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CDK4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 78
GCID: GC12M058142

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4

  See CDK4-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 41 2
Cell Division Protein Kinase 42 3
PSK-J32 3
EC 2.7.11.223 8
CMM32 5
EC 2.7.118

External Ids:    HGNC: 17731   Entrez Gene: 10192   Ensembl: ENSG000001354467   OMIM: 1238295   UniProtKB: P118023   

Export aliases for CDK4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC12M057743 GC12M058284 GC12M057858 GC12M056428 GC12M055178


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for CDK4 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar
to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase
complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The activity of this kinase is restricted to the
G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16(INK4a). This
kinase was shown to be responsible for the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product (Rb). Mutations in this
gene as well as in its related proteins including D-type cyclins, p16(INK4a) and Rb were all found to be
associated with tumorigenesis of a variety of cancers. Multiple polyadenylation sites of this gene have been
reported. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for CDK4 Gene:
CDK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with CDK4 include melanoma, cutaneous malignant, 3, and atypical mole syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include cyclin binding and protein complex binding. An important paralog of this gene is CDK3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CDK4_HUMAN, P11802
Function: Ser/Thr-kinase component of cyclin D-CDK4 (DC) complexes that phosphorylate and inhibit members of the
retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulate the cell-cycle during G(1)/S transition.
Phosphorylation of RB1 allows dissociation of the transcription factor E2F from the RB/E2F complexes and the
subsequent transcription of E2F target genes which are responsible for the progression through the G(1) phase.
Hypophosphorylates RB1 in early G(1) phase. Cyclin D-CDK4 complexes are major integrators of various mitogenenic
and antimitogenic signals. Also phosphorylates SMAD3 in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and represses its
transcriptional activity. Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear
translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex

summary for CDK4 Gene:
Cdks (cyclin-dependent kinases) are heteromeric serine/threonine kinases that control progression through
the cell cycle in concert with their regulatory subunits, the cyclins. Although there are 12 different cdk
genes, only 5 have been shown to directly drive the cell cycle (Cdk1, -2, -3, -4, and -6). Following
extracellular mitogenic stimuli, cyclin D gene expression is upregulated. Cdk4 forms a complex with cyclin D
and phosphorylates Rb protein, leading to liberation of the transcription factor E2F. E2F induces
transcription of genes including cyclins A and E, DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase. Cdk4-cyclin E
complexes form and initiate G1/S transition. Subsequently, Cdk1-cyclin B complexes form and induce G2/M
phase transition. Cdk1-cyclin B activation induces the breakdown of the nuclear envelope and the initiation
of mitosis. Cdks are constitutively expressed and are regulated by several kinases and phosphastases,
including Wee1, CDK-activating kinase and Cdc25 phosphatase. In addition, cyclin expression is induced by
molecular signals at specific points of the cell cycle, leading to activation of Cdks. Tight control of Cdks
is essential as misregulation can induce unscheduled proliferation, and genomic and chromosomal instability.
Cdk4 has been shown to be mutated in some types of cancer, whilst a chromosomal rearrangement can lead to
Cdk6 overexpression in lymphoma, leukemia and melanoma. Cdks are currently under investigation as potential
targets for antineoplastic therapy, but as Cdks are essential for driving each cell cycle phase, therapeutic
strategies that block Cdk activity are unlikely to selectively target tumor cells.

Gene Wiki entry for CDK4 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 4) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000012.11  NC_018923.2  NT_029419.13  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the CDK4 gene promoter:
         CREB   ATF-2   deltaCREB   c-Jun   C/EBPalpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidCDK4 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CDK4

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CDK4


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12q14   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12q14.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12q13

