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CD28 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 64
GCID: GC02P204535

CD28 Molecule

(Previous name: CD28 antigen (Tp44))
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
CD28 Molecule1 2     Tp442
CD28 Antigen2 3     T-Cell-Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD282
CD28 Antigen (Tp44)1     TP443
T-Cell-Specific Surface Glycoprotein1     

External Ids:    HGNC: 16531   Entrez Gene: 9402   Ensembl: ENSG000001785627   OMIM: 1867605   UniProtKB: P107473   

Export aliases for CD28 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02P202788 GC02P203295 GC02P204773 GC02P204396 GC02P204279 GC02P196418


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for CD28 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is essential for T-cell proliferation and survival, cytokine production, and
T-helper type-2 development. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have
been found for this gene.(provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011)

GeneCards Summary for CD28 Gene:
CD28 (CD28 molecule) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with CD28 include chronic graft versus host disease, and sialadenitis. GO annotations related to this gene include SH3/SH2 adaptor activity and identical protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is CTLA4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CD28_HUMAN, P10747
Function: Involved in T-cell activation, the induction of cell proliferation and cytokine production and promotion
of T-cell survival

Gene Wiki entry for CD28 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000002.12  NT_005403.18  NC_018913.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the CD28 gene promoter:
         AP-2alpha isoform 3   p300   STAT3   Nkx2-5   AP-2alpha isoform 2   AP-2alpha isoform 4   AP-2alpha   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidCD28 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CD28

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CD28


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2q33   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2q33.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2q33

CD28 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CD28 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02P204535:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
204,571,198 bp from pter      End:
204,603,635 bp from pter
Size:
32,438 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CD28_HUMAN, P10747 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 precursor  
Size: 220 amino acids; 25066 Da
Subunit: Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts with DUSP14. Binds to CD80/B7-1 and CD86/B7-2/B70
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for CD28:
1YJD (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8KAC1 Q13964 Q52M23 Q70WG0 Q8NI54 Q8NI55 Q8NI56 Q8WXJ2 Q9BYV0
Alternative splicing: 7 isoforms:  P10747-1   P10747-2   P10747-3   P10747-4   P10747-5   P10747-6   P10747-7   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CD28: NX_P10747

Explore proteomics data for CD28 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn37, Asn71, Asn92, Asn105, Asn129
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See CD28 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001230006.1  NP_001230007.1  NP_006130.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000393648   ENSP00000324890   ENSP00000363605   ENSP00000363602  
    Reactome Protein details: P10747

    CD28 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for CD28
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    Novus Biologicals CD28 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for CD28
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for CD28
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for CD28

    CD28 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of CD28
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    Abcam antibodies for CD28
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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for CD28

    CD28 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for CD28
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for CD28


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    CD: CD molecules
    VSET: Immunoglobulin superfamily / V-set domain containing

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR013783 Ig-like_fold
     IPR013106 Ig_V-set
     IPR008093 CD28

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P10747

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P10747

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB008093 CD28 antigen signature

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CD28_HUMAN, P10747
    Similarity: Contains 1 Ig-like V-type (immunoglobulin-like) domain


    CD28 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CD28_HUMAN, P10747
    Function: Involved in T-cell activation, the induction of cell proliferation and cytokine production and promotion
    of T-cell survival

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for CD28:
    cell differentiation antigen CD28 (Tp44),44kDa,identified by monoclonal antibody 9.3,KOLT2,expressed in T
    lymphocyte,CD80,CD86 ligand,stimulating PDE7 for T cell activation,regulated by CBLB

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002020protease binding IPI12777399
    GO:0005070SH3/SH2 adaptor activity IDA19641626
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI10820259
    GO:0015026coreceptor activity TAS9784967
    GO:0042802identical protein binding NAS3159820
         
    CD28 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for CD28:
     Decreased TP53 protein express 

         13 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 8 alleles(MGI details for Cd28):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland 
     hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument  nervous system 
     normal  tumorigenesis  vision/eye 

    CD28 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for CD28: Cd28tm1Pjl Cd28tm1Mak Cd28tm1Shr

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for CD28
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for CD28

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for CD28
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for CD28

