory Elements for CLU Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for CLU Gene

Start:
27,596,917 bp from pter
End:
27,615,031 bp from pter
Size:
18,115 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for CLU Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for CLU Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CLU Gene

Proteins for CLU Gene

  • Protein details for CLU Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P10909-CLUS_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Clusterin
    Protein Accession:
    P10909
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R9Q1
    • B3KSE6
    • P11380
    • P11381
    • Q2TU75
    • Q5HYC1
    • Q7Z5B9

    Protein attributes for CLU Gene

    Size:
    449 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    52495 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Antiparallel disulfide-linked heterodimer of an alpha chain and a beta chain. Self-associates and forms higher oligomers. Interacts with a broad range of misfolded proteins, including APP, APOC2 and LYZ. Slightly acidic pH promotes interaction with misfolded proteins. Forms high-molecular weight oligomers upon interaction with misfolded proteins. Interacts with APOA1, LRP2, CLUAP1 AND PON1. Interacts with the complement complex. Interacts (via alpha chain) with XRCC6. Interacts with SYVN1, COMMD1, BTRC, CUL1 and with ubiquitin and SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes. Interacts (via alpha chain) with BAX in stressed cells, where BAX undergoes a conformation change leading to association with the mitochondrial membrane. Does not interact with BAX in unstressed cells. Found in a complex with LTF, CLU, EPPIN and SEMG1.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAA35692.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAB06508.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAB06508.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Contaminating sequence.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAH10514.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAH19588.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAP88927.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAP88927.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAT08041.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAG36598.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA32847.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for CLU Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for CLU Gene

Proteomics data for CLU Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for CLU Gene

  • Heavily N-glycosylated. About 30% of the protein mass is comprised of complex N-linked carbohydrate.
  • Isoform 1 is proteolytically cleaved on its way through the secretory system, probably within the Golgi lumen.
  • Polyubiquitinated, leading to proteasomal degradation.
  • Glycosylation at Asn86, Asn103, Asn145, Ser210, Asn291, Asn354, and Asn374
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CLU Gene

Domains for CLU Gene

Protein Domains for CLU Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CLU Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P10909

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

CLUS_HUMAN :
  • P10909
Family:
  • Belongs to the clusterin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CLU: view

No data available for Gene Families for CLU Gene

Function for CLU Gene

Molecular function for CLU Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
clusterin,sulfated multifunctional glycoprotein 2,cell cycle dependent expressed in normal dermal fibroblasts,major secreted product of Sertoli cells,potentially involved in spermatogenesis,increased in hippocampus and in frontal cortex in Alzheimers disease. Recently recognized as an autoantigen (70kDa) identified in the serum of patients with scleroderma-polymyositis syndrome,dimerizing with KUP80 to form an ATP dependent DNA unwinding enzyme (helicase II) and the regulatory component of a DNA dependent protein kinase (PRKDC),involved in DNA double-strand break repair by end joining (non homologous recombination) and V(D)J recombination
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 1 functions as extracellular chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. Prevents stress-induced aggregation of blood plasma proteins. Inhibits formation of amyloid fibrils by APP, APOC2, B2M, CALCA, CSN3, SNCA and aggregation-prone LYZ variants (in vitro). Does not require ATP. Maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state appropriate for subsequent refolding by other chaperones, such as HSPA8/HSC70. Does not refold proteins by itself. Binding to cell surface receptors triggers internalization of the chaperone-client complex and subsequent lysosomal or proteasomal degradation. Secreted isoform 1 protects cells against apoptosis and against cytolysis by complement. Intracellular isoforms interact with ubiquitin and SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes and promote the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Promotes proteasomal degradation of COMMD1 and IKBKB. Modulates NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity. Nuclear isoforms promote apoptosis. Mitochondrial isoforms suppress BAX-dependent release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and inhibit apoptosis. Plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated in response to enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection (at protein level). Up-regulated by agents that induce apoptosis, both at mRNA and protein level. Isoform 1 is up-regulated by androgen. Isoform 2 is down-regulated by androgen.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CLU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16113678
GO:0016887 NOT ATPase activity IDA 11123922
GO:0031625 ubiquitin protein ligase binding IDA 20068069
GO:0051087 chaperone binding ISS --
GO:0051787 misfolded protein binding IPI 19996109
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CLU: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CLU: view

Animal Models for CLU Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CLU:

miRNA for CLU Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CLU

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for CLU Gene

Localization for CLU Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CLU Gene

Isoform 1: Secreted. Note=Can retrotranslocate from the secretory compartments to the cytosol upon cellular stress.
Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Cytoplasm, cytosol. Microsome. Endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasmic vesicle, secretory vesicle, chromaffin granule. Note=Isoforms lacking the N-terminal signal sequence have been shown to be cytoplasmic and/or nuclear. Secreted isoforms can retrotranslocate from the secretory compartments to the cytosol upon cellular stress. Detected in perinuclear foci that may be aggresomes containing misfolded, ubiquitinated proteins. Detected at the mitochondrion membrane upon induction of apoptosis.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for CLU Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CLU gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytoskeleton 2
plasma membrane 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CLU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 11123922
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 9560017
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 16113678
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CLU: view