CDK4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CDK4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12M058142:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
58,141,510 bp from pter      End:
58,149,796 bp from pter
Size:
8,287 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CDK4_HUMAN, P11802 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4  
Size: 303 amino acids; 33730 Da
Subunit: Component of the D-CDK4 complex, composed of CDK4 and some D-type G1 cyclin (CCND1, CCND2 or CCND3).
Interacts directly in the complex with CCND1, CCND2 or CCND3. Interacts with SEI1 and ZNF655. Forms a ternary
complex, cyclin D-CDK4-CDKN1B, involved in modulating CDK4 enzymatic activity. Interacts directly with CDKN1B
(phosphorylated on 'Tyr-88' and 'Tyr-89'); the interaction allows assembly of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex, Thr-172
phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and enhances the cyclin D-CDK4 complex activity. CDK4 activity is either
inhibited or enhanced depending on stoichiometry of complex. The non-tyrosine-phosphorylated form of CDKN1B
prevents T-loop phosphorylation of CDK4 producing inactive CDK4. Interacts (unphosphorylated form) with CDK2.
Also forms ternary complexes with CDKN1A or CDKN2A. Interacts directly with CDKN1A (via its N-terminal); the
interaction promotes the assembly of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex, its nuclear translocation and promotes the cyclin
D-dependent enzyme activity of CDK4. Interacts with CCND1; the interaction is prevented with the binding of CCND1
to INSM1 during cell cycle progression
6 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for CDK4:
1LD2 (3D)        2W96 (3D)        2W99 (3D)        2W9F (3D)        2W9Z (3D)        3G33 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: O00576 Q6FG61

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CDK4: NX_P11802

Explore proteomics data for CDK4 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Phosphorylation at Thr-172 is required for enzymatic activity. Phosphorylated, in vitro, at this site by
    CCNH-CDK7, but, in vivo, appears to be phosphorylated by a proline-directed kinase. In the cyclin D-CDK4-CDKN1B
    complex, this phosphorylation and consequent CDK4 enzyme activity, is dependent on the tyrosine phosphorylation
    state of CDKN1B. Thus, in proliferating cells, CDK4 within the complex is phosphorylated on Thr-172 in the
    T-loop. In resting cells, phosphorylation on Thr-172 is prevented by the non-tyrosine-phosphorylated form of
    CDKN1B1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys22, Lys35, Lys106, Lys155, Lys211, Lys282, Lys297
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for CDK4 (P11802) (see all 17)
     ENILVTS  HPNVVRL  LADFGLA  ETIKDLM 


    See CDK4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000066.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000257904   ENSP00000447005   ENSP00000448885   ENSP00000447779   ENSP00000447274  
     ENSP00000448098   ENSP00000449391   ENSP00000449179   ENSP00000448963   ENSP00000446763  
     ENSP00000449725   ENSP00000439076   ENSP00000316889  
    Reactome Protein details: P11802

    CDK4 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene MassSpec for CDK4
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for CDK4
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    Novus Biologicals CDK4 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals CDK4 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for CDK4
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for CDK4
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for CDK4
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for CDK4

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for CDK4 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for CDK4 (39 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for CDK4

    CDK4 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of CDK4
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    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for CDK4 
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    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for CDK4
    Novus Biologicals CDK4 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for CDK4
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for CDK4
    ThermoFisher Antibody for CDK4
    antibodies-online antibodies for CDK4 (193 products) 

    CDK4 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    GenScript Custom Assay Services for CDK4
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for CDK4
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for CDK4
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for CDK4 
    antibodies-online kits for CDK4 (29 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    CDK: Cyclin-dependent kinases

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: cyclin-dependent kinase 4
    CDK4 subfamily

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR002290 Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS
     IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P11802

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P11802

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CDK4_HUMAN, P11802
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC2/CDKX subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    Find genes that share domains with CDK4           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CDK4_HUMAN, P11802
    Function: Ser/Thr-kinase component of cyclin D-CDK4 (DC) complexes that phosphorylate and inhibit members of the
    retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulate the cell-cycle during G(1)/S transition.
    Phosphorylation of RB1 allows dissociation of the transcription factor E2F from the RB/E2F complexes and the
    subsequent transcription of E2F target genes which are responsible for the progression through the G(1) phase.
    Hypophosphorylates RB1 in early G(1) phase. Cyclin D-CDK4 complexes are major integrators of various mitogenenic
    and antimitogenic signals. Also phosphorylates SMAD3 in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and represses its
    transcriptional activity. Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear
    translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
    Enzyme regulation: Both phosphorylation at Thr-172 and binding of a D-type cyclin are necessary for enzymatic
    activity. Full activation of the cyclin-D-CDK4 complex appears to require other factors such as recruitment of
    the substrate via a substrate recruitment motif, and/or formation of the CDKN1B ternary complex. Inhibited by
    INK4 family members. In resting cells, the non-tyrosine-phosphorylated form of CDKN1B prevents phosphorylation at
    Thr-172 and inactivation, while, in proliferating cells, tyrosine phosphorylation of CDKN1B allows
    phosphorylation of Thr-172 of CDK4 and subsequennt activation

