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CATSPER4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 48
GCID: GC01P026517

Cation Channel, Sperm Associated 4

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Cation Channel, Sperm Associated 41 2
Cation Channel Sperm-Associated Protein 42
Ion Channel CatSper42
CatSper43

External Ids:    HGNC: 232201   Entrez Gene: 3788072   Ensembl: ENSG000001887827   OMIM: 6091215   UniProtKB: Q7RTX73   

Export aliases for CATSPER4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC00U913195 GC01U900722 GC01P026121 GC01P026201 GC01P026389 GC01P024771


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for CATSPER4 Gene:
CATSPER4 (cation channel, sperm associated 4) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium activated cation channel activity and calcium channel activity. An important paralog of this gene is CATSPER3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTSR4_HUMAN, Q7RTX7
Function: Voltage-gated calcium channel that plays a central role in calcium-dependent physiological responses
essential for successful fertilization, such as sperm hyperactivation, acrosome reaction and chemotaxis towards
the oocyte. Activated by extracellular progesterone and prostaglandins following the sequence: progesterone >
PGF1-alpha = PGE1 > PGA1 > PGE2 >> PGD2. The primary effect of progesterone activation is to shift voltage
dependence towards more physiological, negative membrane potentials; it is not mediated by metabotropic receptors
and second messengers. Sperm capacitation enhances the effect of progesterone by providing additional negative
shift. Also activated by the elevation of intracellular pH

Gene Wiki entry for CATSPER4 (CatSper4) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000001.10  NC_018912.2  NT_032977.10  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the CATSPER4 gene promoter:
         STAT5A   POU3F2 (N-Oct-5a)   POU3F2 (N-Oct-5b)   Nkx2-5   POU3F2   E47   Zic1   Hand1   Zic3   ATF   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidCATSPER4 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CATSPER4

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CATSPER4


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1p35.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1p36.11   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1p35.3

CATSPER4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CATSPER4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01P026517:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
26,517,052 bp from pter      End:
26,529,459 bp from pter
Size:
12,408 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTSR4_HUMAN, Q7RTX7 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Cation channel sperm-associated protein 4  
Size: 472 amino acids; 54092 Da
Subunit: Heterotetramer; possibly composed of CATSPER1, CATSPER2, CATSPER3 and CATSPER4 (Potential). Component of
the CatSper complex. Interacts with CATSPER1 (By similarity)
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAI28139.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=21; Sequence=CAH71538.1; Type=Erroneous
initiation;
Secondary accessions: A1A4W6 Q5VY71
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q7RTX7-1   Q7RTX7-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CATSPER4: NX_Q7RTX7

Explore proteomics data for CATSPER4 at MOPED


See CATSPER4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

REFSEQ proteins: NP_937770.1  
ENSEMBL proteins: 
 ENSP00000341006   ENSP00000390423   ENSP00000429464  
Reactome Protein details: Q7RTX7

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(According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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HGNC Gene Families:
CATSPER: Voltage-gated ion channels / Cation channels, sperm associated

IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: CatSper4
CatSper and Two-Pore channels

2 InterPro protein domains:
 IPR005821 Ion_trans_dom
 IPR028744 CatSper4

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q7RTX7

ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q7RTX7

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTSR4_HUMAN, Q7RTX7
Similarity: Belongs to the cation channel sperm-associated (TC 1.A.1.19) family


Find genes that share domains with CATSPER4           About GenesLikeMe


(According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Molecular Function:

     UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CTSR4_HUMAN, Q7RTX7
Function: Voltage-gated calcium channel that plays a central role in calcium-dependent physiological responses
essential for successful fertilization, such as sperm hyperactivation, acrosome reaction and chemotaxis towards
the oocyte. Activated by extracellular progesterone and prostaglandins following the sequence: progesterone >
PGF1-alpha = PGE1 > PGA1 > PGE2 >> PGD2. The primary effect of progesterone activation is to shift voltage
dependence towards more physiological, negative membrane potentials; it is not mediated by metabotropic receptors
and second messengers. Sperm capacitation enhances the effect of progesterone by providing additional negative
shift. Also activated by the elevation of intracellular pH

     Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0005216ion channel activity ----
GO:0005227calcium activated cation channel activity IEA--
GO:0005244voltage-gated ion channel activity IEA--
GO:0005262calcium channel activity IEA--
GO:0005515protein binding ----
     
