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Aliases for CARS2 Gene

Aliases for CARS2 Gene

  • Cysteinyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative) 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • CysRS 3 4
  • Cysteine TRNA Ligase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative) 3
  • Probable Cysteine--TRNA Ligase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Cysteinyl-TRNA Synthetase 4
  • Mitochondrial (Putative) 2
  • Cysteine TRNA Ligase 2 2
  • EC 6.1.1 63

External Ids for CARS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CARS2 Gene

  • GC13M110092
  • GC13M111293
  • GC13M091893

Summaries for CARS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CARS2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a putative member of the class I family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of cysteine to tRNA molecules. A splice-site mutation in this gene has been associated with a novel progressive myoclonic epilepsy disease with similar symptoms to MERRF syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

GeneCards Summary for CARS2 Gene

CARS2 (Cysteinyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative)) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include cysteine-tRNA ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CARS.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CARS2 Gene

Genomics for CARS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for CARS2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for CARS2 Gene

110,641,410 bp from pter
110,713,603 bp from pter
72,194 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CARS2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for CARS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CARS2 Gene

Proteins for CARS2 Gene

  • Protein details for CARS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable cysteine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q8NI84
    • Q96IV4

    Protein attributes for CARS2 Gene

    564 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    62224 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105; Note=Binds 1 zinc ion per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAB93499.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for CARS2 Gene

Proteomics data for CARS2 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for CARS2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CARS2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for CARS2 Gene

Domains for CARS2 Gene

Gene Families for CARS2 Gene

  • aaRS1 :Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases / Class I

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CARS2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q9HA77
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CARS2: view

Function for CARS2 Gene

Molecular function for CARS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-cysteine + tRNA(Cys) = AMP + diphosphate + L-cysteinyl-tRNA(Cys)

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for CARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity --
GO:0004817 cysteine-tRNA ligase activity IBA --
GO:0004824 lysine-tRNA ligase activity --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CARS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CARS2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for CARS2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CARS2

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CARS2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for CARS2 Gene

Localization for CARS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CARS2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for CARS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CARS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 3
cytoskeleton 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CARS2: view

Pathways for CARS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CARS2: view

Pathways by source for CARS2 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for CARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006423 cysteinyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA --
GO:0006430 lysyl-tRNA aminoacylation --
GO:0010467 gene expression TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CARS2: view

Compounds for CARS2 Gene

(5) HMDB Compounds for CARS2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine monophosphate
  • 5'-AMP
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
  • (+)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid
Phosphoric acid
  • acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion

(1) Drugbank Compounds for CARS2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • (R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
52-90-4 target
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CARS2: view

Transcripts for CARS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for CARS2 Gene

Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative):
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CARS2

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CARS2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: -

Relevant External Links for CARS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CARS2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for CARS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (12.4), Adrenal (9.9), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (8.0), and Stomach (6.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for CARS2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CARS2 Gene Hs.508725

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with CARS2: view

Expression partners for CARS2 Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CARS2 Gene

Orthologs for CARS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for CARS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOC506598 35
  • 75.6 (n)
  • 75.91 (a)
CARS2 36
  • 73 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CARS2 35
  • 80.36 (n)
  • 80.76 (a)
CARS2 36
  • 80 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cars2 35
  • 78.39 (n)
  • 79.67 (a)
Cars2 16
Cars2 36
  • 78 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CARS2 35
  • 94.62 (n)
  • 92.38 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Cars2 35
  • 78.82 (n)
  • 79.49 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CARS2 36
  • 72 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CARS2 36
  • 72 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CARS2 35
  • 68.38 (n)
  • 66.36 (a)
CARS2 36
  • 60 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CARS2 36
  • 61 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100498149 35
  • 63.75 (n)
  • 64.13 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cars2 35
  • 61.24 (n)
  • 60.15 (a)
cars2 36
  • 54 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP011821 35
  • 49.89 (n)
  • 43.92 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG8257 35
  • 50.37 (n)
  • 43.18 (a)
CG8257 36
  • 38 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes -- 36
  • 25 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os10g0463100 35
  • 50.42 (n)
  • 43.44 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.6586 36
  • 40 (a)
Species with no ortholog for CARS2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CARS2 Gene

Gene Tree for CARS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for CARS2 (if available)

Paralogs for CARS2 Gene

Paralogs for CARS2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for CARS2 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CARS2: view

Variants for CARS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CARS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs167929 -- 110,641,224(-) GCAGG(A/G)ACCCC downstream-variant-500B
rs189093 -- 110,641,064(-) GTTTT(C/T)TCTCT downstream-variant-500B
rs330569 -- 110,641,204(-) CAGAA(C/T)GCAGC downstream-variant-500B
rs330570 -- 110,641,500(-) CAAGA(C/T)GCACC utr-variant-3-prime, nc-transcript-variant
rs330571 -- 110,645,352(+) AACCC(A/C)CAGGT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CARS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832720 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv901012 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv456120 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv901013 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv901014 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2748035 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2748036 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv23797 CNV Loss 19812545
esv2748037 CNV Deletion 23290073
dgv267e201 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2748039 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv511508 CNV Loss 21212237
esv1011361 CNV Loss 20482838
esv994770 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv2663401 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2748042 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv991840 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv2748043 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1319128 CNV Deletion 17803354
nsv519282 CNV Loss 19592680

Relevant External Links for CARS2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CARS2 Gene

Disorders for CARS2 Gene

Relevant External Links for CARS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator

No disorders were found for CARS2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , University of Copenhagen DISEASES , Novoseek inferred disease relationships and Genatlas for CARS2 Gene

Publications for CARS2 Gene

  1. Toward the full set of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: characterization of AspRS and TyrRS. (PMID: 15779907) Bonnefond L. … Sissler M. (Biochemistry 2005) 2 3 4
  2. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4
  3. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13. (PMID: 15057823) Dunham A. … Ross M.T. (Nature 2004) 3 4
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4
  5. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose J.E. … Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010) 3 48

Products for CARS2 Gene

Sources for CARS2 Gene

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