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for CDK4:
    cyclin dependent kinase 4 involved in cell cycle regulation (G1 to S transition),complexing with cyclin D
    (D1,D2,D3),amplified in malignant glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma,and in diffuse large B cell lymphoma ;
    amplified in osteosarcoma with OS9,SAS and PRIM1and in sporadic breast carcinomas,predisposing to familial
    melanoma by inducing abnormal repair of ultraviolet radiation. Loss of CDK4 expression causes insulin deficient
    diabetes,and CDK4 activation results in B islet cell hyperplasia in mice

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.221 2 EC 2.7.112

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity ----
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity ----
    GO:0004693cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA8114739
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI11896535
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with CDK4           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         4 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for CDK4:
     Decreased focal adhesion (FA)   Decreased substrate adherent c  Decreased viability  Upregulation of Wnt/beta-caten 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 6 alleles(MGI details for Cdk4) (see all 19):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary  embryogenesis 
     endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system 
     integument  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  muscle  nervous system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with CDK4           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for CDK4: Cdk4tm2.1Bbd Cdk4tm1Kiyo Cdk4tm1Bbd

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for CDK4

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target CDK4:
    hsa-mir-302a-3p (MIRT003636), hsa-mir-766-3p (MIRT039027), hsa-mir-24-3p (MIRT000117), hsa-mir-320a (MIRT044439), hsa-mir-145-5p (MIRT005879), hsa-mir-34a-5p (MIRT000763), hsa-mir-34c-5p (MIRT000765), hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT021016), hsa-mir-25-3p (MIRT050205), hsa-mir-34b-5p (MIRT000764), hsa-mir-122-5p (MIRT023403), hsa-mir-124-3p (MIRT002625), hsa-mir-195-5p (MIRT006252), hsa-mir-15b-5p (MIRT046412), hsa-mir-34b-3p (MIRT003450), hsa-mir-193b-3p (MIRT041351), hsa-mir-449b-5p (MIRT016137), hsa-mir-449a (MIRT016631), hsa-mir-1 (MIRT024107)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CDK4 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CDK4 (see all 12):
    hsa-miR-3163 hsa-miR-3910 hsa-miR-198 hsa-miR-545 hsa-miR-373* hsa-miR-486-5p hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-3154
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCDK4 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Gene Editing
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    Products:
         
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CDK4 (NM_000075)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for CDK4
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for CDK4
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CDK4
    Addgene plasmids for CDK4 

    Cell Line
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    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CDK4


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    CDK4_HUMAN, P11802: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Membrane. Note=Cytoplasmic when non-complexed. Forms a cyclin D-CDK4
    complex in the cytoplasm as cells progress through G(1) phase. The complex accumulates on the nuclear membrane
    and enters the nucleus on transition from G(1) to S phase. Also present in nucleoli and heterochromatin lumps.
    Colocalizes with RB1 after release into the nucleus
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol5
    nucleus5
    cytoskeleton2
    extracellular2
    mitochondrion2
    peroxisome1
    plasma membrane1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000307cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex IDA17420273
    GO:0000785chromatin IDA18827403
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA16109376
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005667transcription factor complex IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with CDK4           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for CDK4 About   (see all 57)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Glioma
    Glioma0.51
    Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma0.36
    Non-small cell lung cancer0.51
    Bladder cancer0.31
    Melanoma0.43
    2Cyclins and Cell Cycle Regulation
    Cyclins and Cell Cycle Regulation0.67
    G1 Phase0.31
    G1-S Phase Transition0.67
    Cyclin D associated events in G10.31
    Cell Cycle Control by BTG Proteins0.36
    3Cell cycle
    Cell cycle0.59
    Cell cycle0.59
    4p53 signaling pathway
    DNA damage response0.41
    p53 signaling pathway0.41
    5p53 Signaling
    p53 Signaling0.38
    p53 Pathway0.38


