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CGREF1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 50
GCID: GC02M027321

Cell Growth Regulator With EF-Hand Domain 1

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Cell Growth Regulator With EF-Hand Domain 11 2     Cell Growth Regulator With EF Hand Domain Protein 12
Cell Growth Regulatory Gene 11 Protein2 3     hydrophobestin2
CGR112 3     Hydrophobestin3
Cell Growth Regulator With EF Hand Domain 12     

External Ids:    HGNC: 169621   Entrez Gene: 106692   Ensembl: ENSG000001380287   OMIM: 6061375   UniProtKB: Q996743   

Export aliases for CGREF1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02M027280 GC02M027298 GC02M027235 GC02M027176 GC02M027064


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for CGREF1 Gene:
CGREF1 (cell growth regulator with EF-hand domain 1) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CGRE1_HUMAN, Q99674
Function: Mediates cell-cell adhesion in a calcium-dependent manner (By similarity). Able to inhibit growth in
several cell lines




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000002.11  NC_018913.2  NT_022184.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the CGREF1 gene promoter:
         Nkx2-2   AP-2gamma   LCR-F1   HNF-4alpha1   AREB6   HEN1   STAT3   AP-2beta   AP-2alpha   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CGREF1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CGREF1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2p23.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2p23.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2p23.3

CGREF1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CGREF1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02M027321:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
27,321,757 bp from pter      End:
27,341,995 bp from pter
Size:
20,239 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CGRE1_HUMAN, Q99674 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Cell growth regulator with EF hand domain protein 1 precursor  
Size: 301 amino acids; 31905 Da
Secondary accessions: A6NHV7 B4DXY8 B5MCB7 B5MCC9 B5MCP5 E7EU99 Q8N4B7
Alternative splicing: 5 isoforms:  Q99674-1   Q99674-2   Q99674-3   Q99674-4   Q99674-5   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CGREF1: NX_Q99674

Explore proteomics data for CGREF1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Probably digested extracellularly by an unknown serine protease generating extremely hydrophobic bioactive
    peptides (By similarity)1
  • Glycosylation2 at Thr61, Ser69, Ser159, Ser170, Ser175, Thr181
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See CGREF1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001159711.1  NP_001159712.1  NP_001159713.1  NP_006560.3  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000394306   ENSP00000385103   ENSP00000385452   ENSP00000386113   ENSP00000324025  
     ENSP00000385574   ENSP00000395042   ENSP00000260595  

    CGREF1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    antibodies-online proteins for CGREF1 (9 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for CGREF1

    CGREF1 Antibody Products:

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    antibodies-online antibodies for CGREF1 (28 products) 

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    antibodies-online kits for CGREF1 (6 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    EFHAND: EF-hand domain containing

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR011992 EF-hand-dom_pair
     IPR002048 EF_hand_dom
     IPR018247 EF_Hand_1_Ca_BS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q99674

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q99674

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CGRE1_HUMAN, Q99674
    Domain: Both EF-hands are required for function (By similarity)
    Similarity: Contains 2 EF-hand domains


    Find genes that share domains with CGREF1           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CGRE1_HUMAN, Q99674
    Function: Mediates cell-cell adhesion in a calcium-dependent manner (By similarity). Able to inhibit growth in
    several cell lines
    Induction: By p53/TP53

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005509calcium ion binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with CGREF1           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for CGREF1:
     Decreased number of cells in m 

    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for CGREF1

    miRNA
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    5 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CGREF1:
    hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-670 hsa-miR-125b hsa-miR-558 hsa-miR-4319
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCGREF1 3' UTR sequence
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    CGRE1_HUMAN, Q99674: Secreted (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular2
    cytoskeleton1
    cytosol1
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    golgi apparatus1
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with CGREF1           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for CGREF1
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CGREF1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006950response to stress TAS8968090
    GO:0007050cell cycle arrest IEA--
    GO:0007155cell adhesion IEA--
    GO:0008285negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS8968090
    GO:0030308negative regulation of cell growth IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with CGREF1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for CGREF1 (CGRE1)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for CGREF1 gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001166239.1  NM_001166240.1  NM_001166241.1  NM_006569.5  

    Unigene Cluster for CGREF1:

    Cell growth regulator with EF-hand domain 1
    Hs.159525  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_006569
    9 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000440612 ENST00000402550(uc021vez.1) ENST00000402394(uc002riq.3 uc021vfa.1 uc002rir.2)
    ENST00000405600(uc010eys.2) ENST00000312734 ENST00000404694(uc010eyr.2)
    ENST00000467539 ENST00000452318(uc010ylf.2) ENST00000260595
    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-670 hsa-miR-125b hsa-miR-558 hsa-miR-4319
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCGREF1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CGREF1
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CGREF1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK290128.1 AK302185.1 AK309147.1 BC034764.1 U66468.1 

