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CASP8 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 74
GCID: GC02P202062

Caspase 8, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase

(Previous names: caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine protease)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Caspase 8, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase1 2     ICE-Like Apoptotic Protease 52 3
MCH52 3 5     MORT1-Associated Ced-3 Homolog2 3
Caspase 8, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Protease1 2     ALPS2B2 5
Apoptotic Cysteine Protease2 3     Casp-82
Apoptotic Protease Mch-52 3     caspase-82
FADD-Homologous ICE/Ced-3-Like Protease2 3     MACH-Alpha-1/2/3 Protein2
CAP42 3     MACH-Beta-1/2/3/4 Protein2
FLICE2 3     CASP-83
MACH2 3     EC 3.4.22.613
FADD-Like ICE2 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 15091   Entrez Gene: 8412   Ensembl: ENSG000000640127   OMIM: 6017635   UniProtKB: Q147903   

Export aliases for CASP8 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02P200315 GC02P200822 GC02P202300 GC02P201923 GC02P201807 GC02P193949


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for CASP8 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of
caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes
composed of a prodomain, a large protease subunit, and a small protease subunit. Activation of caspases requires
proteolytic processing at conserved internal aspartic residues to generate a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of
the large and small subunits. This protein is involved in the programmed cell death induced by Fas and various
apoptotic stimuli. The N-terminal FADD-like death effector domain of this protein suggests that it may interact
with Fas-interacting protein FADD. This protein was detected in the insoluble fraction of the affected brain
region from Huntington disease patients but not in those from normal controls, which implicated the role in
neurodegenerative diseases. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been
described, although not all variants have had their full-length sequences determined. (provided by RefSeq, Jul
2008)

GeneCards Summary for CASP8 Gene:
CASP8 (caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with CASP8 include immunodeficiency due to casp8 deficiency, and breast cancer, protection against. GO annotations related to this gene include cysteine-type endopeptidase activity and cysteine-type peptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CASP16.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CASP8_HUMAN, Q14790
Function: Most upstream protease of the activation cascade of caspases responsible for the TNFRSF6/FAS mediated
and TNFRSF1A induced cell death. Binding to the adapter molecule FADD recruits it to either receptor. The
resulting aggregate called death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) performs CASP8 proteolytic activation. The
active dimeric enzyme is then liberated from the DISC and free to activate downstream apoptotic proteases.
Proteolytic fragments of the N-terminal propeptide (termed CAP3, CAP5 and CAP6) are likely retained in the DISC.
Cleaves and activates CASP3, CASP4, CASP6, CASP7, CASP9 and CASP10. May participate in the GZMB apoptotic
pathways. Cleaves ADPRT. Hydrolyzes the small-molecule substrate, Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp- -AMC. Likely target for the
cowpox virus CRMA death inhibitory protein. Isoform 5, isoform 6, isoform 7 and isoform 8 lack the catalytic site
and may interfere with the pro-apoptotic activity of the complex

summary for CASP8 Gene:
Caspases (short for 'cysteinyl aspartate proteases') are involved in the signal transduction pathways of
apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation. These enzymes can be divided into two major classes - initiators and
effectors. The initiator isoforms (caspases-1,-4,-5,-8,-9,-10,-11,-12) are activated by, and interact with,
upstream adaptor molecules through protein-protein interaction domains known as CARD and DED. Effector
caspases (-3,-6,-7) are responsible for cleaving downstream substrates and are sometimes referred to as the
executioner caspases. More than 400 caspase substrates have so far been identified (see The Caspase
Substrate Database). Initiator caspases, such as caspase 8, may be directly activated by death receptors
such as FasR. Caspases can also be found intracellularly as part of large multiprotein complexes. For
example, caspase 9 is recruited to the apoptosome formed during apoptosis, whilst caspases-1 and 5 can form
part of the inflammasome, a key part of cytokine processing during inflammation. Caspases are regulated by
inhibitors of apoptosis and by dominant negative isoforms. They have been implicated in the pathogenesis of
many disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, myocardial infarction, cancer, and inflammatory
disease.