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with CDK4           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 R&D Systems Pathway for CDK4
        Akt Signaling Pathway

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for CDK4 (see all 12)
        Cell Cycle Control by BTG Proteins
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    Calpain Protease Regulates Cellular Mechanics
    Glioblastoma Multiforme
    G1-S Phase Transition

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for CDK4
        Cell Cycle / Checkpoint Control

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for CDK4 (see all 7)
        DNA damage ATM/ATR regulation of G1/S checkpoint
    Cell cycle Regulation of G1/S transition (part 2)
    Cell cycle ESR1 regulation of G1/S transition
    Cell cycle Regulation of G1/S transition (part 1)
    Cell cycle Cell cycle (generic schema)

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for CDK4 (see all 20)
        Cell cycle
    DNA damage response
    G1 to S cell cycle control
    Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway
    Spinal Cord Injury

    1 Sino Biological Pathway for CDK4
        p53 Pathway

    Selected Reactome Pathways for CDK4 (see all 7)
        Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence
    Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation
    Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP)
    Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Cyclin D1
    Oncogene Induced Senescence


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for CDK4) (see all 17):
        Cell cycle
    p53 signaling pathway
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Tight junction
    T cell receptor signaling pathway

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CDK4 (see all 10): 
              Oncogenes & Tumor Suppressor Genes in human mouse rat
              Tight Junctions in human mouse rat
              Adipogenesis in human mouse rat
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat
              Cell Cycle in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CDK4

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for CDK4 (P118021, 2, 3 ENSP000002579044) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 393)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CDKN1AP389361, 2, 3, ENSP000002447414EBI-295644,EBI-375077 MINT-3370718 MINT-50418 I2D: score=8 STRING: ENSP00000244741
    ZNF655Q8N7201, 2, 3, ENSP000003938764EBI-295644,EBI-625509 MINT-50595 MINT-50594 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000393876
    CDKN1BP465271, 2, 3, ENSP000002288724EBI-295644,EBI-519280 MINT-3379718 I2D: score=8 STRING: ENSP00000228872
    DDAH2O958652, 3MINT-8251359 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000206395O958652, 3MINT-8251359 I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 23):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000082G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IMP7603984
    GO:0000278mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation IDA8114739
    GO:0007165signal transduction IEA--
    GO:0007623circadian rhythm IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with CDK4           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for CDK4
    Selected ApexBio Compounds for CDK4 (see all 20)     About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    AT7519novel small molecule effective as a multi-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor[844442-38-2]
    AZD-5438Potent CDK1/2/9 inhibitor[602306-29-6]
    BMS265246potent and selective Cdk1/Cdk2 inhibitor[582315-72-8]
    BS-181 HClsmall molecule inhibitor which is highly selective for Cdk7 activity[1397219-81-6]
    Deferasiroxrationally-designed oral iron chelator[201530-41-8]
    Dinaciclib (SCH727965)CDK inhibitor[779353-01-4]
    Flavopiridol hydrochloridepan-cdk inhibitor[131740-09-5]
    LEE011orally available CDK inhibitor[1211441-98-3]
    LY2835219orally available CDK inhibitor, targets the CDK4 and CDK6[1231930-82-7]
    Nu 6027potent inhibitor of cellular ATR activity[220036-08-8]

    Compounds for CDK4 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    SU 9516Potent cdk2 inhibitor[377090-84-1]
    Purvalanol ACyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor[212844-53-6]
    Ro 3306Cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 1 inhibitor[872573-93-8]
    Purvalanol BCyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor[212844-54-7]
    KenpaullonePotent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Also inhibits GSK-3[142273-20-9]

    2 HMDB Compounds for CDK4    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--

    2 DrugBank Compounds for CDK4    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    FlavopiridolAlvocidib (see all 5)131740-09-5target--11752352
    Purvalanol-- --target--11752352

