Aliases for CCND1 Gene
External Ids for CCND1 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for CCND1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CCND1 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. This protein has been shown to interact with tumor suppressor protein Rb and the expression of this gene is regulated positively by Rb. Mutations, amplification and overexpression of this gene, which alters cell cycle progression, are observed frequently in a variety of tumors and may contribute to tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Cyclin D has been shown in many cancer types to be misregulated. Well established for their oncogenic properties, the cyclins, and the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK's) they activate, have been the focus of major research and development efforts over the past decade. The methods by which the cyclins are misregulated are widely variable, ranging from genomic amplification to changes in promoter methylation. While Cyclin D2 has only been found to be significantly deregulated in glioma, Cyclin D1 seems to be a pan-cancer actor. Cyclin D misregulation has been shown to lead to poorer outcomes in a number of studies, but currently there are no FDA-approved targeted therapies.
GeneCards Summary for CCND1 Gene
CCND1 (Cyclin D1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCND1 include Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Multiple Myeloma. Among its related pathways are Transcription Androgen Receptor nuclear signaling and Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). GO annotations related to this gene include protein kinase activity and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is CCND2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CCND1 Gene
Regulatory component of the cyclin D1-CDK4 (DC) complex that phosphorylates and inhibits members of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulates the cell-cycle during G(1)/S transition. Phosphorylation of RB1 allows dissociation of the transcription factor E2F from the RB/E2F complex and the subsequent transcription of E2F target genes which are responsible for the progression through the G(1) phase. Hypophosphorylates RB1 in early G(1) phase. Cyclin D-CDK4 complexes are major integrators of various mitogenenic and antimitogenic signals. Also substrate for SMAD3, phosphorylating SMAD3 in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and repressing its transcriptional activity. Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D1/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex. Exhibits transcriptional corepressor activity with INSM1 on the NEUROD1 and INS promoters in a cell cycle-independent manner.