    7 DOTS entries:

    DT.95104790  DT.447396  DT.447395  DT.100773249  DT.97851257  DT.121007671  DT.97846451 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 66):

    BM785106 BM849276 BM673850 CR593274 AA325461 CR623121 BQ446998 BM711657 
    CR619230 CB160391 AL525583 AL536349 BC034764 BU558202 BX419588 Z45788 
    AV723982 BX431067 BI762635 AA523890 AI880122 BM742679 BF063291 NM_006569 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    2 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CGREF1    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6
    SP1:                                                
    SP2:                                                


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for CGREF1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    CGREF1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTGGGCATTT
    CGREF1 Expression
    About this image


    CGREF1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 6) fully expand
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Proximal Tubule Cells Proximal Tubule
             Metanephros
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Chondrocytes Zeugopod Epiphyseal End
             Stylopod Long Bone
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Proximal Tubule Cells Proximal Tubule
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)
             Spinal Ventral Columns
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)
             Chondrocytes Zeugopod Epiphyseal End
    CGREF1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    CGREF1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.159525
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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for CGREF1 gene from Selected species (see all 7)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Cgref11 , 5 cell growth regulator with EF hand domain 11, 5 75.3(n)1
    66.91(a)1
      5 (16.90 cM)5
    685671  NM_026770.11  NP_081046.11 
     309331465 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii CGREF16
    cell growth regulator with EF-hand domain 1
    25(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    17(32836547-32842291) ENSDARG00000075444


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CGREF1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CGREF1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for CGREF1 (see all 460)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1132338391,2
    C,F--27324216(+) TGTTTC/TCCCTG 6 K E mis1 int12Minor allele frequency- T:0.00CSA NA 4554
    rs1405169901,2
    C,F--27324222(+) CCCTGG/TAAGTT 6 T P mis1 int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4552
    rs118934271,2
    C,F,H--27324340(+) GGCCCG/AGGGGC 6 /P syn1 int1 ese33Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA 8
    rs10573911,2
    C,F,H--27324354(-) AGGCTG/AAAGGA 6 /K /E mis1 int1 ese33Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA WA 8
    rs10573891,2,,4
    C,F,H--27324371(-) AGCTGG/AGGGCC 6 /E /G mis1 int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.33NA 6
    rs770047461,2
    C,F--27324391(+) GGCCCA/GGGGGC 6 P syn1 int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 4002
    rs118898311,2,,4
    C,F,H--27324403(+) TCTCCT/ATTAGC 6 /K /N mis1 int1 ese36Minor allele frequency- A:0.01NS EA NA 422
    rs118898321,2
    C,F,H--27324405(+) TCCTTT/CAGCCT 6 /K /E mis1 int1 ese33Minor allele frequency- C:0.08NS NA 78
    rs1386160601,2
    F--27324418(+) GCCTGG/ACCCTC 6 /G syn1 int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 3912
    rs118934781,2,,4
    C,H--27324464(+) CCTCTG/ACCTGG 6 /A /V mis1 int1 ese34Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NS EA 406

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CGREF1 (27321757 - 27341995 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 9 variations for CGREF1:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv989926CNV Deletion20482838
    esv2673470CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2719833CNV Deletion23290073
    esv1742991CNV Deletion17803354
    esv2719834CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv873753CNV Loss21882294
    nsv833603CNV Loss17160897
    nsv455974CNV Loss19166990
    nsv817673CNV Gain17921354

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for CGREF1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 606137    OMIM disorders: --

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for CGREF1:
    Dermatitis herpetiformis

    Find genes that share disorders with CGREF1           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): CGREF1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: CGREF1 (3 documents)

    Export disorders for CGREF1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for CGREF1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 11):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CGREF1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Induction of cell growth regulatory genes by p53. (PubMed id 8968090)1, 2, 3 Madden S.L.... Beaudry G.A. (Cancer Res. 1996)
    2. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    3. Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip. (PubMed id 19913121)1 Talmud P.J.... . (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2009)
    4. Global analysis of host-pathogen interactions that regulate early-stage HIV-1 replication. (PubMed id 18854154)1 KAPnig R....Chanda S.K. (Cell 2008)
    5. Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes. (PubMed id 16344560)1 Kimura K.... Sugano S. (Genome Res. 2006)
    6. Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4. (PubMed id 15815621)2 Hillier L.W.... Wilson R.K. (Nature 2005)
    7. Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer. (PubMed id 16341674)1 Oh J.H.... Kim N.S. (Mamm. Genome 2005)
    8. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    9. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    10. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 10669 HGNC: 16962 AceView: CGREF1 Ensembl:ENSG00000138028 euGenes: HUgn10669
    ECgene: CGREF1 H-InvDB: CGREF1

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for CGREF1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for CGREF1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving CGREF1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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