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CDK4 gene (see all 118)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    fascaplysin 85 13 10973815 (4), 16816972 (2), 16936279 (1), 16904725 (1) (see all 7)
    nu6102 67 2 15928920 (2)
    flavopiridol 65.7 12 8674031 (4), 10493518 (2), 16127615 (1), 10375610 (1) (see all 7)
    ag-126 62.1 4 19080374 (1), 17374178 (1), 18703151 (1), 16125882 (1)
    17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin 61.7 4 18281495 (1), 18245548 (1), 18193424 (1), 17157164 (1)
    geldanamycin 60.4 4 14633716 (1), 9390191 (1), 17643429 (1)
    dl 111it 53.2 4 16133535 (1), 16281086 (1)
    silymarin 51.9 10 16322307 (2), 9581834 (1), 12429923 (1), 19150384 (1) (see all 8)
    indole-3-carbinol 51 1 14635088 (1)
    olomoucine 50.6 2 17081516 (1), 9828096 (1)

    1 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotation for CDK4 gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    somatropin recombinantCA  



    Find genes that share compounds with CDK4           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for CDK4 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000075.3  NM_052984.1  

    Unigene Cluster for CDK4:

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 4
    Hs.95577  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000075
    16 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000257904(uc001spv.3 uc010ssb.2 uc001spw.3) ENST00000552713
    ENST00000549606 ENST00000553237 ENST00000546489 ENST00000551888 ENST00000547281
    ENST00000550419 ENST00000551800 ENST00000552254 ENST00000551706 ENST00000552388
    ENST00000552862 ENST00000547853 ENST00000540325 ENST00000312990
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CDK4 (see all 12):
    hsa-miR-3163 hsa-miR-3910 hsa-miR-198 hsa-miR-545 hsa-miR-373* hsa-miR-486-5p hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-3154
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCDK4 3' UTR sequence
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for CDK4
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CDK4 (NM_000075)
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    Addgene plasmids for CDK4 
    Primer
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CDK4

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK297901.1 AK310724.1 AK313701.1 BC003644.2 BC005864.2 BC010153.2 BC015669.2 CR407668.1 
    CR542247.1 M14505.1 U79269.1 Z48970.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 27):

    DT.219465  DT.100851448  DT.92408932  DT.40113477  DT.445603  DT.100851457  DT.95222712  DT.97856917 
    DT.100851439  DT.121198842  DT.121642996  DT.95284131  DT.97789050  DT.121198761  DT.121198896  DT.91928527 
    DT.95339116  DT.100701889  DT.100716609  DT.121198886  DT.91772477  DT.91921800  DT.95339064  DT.95339068 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 974):

    AW245955 AA404721 BM466281 BM811129 NM_000075 AW574796 CR591116 AW403999 
    BM808402 BU151684 BQ774563 CB152631 BM846734 BM825432 BU943900 BU508998 
    BE272287 BC010153 BQ061182 BQ928514 BE206023 BE091488 BU146932 BE549560 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CDK4 (see all 9)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b
    SP1:                                -                                               -     -                                 
    SP2:                                -                                         -           -                                 
    SP3:                                -     -     -                                   -     -                                 
    SP4:                                -     -     -     -                             -     -                                 
    SP5:                                -     -                                                                                 


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for CDK4

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    CDK4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GAAGGAAGAA
    CDK4 Expression
    About this image


    CDK4 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 15) fully expand
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Midbrain tegmentum
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
             Metanephros
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
             Thymus
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
    CDK4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    CDK4 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.95577
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CDK4 (see all 10): 
              Oncogenes & Tumor Suppressor Genes in human mouse rat
              Tight Junctions in human mouse rat
              Adipogenesis in human mouse rat
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat
              Cell Cycle in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CDK4

