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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

CGB8 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 43
GCID: GC19M049550

Chorionic Gonadotropin, Beta Polypeptide 8

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Chorionic Gonadotropin, Beta Polypeptide 81 2
Chorionic Gonadotropin Beta 8 Subunit2
CG-beta3
CGB33
Chorionic Gonadotrophin Chain Beta3

External Ids:    HGNC: 164531   Entrez Gene: 941152   Ensembl: ENSG000002130307   OMIM: 6088275   UniProtKB: P012333   

Export aliases for CGB8 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC19M050210 GC19M049919 GC19M054226 GC19M054243 GC19M054245 GC19M054247 GC19M054227 GC19M054228 GC19M054229 GC19M054248 GC19M045927


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for CGB8 Gene:
This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta 8 subunit of chorionic
gonadotropin (CG). Glycoprotein hormones are heterodimers consisting of a common alpha subunit and an unique beta
subunit which confers biological specificity. CG is produced by the trophoblastic cells of the placenta and
stimulates the ovaries to synthesize the steroids that are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. The beta
subunit of CG is encoded by 6 genes which are arranged in tandem and inverted pairs on chromosome 19q13.3 and
contiguous with the luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for CGB8 Gene: 
CGB8 (chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 8) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with CGB8 include mixed ductal-endocrine carcinoma, and cryptococcosis. An important paralog of this gene is TSHB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CGHB_HUMAN, P01233
Function: Stimulates the ovaries to synthesize the steroids that are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the CGB8 gene promoter:
         NF-1   NF-1/L   Pax-5   p53   POU3F1   Egr-4   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidCGB8 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for CGB8

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat CGB8


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 19q13.32   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  19q13.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 19q13.32

CGB8 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CGB8 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 19         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC19M049550:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
49,550,895 bp from pter      End:
49,552,400 bp from pter
Size:
1,506 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CGHB_HUMAN, P01233 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Choriogonadotropin subunit beta precursor  
Size: 165 amino acids; 17739 Da
Subunit: Heterodimer of a common alpha chain and a unique beta chain which confers biological specificity to
thyrotropin, lutropin, follitropin and gonadotropin
Subcellular location: Secreted
Developmental stage: Made by the first trimester placenta
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAA25068.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Sequence=CAA25069.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;
4 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for CGB8:
1HCN (3D)        1HRP (3D)        1QFW (3D)        1XUL (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A1A5E0 B9ZVP5 Q13991 Q14000 Q3KPI3 Q3SY41 Q8WTT5 Q8WXL1 Q8WXL2 Q8WXL3
Q8WXL4
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P01233-1   P01233-2   (Ref.2 (CAA25069) sequence is in conflict in positions: 7:G->R, 9:A->V, 12:D->G)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CGB8: NX_P01233

Explore proteomics data for CGB8 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P01233

  • CGB8 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    CGB8 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_149439.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000403649   ENSP00000347582  
    Reactome Protein details: P01233
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for CGB8: 
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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region ----

    CGB8 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    CGB8 Antibody Products: 
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    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR018245 Gonadotropin_bsu_CS
     IPR001545 Gonadotropin_bsu
     IPR006208 Cys_knot

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P01233

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P01233

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001545 Gonadotropin
    IPB002400 Growth factor cystine knot superfamily signature
    IPB006208 Cystine knot domain


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CGHB_HUMAN, P01233
    Similarity: Belongs to the glycoprotein hormones subunit beta family


    CGB8 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CGHB_HUMAN, P01233
    Function: Stimulates the ovaries to synthesize the steroids that are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005179hormone activity ----
         
    CGB8 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for CGB8:
     Decreased Hepatitis C virus re 

    Animal Models:
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    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    Pathways by sourceSee SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    4        Reactome Pathways for CGB8
        Peptide hormone biosynthesis
    Metabolism of proteins
    Glycoprotein hormones
    Peptide hormone metabolism



    CGB8 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for CGB8

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 4 interactants - click image to see more details)

    5/8 Interacting proteins for CGB8 (P012332, 3 ENSP000003475824) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 8)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CGAP012152, 3, ENSP000003585954MINT-24926 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000358595
    CKBP122773I2D: score=1 
    EWSR1Q018443I2D: score=1 
    FSHBP012253I2D: score=1 
    LHCGRP228883I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/6 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006915apoptotic process ----
    GO:0007165signal transduction ----
    GO:0007267cell-cell signaling ----
    GO:0007292female gamete generation ----
    GO:0016486peptide hormone processing ----

    CGB8 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for CGB8 (CGHB)

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CGHB_HUMAN, P01233
    Pharmaceutical: Available under the names Novarel (Ferring) and Profasi (Serono). Used as adjunctive therapy in
    the treatment of obesity. There is no substantial evidence that it increases weight loss beyond that resulting
    from caloric restriction, that it causes a more attractive or 'normal' distribution of fat, or that it decreases
    the hunger and discomfort associated with calorie-restricted diets