Gene Wiki entry for CASP8 (Caspase 8) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000002.12  NT_005403.18  NC_018913.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the CASP8 gene promoter:
         STAT3   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): CASP8 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CASP8

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CASP8


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2q33-q34   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2q33.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2q33-q34

CASP8 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CASP8 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02P202062:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
202,098,166 bp from pter      End:
202,152,434 bp from pter
Size:
54,269 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CASP8_HUMAN, Q14790 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Caspase-8 precursor  
Size: 479 amino acids; 55391 Da
Subunit: Heterotetramer that consists of two anti-parallel arranged heterodimers, each one formed by a 18 kDa
(p18) and a 10 kDa (p10) subunit. Interacts with FADD, CFLAR and PEA15. Isoform 9 interacts at the endoplasmic
reticulum with a complex containing BCAP31, BAP29, BCL2 and/or BCL2L1. Interacts with TNFAIP8L2 (By similarity).
Interacts with CASP8AP2. Interacts with RFFL. Interacts with human cytomegalovirus/HHV-5 protein vICA/UL36; this
interaction inhibits CASP8 activation. Interacts with NleF from pathogenic E.coli
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAA66858.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Sequence=CAA66859.1; Type=Miscellaneous
discrepancy;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for CASP8 (see all 12):
1F9E (3D)        1I4E (3D)        1QDU (3D)        1QTN (3D)        2C2Z (3D)        2FUN (3D)    
Secondary accessions: O14676 Q14791 Q14792 Q14793 Q14794 Q14795 Q14796 Q15780 Q15806 Q53TT5
Q8TDI1 Q8TDI2 Q8TDI3 Q8TDI4 Q8TDI5 Q96T22 Q9C0K4 Q9UQ81
Alternative splicing: 9 isoforms:  Q14790-1   Q14790-2   Q14790-3   Q14790-4   Q14790-5   Q14790-6   Q14790-7   Q14790-8   
Q14790-9   (Ref.8 (AAL87628) sequence is in conflict in position: 14:K->R)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CASP8: NX_Q14790

Explore proteomics data for CASP8 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Generation of the subunits requires association with the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), whereas
    additional processing is likely due to the autocatalytic activity of the activated protease. GZMB and CASP10 can
    be involved in these processing events1
  • Phosphorylation on Ser-387 during mitosis by CDK1 inhibits activation by proteolysis and prevents apoptosis. This
    phosphorylation occurs in cancer cell lines, as well as in primary breast tissues and lymphocytes1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys148, Lys169
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See CASP8 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001073593.1  NP_001073594.1  NP_001219.2  NP_203519.1  NP_203520.1  NP_203522.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000376091   ENSP00000412523   ENSP00000264275   ENSP00000391709   ENSP00000396869  
     ENSP00000376087   ENSP00000388306   ENSP00000351273   ENSP00000407378   ENSP00000397528  
     ENSP00000325722   ENSP00000390641   ENSP00000390346   ENSP00000394434   ENSP00000264274  
     ENSP00000376088   ENSP00000376094  
    Reactome Protein details: Q14790

    CASP8 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant CASP8 Protein
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for CASP8
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
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    Novus Biologicals CASP8 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals CASP8 Lysates
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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
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    CASP8 Antibody Products:

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    Novus Biologicals CASP8 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for CASP8
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    CASP8 Assay Products:

    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of CASP8
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for CASP8
    R&D Systems ELISAs for CASP8 (Caspase-8)         (see all)
    GenScript CASP8-Activity-based Protease?src=genec Assay for Compound Screening
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for CASP8
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for CASP8
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for CASP8


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    CASP: Caspases

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: Caspase 8
    Caspases

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR001309 Pept_C14_ICE_p20
     IPR011029 DEATH-like_dom
     IPR002138 Pept_C14_p10
     IPR015917 Pept_C14A_p45_core
     IPR011600 Pept_C14_caspase

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q14790

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q14790

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001309 Caspase-1
    IPB001875 Death effector protein
    IPB002398 Interleukin-1B converting enzyme signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CASP8_HUMAN, Q14790
    Domain: Isoform 9 contains a N-terminal extension that is required for interaction with the BCAP31 complex
    Similarity: Belongs to the peptidase C14A family
    Similarity: Contains 2 DED (death effector) domains