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for CDK4 gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Cdk41 , 5 cyclin-dependent kinase 41, 5 88.12(n)1
    94.72(a)1
      10 (74.50 cM)5
    125671  NM_009870.31  NP_034000.11 
     1270635345 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves --
    Uncharacterized protein
    42(a)
    many ↔ many
    JH375708.1(2783-4171)
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia CDK46
    cyclin-dependent kinase 4
    77(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    2(66672480-66703503)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC525742 hypothetical protein MGC52574 73.65(n)    BC051599.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.144742 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 75.76(n)    BI673022.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Cdk43 cell proliferation protein
    serine/threonine kinase
    47(a)   2 53C9   --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea cdk-43 serine/threonine kinase (CDC2/CDKX
    subfamily)
    42(a)   X(13551275-13552978)   --
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes CDC286
    Catalytic subunit of the main cell cycle cyclin-de...
    42(a)
    1 → many
    II(560078-560974) YBR160W


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CDK4 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CDK4 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for CDK4 gene
    CDK32  CDK62  CDK22  CDK12  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for CDK4 using alignment to 13 protein entries:     CDK4_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    CDK6    CDK3    CAMK2G    CDC2    CDK1    CDK7
    CAMK2A    STK17A    CDC2L1    CDK11B    CDC2L2    SPEG
    CDK11A    CDK5    CAMK2B    DKFZp686L20222    SRPK2    CDK15

    Find genes that share paralogs with CDK4           About GenesLikeMe


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for CDK4
    PGOHUM00000244827


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for CDK4 (see all 206)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs115473281,2,,4
    C,HMelanoma, cutaneous malignant 3 (CMM3)4 other191950881(-) AGGCCC/TGTGAT 2 R C mis1 ese36Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NS EA NA 410
    VAR_0062014
    Melanoma, cutaneous malignant 3 (CMM3)4--see VAR_0062012 R H mis40--------
    VAR_0211524
    Melanoma, cutaneous malignant 3 (CMM3)4--see VAR_0211522 N S mis40--------
    rs1048943401,2
    Cother191950882(-) GGCCCA/GTGATC 2 H R mis10--------
    rs1903357251,2
    --55178038(+) TCCTCC/TAAAAT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1819183441,2
    --55178259(+) TAAATC/TAGGGA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs32116381,2
    C,F,A,H--55178261(-) TATCCC/GTGATT 1 -- ds500113Minor allele frequency- G:0.07NS NA WA 784
    rs25186891,2
    C,H--55178307(+) TAATAA/GGCAGG 1 -- ds50014Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NS EA 404
    rs32116371,2
    C,F,H--55178328(-) GCTAAA/TCTTTC 1 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- T:0.02NS WA 404
    rs1870632671,2
    --55178347(+) AAGTAA/GAAGCC 1 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CDK4 (58141510 - 58149796 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 7 variations for CDK4:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv899121CNV Loss21882294
    nsv510601CNV Loss20534489
    nsv899123CNV Loss21882294
    nsv470296CNV Loss18288195
    nsv470297CNV Gain18288195
    nsv826384CNV Gain20364138
    nsv826386CNV Gain20364138

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): CDK4
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    3 Copy Number PCR Panels containing CDK4:
    Oncogenes & Tumor Suppressor Genes 384HC
    Breast Cancer
    Kinases & Phosphatases
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing CDK4
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for CDK4

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 123829   
    OMIM disorders: 609048  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CDK4_HUMAN, P11802
  • Melanoma, cutaneous malignant 3 (CMM3) [MIM:609048]: A malignant neoplasm of melanocytes, arising de novo
    or from a pre-existing benign nevus, which occurs most often in the skin but also may involve other sites.
    Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • Selected diseases for CDK4 (see all 33):    
    About MalaCards
    melanoma, cutaneous malignant, 3    atypical mole syndrome    dedifferentiated liposarcoma    cdk4-related cutaneous malignant melanoma
    undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver    juxtacortical osteosarcoma    retroperitoneal sarcoma    spindle cell liposarcoma
    embryonal sarcoma    superficial spreading melanoma    mixed-type liposarcoma    familial melanoma
    cutaneous malignant melanoma    atypical lipomatous tumor    chordoid glioma    plasma cell leukemia
    spindle cell lipoma    ewing's family of tumors    oligodendroglioma    anaplastic oligodendroglioma

    8 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for CDK4:
    Retinoblastoma     Liposarcoma     Melanoma     Lipoma
    Malignant glioma     Carcinoma     Juxtacortical osteosarcoma     Breast cancer