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target CD28:
    hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT029645)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CD28 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CD28 (see all 57):
    hsa-miR-3685 hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-3194-5p hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-513a-5p hsa-miR-218-1* hsa-miR-503 hsa-miR-578
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CD28

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CD28 (NM_006139)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for CD28
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    CD28_HUMAN, P10747: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    cytosol4
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane TAS9784967
    GO:0009897external side of plasma membrane IDA11390434

    CD28 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for CD28 About   (see all 32)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1Allograft rejection
    Allograft rejection0.86
    Autoimmune thyroid disease0.61
    Allograft Rejection0.86
    Intestinal immune network for IgA production0.41
    Type I diabetes mellitus0.69
    Viral myocarditis0.40
    Graft-versus-host disease0.65
    THC Differentiation Pathway0.38
    2CD28 co-stimulation
    CD28 co-stimulation0.66
    CTLA4 Signaling0.30
    CD28 dependent PI3K/Akt signaling0.66
    CD28 dependent Vav1 pathway0.00
    Costimulation by the CD28 family0.44
    3B cell receptor signaling pathway (KEGG)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway0.38
    TCR Signaling Pathway0.36
    4PI-3K cascade
    PI3K/AKT activation0.93
    PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer0.88
    GAB1 signalosome0.93
    PI3K events in ERBB4 signaling0.88
    Constitutive PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer0.88
    Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization0.80
    PIP3 activates AKT signaling0.88
    Signaling by SCF-KIT0.72
    5Signaling by FGFR
    Signaling by FGFR0.91
    DAP12 interactions0.89
    Signaling by FGFR in disease0.91
    Signaling by PDGF0.87
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR0.91
    Signaling by EGFR0.83
    Downstream signal transduction0.90
    Signaling by EGFR in Cancer0.82

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 R&D Systems Pathways for CD28
        Th1 Differentiation
    Th17 Differentiation

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for CD28 (see all 16)
        THC Differentiation Pathway
    STAT3 Pathway
    Nur77 Signaling in T-Cell
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    TOB in T-Cell Signaling

    5 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for CD28
        Immune response ICOS pathway in T-helper cell
    Transcription NF-kB signaling pathway
    Immune response IL-22 signaling pathway
    Immune response CD28 signaling
    Immune response NFAT in immune response

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for CD28 (see all 6)
        Allograft Rejection
    TCR Signaling Pathway
    TCR signaling in naive CD4+ T cells
    IL12 signaling mediated by STAT4
    TCR signaling in naive CD8+ T cells


    Selected Reactome Pathways for CD28 (see all 6)
        CD28 dependent Vav1 pathway
    Nef mediated downregulation of CD28 cell surface expression
    Constitutive PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer
    PIP3 activates AKT signaling
    CD28 co-stimulation


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for CD28) (see all 11):
        Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway
    Intestinal immune network for IgA production
    Type I diabetes mellitus
    Measles


    CD28 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CD28 (see all 10): 
              Cell Surface Markers in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              T-cell & B-cell Activation in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat
              Diabetes in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CD28

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for CD28 (P107471, 2, 3 ENSP000003248904) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 32)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PIK3R1P279861, 2, 3, ENSP000002743354EBI-4314301,EBI-79464 MINT-8036633 MINT-8036648 MINT-8036690 MINT-8036674 MINT-8036705 MINT-8036765 MINT-8036750 MINT-8036780 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000274335
    GRAP2O757912, 3, ENSP000003391864MINT-8036810 MINT-8036795 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000339186
    GRB2P629932, 3, ENSP000003390074MINT-8036659 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000339007
    NSFP464593, ENSP000003812934I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000381293
    CD247P209633, ENSP000003547824I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000354782
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 25):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002863positive regulation of inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus IEA--
    GO:0006959humoral immune response TAS8717514
    GO:0007166cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS9784967
    GO:0007173epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0008543fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS--