    CASP8 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CASP8_HUMAN, Q14790
    Function: Most upstream protease of the activation cascade of caspases responsible for the TNFRSF6/FAS mediated
    and TNFRSF1A induced cell death. Binding to the adapter molecule FADD recruits it to either receptor. The
    resulting aggregate called death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) performs CASP8 proteolytic activation. The
    active dimeric enzyme is then liberated from the DISC and free to activate downstream apoptotic proteases.
    Proteolytic fragments of the N-terminal propeptide (termed CAP3, CAP5 and CAP6) are likely retained in the DISC.
    Cleaves and activates CASP3, CASP4, CASP6, CASP7, CASP9 and CASP10. May participate in the GZMB apoptotic
    pathways. Cleaves ADPRT. Hydrolyzes the small-molecule substrate, Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp- -AMC. Likely target for the
    cowpox virus CRMA death inhibitory protein. Isoform 5, isoform 6, isoform 7 and isoform 8 lack the catalytic site
    and may interfere with the pro-apoptotic activity of the complex
    Catalytic activity: Strict requirement for Asp at position P1 and has a preferred cleavage sequence of
    (Leu/Asp/Val)-Glu-Thr-Asp- -(Gly/Ser/Ala)
    Enzyme regulation: Probably negatively regulated by RFFL through proteasomal degradation. Inhibited by the
    effector protein NleF that is produced by pathogenic E.coli; this inhibits apoptosis

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for CASP8:
    caspase 8,initiator,cysteine containing aspartate-specific protease,CASP3 subfamily,stored in the mitochondrial
    intermembrane space and released into cytosol after appropriate apoptotic stimuli,promoting CD95/APO1/Fas
    apoptosis,through the cleavage of BID,C elegans CED1 homolog

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.4.22.611

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002020protease binding IPI--
    GO:0004197cysteine-type endopeptidase activity TAS--
    GO:0005164tumor necrosis factor receptor binding IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI10442631
    GO:0008233peptidase activity IMP17047155
         
    CASP8 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for CASP8:
     Increased cell number in G1, s 

         15 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 8 alleles(MGI details for Casp8):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body 
     hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument  liver/biliary system 
     mortality/aging  muscle  nervous system  renal/urinary system  respiratory system 

    CASP8 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for CASP8: Casp8tm1.1Yuan Casp8tm1Syon Casp8tm1.1Raz Casp8tm1Yuan

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for CASP8
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for CASP8
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for CASP8

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target CASP8:
    hsa-mir-19b-1-5p (MIRT006278), hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT029158), hsa-let-7a-5p (MIRT005293)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CASP8 using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CASP8
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCASP8 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for CASP8
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CASP8

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for CASP8

    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for CASP8 (see all 32)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for CASP8
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 6): CASP8 (NM_001228)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for CASP8
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for CASP8
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat CASP8

    Cell Line
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for CASP8 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CASP8


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    CASP8_HUMAN, Q14790: Cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    cytoskeleton4
    cytosol4
    mitochondrion4
    nucleus4
    endoplasmic reticulum2
    extracellular2
    vacuole2
    lysosome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 17):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005741mitochondrial outer membrane TAS--

    CASP8 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for CASP8 About   (see all 56)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1TWEAK Pathway
    TWEAK Pathway0.87
    HIV-1 Nef- Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha0.46
    DR3 Signaling0.87
    Apoptosis through Death Receptors0.42
    TNFR1 Pathway0.56
    TRAIL Pathway0.40
    TNF Signaling0.55
    Fas Signaling0.35
    2Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways
    Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways0.68
    NOD-like receptor signaling pathway0.37
    NOD1/2 Signaling Pathway0.68
    NOD pathway0.33
    3Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade
    Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade0.44
    FAS pathway and Stress induction of HSP regulation0.44
    Apoptosis and survival FAS signaling cascades0.44
    Caspase cascade in apoptosis0.42
    4Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway0.94
    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)0.32
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway0.94
    Hepatitis B0.31
    Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway0.93
    5RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways
    RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways0.47
    NF-kB activation through FADD/RIP-1 pathway mediated by caspase-8 and -100.00
    RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway0.47

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 R&D Systems Pathway for CASP8
        Apoptosis Signaling Pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for CASP8 (see all 34)
        Caspase Cascade
    TWEAK Pathway
    14-3-3 Induced Apoptosis
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for CASP8
        Apoptosis and Autophagy