Find genes that share ontologies with CATSPER4           About GenesLikeMe


Phenotypes:
     1 MGI mutant phenotype (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Catsper4):
 reproductive system 

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Animal Models:
     MGI mouse knock-outs for CATSPER4: Catsper4tm1Wyan Catsper4tm1Clph

   inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for CATSPER4
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   genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for CATSPER4
   genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for CATSPER4

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(According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
CTSR4_HUMAN, Q7RTX7: Cell projection, cilium, flagellum membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Specifically
located in the principal piece of sperm tail
Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

CompartmentConfidence
plasma membrane4
peroxisome2
cytoskeleton1

Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 6):    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0001669acrosomal vesicle IEA--
GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
GO:0016020membrane ----
GO:0016021integral component of membrane ----
GO:0031514motile cilium IEA--

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(SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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SuperPaths for CATSPER4 About    
See pathways by source

SuperPathContained pathways About
1Reproduction
Reproduction1.00
Sperm Motility And Taxes0.00
Fertilization1.00


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Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
Show all pathways


1 Reactome Pathway for CATSPER4
    Sperm Motility And Taxes


    Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for CATSPER4
Interactions:

    Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CATSPER4

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

Selected Interacting proteins for CATSPER4 (ENSP000003410064) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 36)
InteractantInteraction Details
GeneCardExternal ID(s)
AKAP6ENSP000002809794STRING: ENSP00000280979
CACNA1BENSP000002775494STRING: ENSP00000277549
CACNA1CENSP000002663764STRING: ENSP00000266376
CACNA1DENSP000002881394STRING: ENSP00000288139
CACNA1EENSP000003565454STRING: ENSP00000356545
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Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 11):    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0001539cilium or flagellum-dependent cell motility IEA--
GO:0006811ion transport ----
GO:0006814sodium ion transport IEA--
GO:0007275multicellular organismal development IEA--
GO:0007283spermatogenesis IEA--

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(Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
   Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
  Browse compounds at ApexBio 

Browse Tocris compounds for CATSPER4 (CTSR4)

1 HMDB Compound for CATSPER4    About this table
CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--

6 IUPHAR Ligands for CATSPER4 (CatSper4)    About this table
LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
progesterone
ActivatorFull agonist8.1121412339 21412338
PGF1alpha
ActivatorFull agonist6.321412339
PGE1
ActivatorFull agonist6.321412339
PGE2
ActivatorFull agonist6.321412339
NNC55-0396
Pore BlockerInhibition5.721412339 21412338
mibefradil
Pore BlockerInhibition4.4 - 4.5221412338



(Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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REFSEQ mRNAs for CATSPER4 gene: 
NM_198137.1  

Unigene Cluster for CATSPER4:

Cation channel, sperm associated 4
Hs.123532  [show with all ESTs]
Unigene Representative Sequence: BC144663
3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
ENST00000338855(uc010oey.1) ENST00000456354(uc010oez.2) ENST00000518899(uc009vsf.3)

miRNA
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Primer
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Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse / rat CATSPER4
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  QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CATSPER4

Additional mRNA sequence: 

BC128138.1 BC128139.1 BC144663.1 

2 DOTS entries:

DT.121335842  DT.205674 

4 AceView cDNA sequences:

BN000273 AA397745 AA421134 AA813135 

GeneLoc Exon Structure


(RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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CATSPER4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
CGAP TAG: --
CATSPER4 Expression
About this image

CATSPER4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

CATSPER4 Protein Expression

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.123532

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CTSR4_HUMAN, Q7RTX7
Tissue specificity: Testis-specific

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In Situ
Assay Products:
 

 
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(Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CATSPER4 gene from Selected species (see all 8)    About this table
Organism Taxonomic
classification
Gene Description Human
Similarity
Orthology
Type
Details
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Catsper41 , 5 cation channel, sperm associated 41, 5 77.7(n)1
72.66(a)1
  4 (66.50 cM)5
3299541  NM_177866.41  NP_808534.11 
 1342119705 
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CATSPER46
cation channel, sperm associated 4
49(a)
1 ↔ 1
GL344429.1(8571-21707)


ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CATSPER4 (if available)
TreeFam Gene Tree for CATSPER4 (if available)

(Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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Paralogs for CATSPER4 gene
CATSPER32  
1 SIMAP similar gene for CATSPER4 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     CTSR4_HUMAN (see all proteins):
SCN3A