    CD28 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for CD28

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CD28 gene (see all 32)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    ctla4-ig 75.5 4 9366442 (1), 7964482 (1), 7515331 (1)
    pp 100 66.4 7 12636255 (3), 1372649 (2), 8047842 (1)
    phosphatidylinositol 56.4 68 9663390 (6), 8164687 (3), 8921441 (2), 7568022 (2) (see all 32)
    tyrosine 54.5 153 10037772 (8), 9494076 (7), 10427998 (7), 7957566 (6) (see all 50)
    ionomycin 52.3 10 8946678 (1), 10600000 (1), 7875216 (1), 11298136 (1) (see all 7)
    wortmannin 46.1 13 7875216 (3), 7875215 (2), 7577804 (1), 9820515 (1) (see all 8)
    cyclosporin a 39.8 16 1348520 (2), 8302298 (1), 8809021 (1), 11093160 (1) (see all 11)
    herbimycin a 32.1 3 1318900 (2)
    rapamycin 31.1 9 15611240 (3), 19414743 (2), 8302298 (1), 17182569 (1) (see all 6)
    ly294002 25.3 2 9337876 (1), 9820515 (1)



    CD28 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for CD28 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001243077.1  NM_001243078.1  NM_006139.3  

    Unigene Cluster for CD28:

    CD28 molecule
    Hs.443123  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_006139
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000458610 ENST00000324106 ENST00000374481(uc002vag.1 uc010zio.2 uc010ftx.3 uc002vah.4 uc002vaj.4)
    ENST00000374478
    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-3685 hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-3194-5p hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-513a-5p hsa-miR-218-1* hsa-miR-503 hsa-miR-578
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: CD28 (NM_006139)
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    Primer
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat CD28
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CD28
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CD28

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF222341.1 AF222342.1 AF222343.1 AJ295273.1 AJ517504.1 AK292986.1 AK303421.1 AK313313.1 
    BC093698.1 BC112085.1 J02988.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.120960167  DT.40291597  DT.92417153 

    24 AceView cDNA sequences:

    AF222341 AW241446 AF222343 AJ517504 AI092544 CA449466 J02988 AI129273 
    BG232020 AI632151 AJ295273 AF222342 AW954205 BX955995 BQ694899 AW241503 
    BX101593 NM_006139 AI375736 CD691494 CD688553 CD685081 AA353280 AW949936 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    4 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CD28    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c
    SP1:                          -                 -                           
    SP2:                                            -                           
    SP3:                                      -     -                           
    SP4:                                                                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for CD28

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    CD28 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CCAATTTAAA
    CD28 Expression
    About this image


    CD28 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 3) fully expand
     
     Blood (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 9 entries
             T-Cytotoxic Cells Peripheral Blood
             cd3+ t cells   
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             T Helper Cells Thymus
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Zeugopod Periosteum
    CD28 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    CD28 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.443123

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CD28_HUMAN, P10747
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in T-cells and plasma cells, but not in less mature B-cells

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CD28 (see all 10): 
              Cell Surface Markers in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              T-cell & B-cell Activation in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat
              Diabetes in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
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    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CD28
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CD28

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for CD28 gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Cd281 , 5 CD28 antigen1, 5 77.02(n)1
    69.9(a)1
      1 (30.52 cM)5
    124871  NM_007642.41  NP_031668.31 
     607168005 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves CD281 CD28 molecule 62.32(n)
    51.69(a)
      396249  NM_205311.1  NP_990642.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia CD286
    CD28 molecule
    31(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343208.1(2842514-2863915)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia cd281 CD28 molecule 49.78(n)
    43.51(a)
      100126210  NM_001110049.1  NP_001103519.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CD28 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CD28 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for CD28 gene
    CTLA42  

    CD28 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for CD28 (see all 909)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs676226621,2
    C--196439612(+) CAGGG-/TCCCGC 3 -- int10--------
    rs1490573921,2
    --203959181(+) AGAGGG/TGTTCA 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1857989231,2
    C--203959221(+) TGTGAA/TCAAAG 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1880937511,2
    C--203959318(+) AGGTCA/CTCAAA 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1807364951,2
    --203959352(+) ATAGCA/GAAGAA 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs2016894371,2
    --203959356(+) CGAAG-/AAAAAA 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1166750061,2
    F--203959378(+) CTAGGG/CGTTTG 3 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- C:0.03WA 118
    rs1850899051,2
    --203959399(+) TATGAG/TATAAT 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1883814581,2
    --203959585(+) CCAGAA/GTATTA 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs31810941,2
    C,F,O,A,H--203959611(+) GGGTGG/TTAAGA 3 -- us2k116Minor allele frequency- T:0.34NA NS EA CSA WA 957