    3 Tocris Bioscience Pathways for CASP8
        Apoptosis Pathway
    Toll-like Receptor Pathway
    VEGF Pathway

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for CASP8 (see all 6)
        Apoptosis and survival Apoptotic TNF-family pathways
    Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade
    Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway
    Apoptosis and survival FAS signaling cascades
    Apoptosis and survival TNFR1 signaling pathway

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for CASP8 (see all 26)
        MAPK signaling pathway
    Apoptosis
    NOD pathway
    DNA damage response
    Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling


    Selected Reactome Pathways for CASP8 (see all 13)
        FasL/ CD95L signaling
    NF-kB activation through FADD/RIP-1 pathway mediated by caspase-8 and -10
    Apoptotic execution phase
    Caspase-mediated cleavage of cytoskeletal proteins
    TNF signaling


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for CASP8) (see all 18):
        p53 signaling pathway
    Apoptosis
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
    NOD-like receptor signaling pathway
    RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway


    CASP8 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CASP8 (see all 17): 
              Parkinson's Disease in human mouse rat
              HIV Host Response in human mouse rat
              Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat
              Autophagy in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CASP8

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for CASP8 (Q147901, 2, 3 ENSP000003512734) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 184)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CASP8AP2Q9UKL31, 2, 3EBI-78060,EBI-2339650 MINT-18006 MINT-4298716 MINT-18007 MINT-4298767 MINT-4298744 I2D: score=3 
    FADDQ131581, 2, 3, ENSP000003018384EBI-78060,EBI-494804 MINT-4055344 MINT-4055373 I2D: score=10 STRING: ENSP00000301838
    CASP10Q928511, 2, 3, ENSP000002861864EBI-78060,EBI-495095 MINT-4055393 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000286186
    SMPD1P174052, 3, ENSP000003404094MINT-8095252 MINT-8095356 MINT-8095243 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000340409
    CFLARO155192, 3, ENSP000003124554MINT-4055334 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000312455
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 50):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001525angiogenesis IEA--
    GO:0001841neural tube formation IEA--
    GO:0002224toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0002756MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0006508proteolysis IDA12888622

    CASP8 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for CASP8
    Selected ApexBio Compounds for CASP8 (see all 12)     About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    Apoptosis InhibitorCell-permeable caspase-3 inhibitor[54135-60-3]
    Caspase-3/7 Inhibitor ICell-permeable and irreversible inhibitor of caspase-3 and -7[220509-74-0]
    CisplatinChemotherapy agent, induces apoptosis[15663-27-1]
    PAC-1Procaspase-activating compound, activates procaspase-3 and converts it to caspase-3[315183-21-2]
    Q-VD-OphCell-permeable, irreversible pan-caspase inhibitor[1135695-98-5]
    VX-765 Novel Caspase-1 inhibitor[273404-37-8]
    Z-DEVD-FMKCell-permeable, and irreversible caspase-3 inhibitor[210344-95-9]
    Z-DQMD-FMKCell-permeable caspase-3 inhibitor--
    Z-FA-FMKEffector caspases 2, 3, 5, and 7--
    Z-VAD-FMKCell-permeable, irreversible pan-caspase inhibitor[187389-52-2]

    Compounds for CASP8 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    AZ 10417808Selective non-peptide caspase-3 inhibitor[331645-84-2]
    Z-DQMD-FMKCaspase-3 inhibitor--
    CisplatinPotent pro-apoptotic anticancer agent; activates caspase-3[15663-27-1]
    Z-DEVD-FMK Cell-permeable, irreversible caspase-3 inhibitor --
    Z-VAD-FMK Cell-permeable, irreversible caspase inhibitor [187389-52-2]

    1 IUPHAR Ligand for CASP8 (Caspase 8)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    Z-IETD-FMK
    InhibitorInhibition10048577