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about CGB8 / CGHB

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for CGB8 gene: 
    NM_033183.2  

    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000448456(uc002pmb.4) ENST00000355414
    miRNA
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    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for CGB8
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    Clone
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    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for CGB8
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      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CGB8
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CGB8

    24/247 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 247):

    BC006290 NM_033378 T50278 AA331012 BC051378 AA330859 NM_033043 CA944648 
    BC069367 BQ007392 BX439414 BU752315 AA330755 BE733206 BX358522 H93656 
    N29831 BQ011219 AA330413 CR597606 BC069526 BT006890 CF527786 NM_033183 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    CGB8 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    CGB8 Expression
    About this image


    See CGB8 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for CGB8

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CGHB_HUMAN, P01233
    Tissue specificity: Placenta

        SABiosciences Custom PCR Arrays for CGB8
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CGB8

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for CGB8 gene from 3/8 species (see all 8)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Uncharacterized protein
    37(a)
    1 → many
    6(80158039-80158659)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii lhb6
    luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide
    39(a)
    1 → many
    Zv9_scaffold3525(54871-57837)
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Gpb56
    Glycoprotein hormone beta 5
    13(a)
    1 → many
    2LHet(167215-167979)
            Species with no ortholog for CGB8

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CGB8 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CGB8 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for CGB8 gene
    CGB51 2  CGB1 2  TSHB2  FSHB2  CGB22  LHB2  ENSG000002673352  CGB72  
    CGB12  
    8 SIMAP similar genes for CGB8 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     CGHB_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    CGB    CGB5    CGB1    CGB2    CGB7    LHB
    FSHB    TSHB

    CGB8 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/128 SNPs in CGB8 are shown (see all 128)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 19 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs21614121,2
    C,F--49550628(-) GGTGGT/CGGGCG 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- C:0.49NA 120
    rs713527231,2
    C--49550846(+) ACCCAC/TCCTGT 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
    rs713527251,2
    C--49550936(+) GTGTCC/TGAGGG 2 S syn11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
    rs621278711,2
    C,F--49550972(+) AGGCTG/CGGGGG 2 /P syn11Minor allele frequency- C:0.17EU 367
    rs2000879151,2
    F--49551000(+) AGGAGT/GCCTGG 2 /D /A mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.01EU 605
    rs2012104671,2
    F--49551513(+) CACACG/TGGGCA 2 P syn11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01EU 679
    rs2001938941,2
    F--49551556(+) TGGGGC/TGGCAC 2 H R mis11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00EU 641
    rs1512417441,2
    F--49551573(+) CGAAGC/TGGCTC 2 P syn11Minor allele frequency- T:0.03EU 500
    rs1450497521,2
    --49551693(+) CCCATC/TCCACG 1 -- int10--------
    rs40024161,2
    C--49551823(+) CATTTC/TAGATC 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 2

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CGB8 (49550895 - 49552400 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 9 variations for CGB8:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv833859CNV Loss17160897
    nsv912248CNV Loss21882294
    nsv833857CNV Loss17160897
    nsv912251CNV Loss21882294
    dgv3970n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv912252CNV Loss21882294
    dgv592n67CNV Loss20364138
    esv22462CNV Gain19812545
    nsv9739CNV Gain+Loss18304495

    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 608827    OMIM disorders: --

    3 diseases for CGB8:    About MalaCards
    mixed ductal-endocrine carcinoma    cryptococcosis    obesity

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for CGB8:
    Cryptococcosis

    CGB8 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Export disorders for CGB8 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for CGB8 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 27):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CGB8)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin is encoded by multiple genes. (PubMed id 6194155)1, 2, 3 Policastro P....Boime I. (1983)
    2. A map of the hCG beta-LH beta gene cluster. (PubMed id 2422163)1, 2 Policastro P.F.... Boime I. (1986)
    3. Evolution of the genes for the beta subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone. (PubMed id 6690982)1, 2 Talmadge K.... Fiddes J.C. (1984)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)
    5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (2004)
    6. The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19. (PubMed id 15057824)2 Grimwood J.... Lucas S.M. (2004)
    7. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (2002)
    8. Chorionic gonadotropin has a recent origin within primates and an evolutionary history of selection. (PubMed id 11861891)2 Maston G.A. and Ruvolo M. (2002)
    9. Malignant transformation of nontrophoblastic cells is associated with the expression of chorionic gonadotropin beta genes normally transcribed in trophoblastic cells. (PubMed id 9012484)1 Bellet D....Vidaud M. (1997)
    10. Crystal structure of human chorionic gonadotropin. (PubMed id 8202136)2 Lapthorn A.J.... Isaacs N.W. (1994)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 94115 HGNC: 16453 AceView: CGB5andCGB2 Ensembl:ENSG00000213030 euGenes: HUgn94115
    ECgene: CGB8 H-InvDB: CGB8

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for CGB8 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_chorionic_gonadotropin

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for CGB8 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving CGB8

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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