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CD28 (204571198 - 204603635 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for CD28: --
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing CD28
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for CD28

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 186760    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for CD28 (see all 102):    
    About MalaCards
    chronic graft versus host disease    sialadenitis    polyneuropathy    chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
    demyelinating polyneuropathy    glucocorticoid resistance    lymphopenia    paracoccidioidomycosis
    graft versus host disease    chagas disease    wegener's granulomatosis    common variable immunodeficiency
    polymyositis    myasthenia gravis    wiskott-aldrich syndrome    gastrointestinal system disease
    dermatomyositis    visceral leishmaniasis    graves' disease    pemphigus foliaceus


    CD28 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CD28 gene (see all 64)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    autoimmune diseases 46.1 9 15086406 (2), 10201965 (1), 19426215 (1), 15870153 (1) (see all 7)
    common variable immunodeficiency 44.3 1 10844530 (1)
    infection chronic 39.1 2 12506015 (1), 20147632 (1)
    hiv infections 38.3 16 9029089 (2), 7973455 (2), 12792869 (2), 14984593 (1) (see all 11)
    autoimmunity 35.9 4 9849050 (1), 9200944 (1), 9617561 (1)
    graft-versus-host disease 34.1 1 8574169 (1)
    immunodeficiency 31.4 6 11312671 (1), 16103193 (1), 7586736 (1), 16011533 (1) (see all 5)
    lupus erythematosus systemic 29.7 8 15870153 (2), 15086406 (2), 7888034 (1), 11426024 (1) (see all 6)
    rheumatoid arthritis 28.1 18 9174596 (3), 16200579 (2), 11318597 (2), 7538295 (2) (see all 11)
    paracoccidioidomycosis 26.5 4 15541043 (1), 18757242 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): CD28
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: CD28 (73 documents)

    Export disorders for CD28 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for CD28 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 833):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CD28)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A novel costimulatory signaling in human T lymphocytes by a splice variant of CD28. (PubMed id 11877290)1, 2, 9 Hanawa H.... Ochi A. (Blood 2002)
    2. Genetic polymorphisms of immunoregulatory proteins in acute renal allograft rejection. (PubMed id 19857736)1, 4, 9 Krichen H....Gorgi Y. (Transplant. Proc. 2009)
    3. Association of genetic variation in inducible costimulator gene with outcome of kidney transplantation. (PubMed id 19202444)1, 4, 9 Haimila K....Partanen J. (Transplantation 2009)
    4. Association of common T cell activation gene polymorphisms with multiple sclerosis in Australian patients. (PubMed id 14975605)1, 4, 9 Teutsch S.M....Stewart G.J. (J. Neuroimmunol. 2004)
    5. Asthma and genes encoding components of the vitamin D pathway. (PubMed id 19852851)1, 4, 9 BossAc Y....Laprise C. (Respir. Res. 2009)
    6. Association of polymorphisms in complement component C3 gene with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus. (PubMed id 18174230)1, 4, 9 Miyagawa H....Horiuchi T. (Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008)
    7. Polymorphisms in the CD28/CTLA4/ICOS genes: role in malignant melanoma susceptibility and prognosis? (PubMed id 19672595)1, 4 Bouwhuis M.G....Kumar R. (Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 2010)
    8. Large-scale candidate gene analysis of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. (PubMed id 20331378)1, 4 Mosbruger T.L....Thio C.L. (J. Infect. Dis. 2010)
    9. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes and multiple myeloma risk among women in Connecticut. (PubMed id 20568250)1, 4 Lee K.M....Lan Q. (Am. J. Hematol. 2010)
    10. Influence of CTLA-4/CD28/ICOS gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility to cervical squamous cell carcinoma and stage of differentiation in the Polish population. (PubMed id 19913589)1, 4 Pawlak E....Frydecka I. (Hum. Immunol. 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 940 HGNC: 1653 AceView: CD28 Ensembl:ENSG00000178562 euGenes: HUgn940
    ECgene: CD28 Kegg: 940 H-InvDB: CD28

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for CD28 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD28

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for CD28 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving CD28

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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