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CASP8 gene (see all 145)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    sp 600125 74.8 13 17054427 (2), 15922728 (1), 17568197 (1), 18187175 (1) (see all 11)
    adpribose 74.5 39 14679006 (1), 15192325 (1), 12432251 (1), 17142972 (1) (see all 37)
    z-vad-fmk 71.3 7 15075347 (1), 11067917 (1), 11931705 (1)
    phosphatidylserine 69.4 16 9973403 (1), 17251479 (1), 14520687 (1), 12415011 (1) (see all 13)
    bortezomib 66.9 23 20442297 (4), 16733806 (3), 20193325 (2), 20471514 (1) (see all 15)
    methylseleninic acid 65 2 15845651 (1), 11306488 (1)
    bongkrekic acid 64.7 1 17431216 (1)
    suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid 64.3 12 17351739 (2), 18636153 (1), 19483105 (1), 18765530 (1) (see all 6)
    dutp 64.1 8 12393527 (1), 19157506 (1), 14982875 (1), 19846818 (1) (see all 6)
    cycloheximide 64 54 18289527 (2), 10355595 (2), 15033719 (2), 11877293 (2) (see all 35)



    CASP8 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for CASP8 gene (7 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001080124.1  NM_001080125.1  NM_001228.4  NM_033355.3  NM_033356.3  NM_033358.3  NM_033357.2  

    Unigene Cluster for CASP8:

    Caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase
    Hs.599762  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001080125
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 21):
    ENST00000392263 ENST00000432109 ENST00000490682(uc002uxn.3) ENST00000264275
    ENST00000471383(uc010ftc.1) ENST00000450491 ENST00000440732 ENST00000392258(uc002uxo.1 uc021vuz.1 uc021vva.1 uc010fte.1)
    ENST00000447616 ENST00000358485(uc002uxs.1 uc010ftd.1 uc002uxv.1 uc002uxu.1 uc002uxt.1)
    ENST00000437283 ENST00000413726(uc021vuy.1) ENST00000490412 ENST00000339403
    ENST00000323492(uc002uxw.1) ENST00000429881 ENST00000424461 ENST00000444430

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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB451282.1 AB451414.1 AF009620.1 AF380342.1 AF422926.1 AF422927.1 AF422928.1 AF422929.1 
    AK310630.1 AY429525.1 BC010390.1 BC017031.1 BC028223.2 BC068050.1 EU168332.1 EU670044.1 
    U58143.1 U60520.1 X98172.1 X98173.1 X98174.1 X98175.1 X98176.1 X98177.1 
    X98178.1 

    19 DOTS entries:

    DT.40273678  DT.100823822  DT.95069291  DT.97841482  DT.100823826  DT.97841485  DT.86855731  DT.97798900 
    DT.100028031  DT.102826278  DT.97841484  DT.100823820  DT.92424900  DT.100823827  DT.310446  DT.120965031 
    DT.92336208  DT.92410291  DT.92417477 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 135):

    BQ773953 AA169490 BG032662 AY429525 AF009620 BM846766 U58143 AW058359 
    AV759306 BI836593 BX395849 BP873012 AI926903 AF380342 AF422926 X98175 
    BQ218354 BC017031 R07346 BG530914 AA316847 BC028223 CB990598 CB994788 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CASP8 (see all 16)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b · 13c ^ 14 ^ 15 ^
    SP1:                                      -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                           -         
    SP2:                          -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                 -                                             
    SP3:                          -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                       -                                   -         
    SP4:                                      -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                       -                                         -   
    SP5:                                                                                                              -                                             

    ExUns: 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18a · 18b · 18c · 18d ^ 19a · 19b
    SP1:        -     -                                       
    SP2:        -     -                                       
    SP3:        -     -                                       
    SP4:        -                                             
    SP5:        -     -                                       


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for CASP8

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    CASP8 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TCTATAATCC
    CASP8 Expression
    About this image


    CASP8 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 6) fully expand
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Pre-Sertoli Cells Testis Cord
     
     Epiblast (Early Embryonic Tissues)
             Epiblast Stem Cell line 5
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)
             Granulocytes Peripheral Blood
     
     Brain (Nervous System)
             Cerebellum
    CASP8 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    CASP8 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.599762

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CASP8_HUMAN, Q14790
    Tissue specificity: Isoform 1, isoform 5 and isoform 7 are expressed in a wide variety of tissues. Highest
    expression in peripheral blood leukocytes, spleen, thymus and liver. Barely detectable in brain, testis and
    skeletal muscle