    Find genes that share disorders with CDK4           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CDK4 gene (see all 96)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    retinoblastoma 91.8 191 10493518 (2), 9103470 (2), 7585516 (2), 9488660 (2) (see all 99)
    liposarcoma dedifferentiated 79.7 20 15221942 (4), 18214854 (2), 19737942 (2), 19946100 (2) (see all 13)
    liposarcoma 72 27 14694526 (4), 18820664 (3), 19626636 (2), 19823827 (2) (see all 16)
    tumors 71.5 390 17139501 (5), 9703873 (5), 16160477 (5), 12163365 (4) (see all 99)
    melanoma 70.4 240 8746340 (5), 9036865 (5), 9311594 (5), 17505264 (4) (see all 99)
    cancer 68 121 11756559 (4), 10398121 (3), 14648178 (2), 17481885 (2) (see all 89)
    glioblastoma 63.4 38 8806696 (4), 8811128 (4), 9600204 (3), 8586464 (2) (see all 17)
    multiple tumors 62.7 19 8821952 (2), 9827724 (1), 10094876 (1), 7744694 (1) (see all 18)
    anaplastic astrocytoma 58.7 3 7987821 (1), 16319692 (1), 9161727 (1)
    glioma 54.7 30 7585516 (3), 9815774 (3), 7954404 (2), 10587703 (2) (see all 19)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): CDK4
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: CDK4 (48 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): CDK4

    Export disorders for CDK4 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for CDK4 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1626):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CDK4)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Differential regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6, evidence that CDK4 might not be activated by CDK7, and design of a CDK6 activating mutation. (PubMed id 19487459)1, 2, 9 Bockstaele L.... Roger P.P. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2009)
    2. Prevalence of p16 and CDK4 germline mutations in 48 melanoma-prone families in France. (PubMed id 9425228)1, 2, 9 Soufir N.... Bressac-De Paillerets B. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 1998)
    3. Complete scanning of the CDK4 gene by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis: a novel missense mutation but low overall frequency of mutations in sporadic metastatic malignant melanoma. (PubMed id 9311594)1, 2, 9 Guldberg P....Zeuthen J. (Int. J. Cancer 1997)
    4. Regulated activating Thr172 phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4(CDK4): its relationship with cyclins and CDK 'inhibitors'. (PubMed id 16782892)1, 2, 9 Bockstaele L.... Coulonval K. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2006)
    5. Crystal structure of human CDK4 in complex with a D-type cyclin. (PubMed id 19237565)1, 2, 9 Day P.J....Jhoti H. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009)
    6. CDKN2A and CDK4 variants in Latvian melanoma patients: analysis of a clinic-based population. (PubMed id 17505264)1, 4, 9 Pjanova D....Heisele O. (Melanoma Res. 2007)
    7. Chromosomal mapping of human CDK2, CDK4, and CDK5 cell cycle kinase genes. (PubMed id 8275715)1, 3, 9 Demetrick D.J....Beach D.H. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1994)
    8. Genomic rearrangements of the CDKN2A locus are infrequent in Italian malignant melanoma families without evidence of CDKN2A/CDK4 point mutations. (PubMed id 19011513)1, 4, 9 Vignoli M....Genuardi M. (Melanoma Res. 2008)
    9. Coamplification of the CDK4 gene with MDM2 and GLI in human sarcomas. (PubMed id 8221695)1, 2, 9 Khatib Z.A....Look A.T. (Cancer Res. 1993)
    10. Migratory localization of cyclin D2-Cdk4 complex suggests a spatial regulation of the G1-S transition. (PubMed id 18827403)1, 2, 9 Wang Z.... Meng A. (Cell Struct. Funct. 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 1019 HGNC: 1773 AceView: CDK4 Ensembl:ENSG00000135446 euGenes: HUgn1019
    ECgene: CDK4 Kegg: 1019 H-InvDB: CDK4

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for CDK4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for CDK4 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    GeneReviewshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1116/?term=CDK4[genesymbol]
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/cdk4/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for CDK4 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving CDK4

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from genOway)
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014 , 21 Aug 2014 , 8 Sep 2014 , 7 Oct 2014

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