Aliases for CASP14 Gene
External Ids for CASP14 Gene
This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This caspase has been shown to be processed and activated by caspase 8 and caspase 10 in vitro, and by anti-Fas agonist antibody or TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand in vivo. The expression and processing of this caspase may be involved in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, which is important for the formation of the skin barrier. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for CASP14 Gene
CASP14 (Caspase 14, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CASP14 include plasma cell neoplasm and myocardial infarction. Among its related pathways are EGFR Signaling Pathway and Apoptosis and Autophagy. GO annotations related to this gene include cysteine-type endopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CASP1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CASP14 Gene
Non-apoptotic caspase involved in epidermal differentiation. Is the predominant caspase in epidermal stratum corneum (PubMed:15556625). Seems to play a role in keratinocyte differentiation and is required for cornification. Regulates maturation of the epidermis by proteolytically processing filaggrin (By similarity). In vitro has a preference for the substate [WY]-X-X-D motif and is active on the synthetic caspase substrate WEHD-ACF (PubMed:16854378, PubMed:19960512). Involved in processing of prosaposin in the epidermis (By similarity). May be involved in retinal pigment epithelium cell barrier function (PubMed:25121097). Involved in DNA degradation in differentiated keratinocytes probably by cleaving DFFA/ICAD leading to liberation of DFFB/CAD (PubMed:24743736).
Caspases (short for cysteinyl aspartate proteases) are involved in the signal transduction pathways of apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation. These enzymes can be divided into two major classes - initiators and effectors. The initiator isoforms (caspases-1,-4,-5,-8,-9,-10,-11,-12) are activated by, and interact with, upstream adaptor molecules through protein-protein interaction domains known as CARD and DED. Effector caspases (-3,-6,-7) are responsible for cleaving downstream substrates and are sometimes referred to as the executioner caspases. More than 400 caspase substrates have so far been identified (see The Caspase Substrate Database). Initiator caspases, such as caspase 8, may be directly activated by death receptors such as FasR. Caspases can also be found intracellularly as part of large multiprotein complexes. For example, caspase 9 is recruited to the apoptosome formed during apoptosis, whilst caspases-1 and 5 can form part of the inflammasome, a key part of cytokine processing during inflammation. Caspases are regulated by inhibitors of apoptosis and by dominant negative isoforms. They have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many disorders including stroke, Alzheimers disease, myocardial infarction, cancer, and inflammatory disease.