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including CASP8 (see all 17): 
              Parkinson's Disease in human mouse rat
              HIV Host Response in human mouse rat
              Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat
              Autophagy in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for CASP8 gene from Selected species (see all 11)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Casp81 , 5 caspase 81, 5 76.63(n)1
    69.26(a)1
      1 (29.19 cM)5
    123701  NM_001277926.11  NP_001264855.11 
     587953745 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves CASP81 caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase 65.46(n)
    58.39(a)
      395284  NM_204592.2  NP_989923.1 
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia casp81 caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase 50.33(n)
    41.21(a)
      100495471  XM_002936540.2  XP_002936586.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii AF273220.12   -- 77.82(n)   58022  AF273220.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Ice6
    decay6
    (see all 3)
    death executioner caspase related to Apopain/Yama
    (see all 3)
    30(a)
    29(a)
    (see all 3)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    (see all 3)
    3R(25625375-25627307)
    3R(12324780-12327394)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CASP8 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CASP8 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for CASP8 gene
    CASP162  CASP62  CASP122  CASP92  CASP72  CASP32  CASP22  CASP142  
    CASP12  CASP52  CASP102  CASP42  
    7 SIMAP similar genes for CASP8 using alignment to 12 protein entries:     CASP8_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    NRAMP1    Casp8    CASP7    CASP3    CASP6    CFLAR
    CASP10

    CASP8 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    CASP8_HUMAN, Q14790: Genetic variations in CASP8 are associated with reduced risk of lung cancer [MIM:211980] in a
    population of Han Chinese subjects. Genetic variations are also associated with decreased risk of cancer of
    various other forms including esophageal, gastric, colorectal, cervical, and breast, acting in an allele
    dose-dependent manner


    Selected SNPs for CASP8 (see all 1092)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs178604241,2,,4
    CCaspase-8 deficiency (CASP8D)4 pathogenic1202141631(+) AAGCAC/TGGGAG 12 R W T M mis1 ese31Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 2
    rs10454851,2,,4
    C,F,Hother1193997974(+) CCCACG/CATGAC 1 -- ds5001 ese326Minor allele frequency- C:0.11MN NA NS EA CSA WA EU 7510
    rs1999349291,2
    --193997964(+) GAGATA/CAAGCC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1462869581,2
    C,F--193998013(+) TGAAAA/GTCTAC 1 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA EU 5873
    rs10454871,2
    C,F,O,A,H--193998081(+) GACAAG/AGGCAT 1 -- ds5001 ese333Minor allele frequency- A:0.15EA MN NS NA WA CSA EU 10431
    rs2021854171,2
    --193998169(+) TTGCTA/GGAAAA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1900418731,2
    C--193998303(+) ATCCCG/AGATGA 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.00EU 1315
    rs178604111,2
    C,F--202096254(+) TGCTAC/TATAAC 4 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.02NA 120
    rs67435181,2
    C,F,H--202096271(+) TGAAGG/ACCCTT 4 -- us2k119Minor allele frequency- A:0.07NS EA NA WA CSA 1977
    rs67469001,2
    C,F,H--202096777(+) agtagG/Aggaat 4 -- us2k114Minor allele frequency- A:0.16NS NA WA CSA 1204

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CASP8 (202098166 - 202152434 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 6 variations for CASP8:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2721364CNV Deletion23290073
    esv1009106CNV Deletion20482838
    esv1004879CNV Deletion20482838
    nsv435730CNV Deletion17901297
    esv1122953CNV Deletion17803354
    esv2573574CNV Deletion19546169

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): CASP8
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): CASP8

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 601763   
    OMIM disorders: 607271  114550  114480  211980  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CASP8_HUMAN, Q14790
  • Caspase-8 deficiency (CASP8D) [MIM:607271]: Disorder resembling autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
    (ALPS). It is characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and defective CD95-induced apoptosis of peripheral
    blood lymphocytes (PBLs). It leads to defects in activation of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and natural killer
    cells leading to immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary and herpes simplex virus infections
    and poor responses to immunization. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in
    this entry

  • Selected diseases for CASP8 (see all 164):    
    About MalaCards
    immunodeficiency due to casp8 deficiency    breast cancer, protection against    lung cancer, protection against    caspase-8 deficiency
    gastrointestinal lymphoma    hepatocellular carcinoma, somatic    thoracic cancer    molluscum contagiosum
    autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome    cowpox    huntington's disease    salivary gland cancer
    dystrophinopathies    root resorption    primary progressive multiple sclerosis    brca1 and brca2 hereditary breast and ovarian cancer
    talipes equinovarus    brca2 hereditary breast and ovarian cancer    oral cavity cancer    ewing's family of tumors