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(SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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Selected SNPs for CATSPER4 (see all 397)    About this table                                 

Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
SNP IDValidClinical
significance
Chr 1 posSequence#AA
Chg
TypeMore#Allele
freq
PopTotal
sample
More
----------
rs171636411,2
C,F--26516898(+) ATCAGC/GCTCTG 1 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- G:0.01NA 142
rs1448526671,2
--26516905(+) TCTGAC/GTTCCA 1 -- us2k10--------
rs1122875221,2
C,F--26516976(+) CAATGG/AGAGGA 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.04CSA WA 120
rs1856045201,2
C--26517111(+) AGACTA/GAGCAA 1 -- us2k10--------
rs2014340411,2
--26517151(+) CAGCAA/GTGGAC 2 Q syn10--------
rs2009338441,2
--26517200(+) AGGACC/TGTATG 2 R C mis10--------
rs1378716531,2
C,F--26517211(+) GGGTTT/CGGAGG 2 /F syn12Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA EU 5457
rs1496121491,2
C,F--26517216(+) TGGAGG/AGGCAG 2 /E /G mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4474
rs1443614551,2
C--26517243(+) CCGCCC/GCTCTC 2 P R mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 4480
rs412843331,2
C,F--26517267(+) CATTCA/GCGAGT 2 H R mis110Minor allele frequency- G:0.19NA CSA WA EU 5788

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CATSPER4 (26517052 - 26529459 bp)

Structural Variations
     Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for CATSPER4:    About this table    
Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
dgv201n71CNV Gain21882294

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): CATSPER4
Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing CATSPER4
DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for CATSPER4

(in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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OMIM gene information: 609121    OMIM disorders: --


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Genetic Association Database (GAD): CATSPER4
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: CATSPER4 (3 documents)

Export disorders for CATSPER4 gene to outside databases

(in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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PubMed articles for CATSPER4 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 13):
(articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CATSPER4)
    Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
world of online information

  1. Identification of human and mouse CatSper3 and CatSper4 genes: characterisation of a common interaction domain and evidence for expression in testis. (PubMed id 12932298)1, 2, 3, 9 Lobley A.... Michalovich D. (Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 2003)
  2. The role of height-associated loci identified in genome wide association studies in the determination of pediatric stature. (PubMed id 20546612)1, 4 Zhao J....Grant S.F. (BMC Med. Genet. 2010)
  3. Meta-analysis of genome-wide scans for human adult stature identifies novel Loci and associations with measures of skeletal frame size. (PubMed id 19343178)1, 4 Soranzo N....Deloukas P. (PLoS Genet. 2009)
  4. All four CatSper ion channel proteins are required for male fertility and sperm cell hyperactivated motility. (PubMed id 17227845)1, 3 Qi H....Clapham D.E. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007)
  5. International Union of Pharmacology. L. Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of CatSper and two-pore channels. (PubMed id 16382101)1, 3 Clapham D.E. and Garbers D.L. (Pharmacol. Rev. 2005)
  6. Progesterone activates the principal Ca2+ channel of human sperm. (PubMed id 21412339)2 Lishko P.V.... Kirichok Y. (Nature 2011)
  7. The CatSper channel mediates progesterone-induced Ca2+ influx in human sperm. (PubMed id 21412338)2 Strunker T.... Kaupp U.B. (Nature 2011)
  8. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms, acute rejection, and severity of tubulitis in kidney transplantation, accounting for center-to-center variation. (PubMed id 21085059)4 Israni A....Oetting W.S. (Transplantation 2010)
  9. Expression of CatSper family transcripts in the mouse testis during post-natal development and human ejaculated spermatozoa: relationship to sperm motility. (PubMed id 17347248)2 Li H.-G.... Xiong C.-L. (Mol. Hum. Reprod. 2007)
  10. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PubMed id 16710414)2 Gregory S.G.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2006)

(in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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(According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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Entrez Gene: 378807 HGNC: 23220 AceView: CATSPER4 Ensembl:ENSG00000188782 euGenes: HUgn378807
ECgene: CATSPER4 H-InvDB: CATSPER4

(According to HUGE)
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  --

(According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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NameDescription
PharmGKB entry for CATSPER4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

(Patent information from GeneIP,
Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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Patent Information for CATSPER4 gene:
Search GeneIP for patents involving CATSPER4

GeneCards and IP:
Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



(Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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