Pathways for CLU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CLU: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CLU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000902 cell morphogenesis IDA 15857407
GO:0001774 microglial cell activation IDA 15857407
GO:0001836 release of cytochrome c from mitochondria IC 16113678
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process NAS 2387851
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CLU: view

Compounds for CLU Gene

(81) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CLU Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
[alcl] 58.5 14
eb 1089 49.3 2
oligonucleotide 41.7 13
docetaxel 38 7
kininogen 37.7 3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CLU: view

Transcripts for CLU Gene

Unigene Clusters for CLU Gene

Clusterin:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CLU

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CLU Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ·
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: - -
SP8: - - - - - -
SP9:
SP10:
SP11: -
SP12: - - - -

ExUns: 12c ^ 13a · 13b · 13c · 13d · 13e
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:

Relevant External Links for CLU Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
CLU
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
CLU

Expression for CLU Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CLU Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for CLU Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Vitreous humor (18.1), Serum (10.4), Synovial fluid (9.5), and Cerebrospinal fluid (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for CLU Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CLU Gene Hs.436657

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CLU Gene

P10909-CLUS_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Detected in blood plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, milk, seminal plasma and colon mucosa. Detected in the germinal center of colon lymphoid nodules and in colon parasympathetic ganglia of the Auerbach plexus (at protein level). Ubiquitous. Detected in brain, testis, ovary, liver and pancreas, and at lower levels in kidney, heart, spleen and lung.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with CLU: view

Expression partners for CLU Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for CLU Gene

Orthologs for CLU Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CLU Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CLU 35
  • 79.57 (n)
  • 71.75 (a)
-- 36
  • 50 (a)
OneToMany
CLU 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CLU 35
  • 82.85 (n)
  • 78.88 (a)
CLU 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Clu 35
  • 80.92 (n)
  • 76.78 (a)
Clu 16
Clu 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CLU 35
  • 98.96 (n)
  • 98.22 (a)
CLU 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Clu 35
  • 81.66 (n)
  • 76.96 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CLU 36
  • 44 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CLU 36
  • 45 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CLU 35
  • 61.23 (n)
  • 48.92 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CLU 36
  • 41 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia clu 35
  • 58.29 (n)
  • 46.8 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia clu-prov 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii clu 35
  • 55.12 (n)
  • 43.24 (a)
zgc73352 35
clu 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for CLU:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CLU Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for CLU (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for CLU (if available)

Paralogs for CLU Gene

Paralogs for CLU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CLU: view

Variants for CLU Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CLU Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs7982 -- 27,604,964(-) TTCCA(C/G/T)AGCCC synonymous-codon, missense, reference, nc-transcript-variant
rs13127 -- 27,598,206(-) GGCAT(C/T)TGAGT utr-variant-3-prime, nc-transcript-variant
rs13494 - 27,598,613(-) TGACT(C/G/T)GGACG reference, missense, nc-transcript-variant
rs14096 -- 27,598,604(-) CGTTC(C/T)TTCCG reference, missense, nc-transcript-variant
rs572844 -- 27,614,173(+) CTTAC(A/G)GGCAA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CLU Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831275 CNV Loss 17160897

Relevant External Links for CLU Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
CLU
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
CLU

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CLU Gene

Disorders for CLU Gene

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for CLU Gene

(95) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CLU Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
prostate cancer 62.3 121
senile plaques 55.5 10
alzheimers disease 53.4 36
carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome 48 1
anaplastic large cell lymphoma 47.7 10

Relevant External Links for CLU

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
CLU
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
CLU
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CLU: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CLU Gene

Publications for CLU Gene

  1. Human gliomas and epileptic foci express high levels of a mRNA related to rat testicular sulfated glycoprotein 2, a purported marker of cell death. (PMID: 1924317) Danik M. … Suh M. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991) 3 4 23
  2. Apolipoprotein J: structure and tissue distribution. (PMID: 1974459) de Silva H.V. … Robbins J. (Biochemistry 1990) 3 4 23
  3. Molecular characterization of human TRPM-2/clusterin, a gene associated with sperm maturation, apoptosis and neurodegeneration. (PMID: 8181474) Wong P. … Tenniswood M. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1994) 3 4 23
  4. The cerebrospinal-fluid soluble form of Alzheimer's amyloid beta is complexed to SP-40,40 (apolipoprotein J), an inhibitor of the complement membrane-attack complex. (PMID: 8328966) Ghiso J. … Frangione B. (Biochem. J. 1993) 3 4 23
  5. Clusterin is an ATP-independent chaperone with very broad substrate specificity that stabilizes stressed proteins in a folding-competent state. (PMID: 11123922) Poon S. … Wilson M.R. (Biochemistry 2000) 3 4 23

Products for CLU Gene

Sources for CLU Gene

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