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for CASP8:
    Cancer     Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome     Vascular disease

    CASP8 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CASP8 gene (see all 95)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    necrosis 80.7 154 11264300 (3), 10891503 (2), 16289096 (2), 18946037 (2) (see all 99)
    tumors 75.4 288 15029256 (4), 17525260 (4), 17637740 (3), 12615731 (3) (see all 99)
    cancer 69.6 89 19597472 (3), 19111387 (3), 11687970 (2), 12576463 (2) (see all 61)
    autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome 66.3 5 18818883 (1), 18424336 (1), 15160902 (1), 15640690 (1)
    leukemia 66.2 44 17999062 (2), 15906362 (2), 20145726 (2), 19182209 (2) (see all 34)
    colon cancer 63.2 20 12692863 (2), 12507932 (1), 16217767 (1), 17182797 (1) (see all 18)
    promyelocytic leukemia 62.8 4 19122287 (1), 18812519 (1), 12766484 (1), 15770551 (1)
    prostate cancer 51 13 19095249 (1), 16322271 (1), 16891474 (1), 17178731 (1) (see all 12)
    malignant glioma 50.9 8 15201989 (2), 15809727 (2), 18407431 (1), 10203695 (1) (see all 5)
    glioma 49.7 47 16080161 (6), 10834615 (5), 15015772 (3), 11822871 (2) (see all 23)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): CASP8
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: CASP8 (94 documents)

    Export disorders for CASP8 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for CASP8 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 2393):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CASP8)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Genetic variants and haplotypes of the caspase-8 and caspase-10 genes contribute to susceptibility to cutaneous melanoma. (PubMed id 18563783)1, 2, 4, 9 Li C.... Wei Q. (Hum. Mutat. 2008)
    2. A six-nucleotide insertion-deletion polymorphism in the CASP8 promoter is associated with susceptibility to multiple cancers. (PubMed id 17450141)1, 2, 4, 9 Sun T.... Lin D. (Nat. Genet. 2007)
    3. Association of a common variant of the CASP8 gene with reduced risk of breast cancer. (PubMed id 15601643)1, 2, 4, 9 MacPherson G.... Cox A. (J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2004)
    4. FLICE, a novel FADD-homologous ICE/CED-3-like protease, is recruited to the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) death-inducing signaling complex. (PubMed id 8681377)1, 2, 3, 9 Muzio M.... Dixit V.M. (Cell 1996)
    5. Involvement of MACH, a novel MORT1/FADD-interacting protease, in Fas/APO-1- and TNF receptor-induced cell death. (PubMed id 8681376)1, 2, 3, 9 Boldin M.P.... Wallach D. (Cell 1996)
    6. A common coding variant in CASP8 is associated with breast cancer risk. (PubMed id 17293864)1, 2, 4 Cox A....Easton D.F. (Nat. Genet. 2007)
    7. Role of FLASH in caspase-8-mediated activation of NF-kappaB: dominant-negative function of FLASH mutant in NF-kappaB signaling pathway. (PubMed id 15592525)1, 2, 9 Jun J.-I.... Jung Y.-K. (Oncogene 2005)
    8. The procaspase-8 isoform, procaspase-8L, recruited to the BAP31 complex at the endoplasmic reticulum. (PubMed id 11917123)1, 2, 9 Breckenridge D.G.... Shore G.C. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    9. Characterization of caspase-8L: a novel isoform of caspase-8 that behaves as an inhibitor of the caspase cascade. (PubMed id 12010809)1, 2, 9 Himeji D....Harada M. (Blood 2002)
    10. A six-nucleotide insertion-deletion polymorphism in the CASP8 promoter associated with risk and progression of bladder cancer. (PubMed id 19276244)1, 4, 9 Wang M....Zhang Z. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 841 HGNC: 1509 AceView: CASP8 Ensembl:ENSG00000064012 euGenes: HUgn841
    ECgene: CASP8 Kegg: 841 H-InvDB: CASP8

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for CASP8 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for CASP8 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    CASP8basehttp://bioinf.uta.fi/CASP8base/
    GeneReviewshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1116/?term=CASP8[genesymbol]
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/casp8/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
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    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for CASP8 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving CASP8

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014

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