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Aliases for CARS Gene

Aliases for CARS Gene

  • Cysteinyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • Cysteine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • EC 4 61
  • CYSRS 3 4
  • Cysteine--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Cysteine Translase 3
  • MGC:11246 3
  • EC 6.1.1 61
  • CARS1 3

External Ids for CARS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CARS Gene

  • GC11M003081
  • GC11M003272
  • GC11M002981
  • GC11M002986
  • GC11M002978
  • GC11M002810

Summaries for CARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CARS Gene

  • This gene encodes a class 1 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. Each of the twenty aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyzes the aminoacylation of a specific tRNA or tRNA isoaccepting family with the cognate amino acid. This gene is one of several located near the imprinted gene domain on chromosome 11p15.5, an important tumor-suppressor gene region. Alterations in this region have been associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and lung, ovarian and breast cancers. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

GeneCards Summary for CARS Gene

CARS (Cysteinyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CARS include Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor and Hypocalcemia, Autosomal Dominant. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Gene Expression. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and tRNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is CARS2.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CARS Gene

Genomics for CARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for CARS Gene

Enhancers for CARS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association

Enhancers around CARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for CARS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for CARS Gene

3,000,922 bp from pter
3,057,613 bp from pter
56,692 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CARS Gene

Genes around CARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CARS Gene

Proteins for CARS Gene

  • Protein details for CARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Cysteine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53XI8
    • Q5HYE4
    • Q9HD24
    • Q9HD25

    Protein attributes for CARS Gene

    748 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    85473 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.
    • Sequence=AAA73901.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=619; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for CARS Gene


neXtProt entry for CARS Gene

Post-translational modifications for CARS Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for CARS Gene

Gene Families for CARS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CARS: view

Function for CARS Gene

Molecular function for CARS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase,target autoantibodies in the immune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-cysteine + tRNA(Cys) = AMP + diphosphate + L-cysteinyl-tRNA(Cys).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for CARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000049 tRNA binding NAS 7987009
GO:0004817 cysteine-tRNA ligase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10908348
GO:0005524 ATP binding IDA 17303165
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IMP 17303165
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CARS: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for CARS Gene

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CARS Gene

Localization for CARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CARS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for CARS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CARS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
cytoskeleton 2
extracellular 2
chloroplast 1
nucleus 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 11347887
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CARS: view

Pathways & Interactions for CARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CARS: view

Pathways by source for CARS Gene

1 KEGG pathway for CARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006423 cysteinyl-tRNA aminoacylation IDA 10908348
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CARS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CARS Gene

(8) Drugs for CARS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Cysteine Approved Nutra Target 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0

(7) Additional Compounds for CARS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CARS: view

Transcripts for CARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for CARS Gene

Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CARS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - - -
SP9: -

ExUns: 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21a · 21b · 21c ^ 22 ^ 23a · 23b ^ 24 ^ 25a · 25b ^ 26a · 26b
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP8: -
SP12: -

Relevant External Links for CARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CARS Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (9.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for CARS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for CARS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CARS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CARS Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CARS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CARS Gene

Orthologs for CARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for CARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CARS 34
  • 81.22 (n)
  • 82.75 (a)
  • 82 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CARS 34
  • 85.44 (n)
  • 88.57 (a)
  • 89 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cars 34
  • 86.08 (n)
  • 89.65 (a)
Cars 16
Cars 35
  • 90 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CARS 34
  • 99.56 (n)
  • 99.76 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Cars 34
  • 85.35 (n)
  • 89.62 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CARS 35
  • 79 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CARS 34
  • 75.54 (n)
  • 82.3 (a)
  • 79 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CARS 35
  • 77 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia cars 34
  • 71.1 (n)
  • 76.93 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia cars-prov 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cars 34
  • 68.98 (n)
  • 73.97 (a)
Dr.24192 34
cars 35
  • 74 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta BcDNA:LD21177 36
  • 58 (a)
Aats-cys 34
  • 61.5 (n)
  • 60.72 (a)
Aats-cys 35
  • 59 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012283 34
  • 60.04 (n)
  • 60.77 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea crs-1 36
  • 53 (a)
cars-1 34
  • 56.93 (n)
  • 55.26 (a)
cars-1 35
  • 45 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C03025g 34
  • 50.55 (n)
  • 47.23 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes YNL247W 34
  • 51.67 (n)
  • 46.94 (a)
-- 35
  • 44 (a)
-- 37
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SYCO ARATH 34
  • 47.79 (n)
  • 40.85 (a)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.2722 34
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os09g0556500 34
  • 51.83 (n)
  • 48.71 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.14611 34
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPAC29E6.06c 34
  • 50.7 (n)
  • 46.5 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.7234 35
  • 59 (a)
Species where no ortholog for CARS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CARS Gene

Gene Tree for CARS (if available)
Gene Tree for CARS (if available)

Paralogs for CARS Gene

Paralogs for CARS Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for CARS Gene using alignment to 7 proteins: Pseudogenes for CARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CARS: view

Variants for CARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1077335 -- 3,009,294(+) GCAAC(A/G)TGGAT intron-variant
rs7945933 -- 3,055,027(+) AAGAC(C/T)GCAAA intron-variant
rs7946297 -- 3,055,312(+) gcgcc(C/T)ggcta intron-variant
rs7946355 -- 3,015,184(+) TCACC(A/G)CACAG intron-variant
rs7950766 -- 3,007,040(+) GGGGA(A/G)GGAGG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2668116 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3625132 CNV gain 21293372
esv3625133 CNV loss 21293372
nsv819979 CNV loss 19587683
nsv825716 CNV gain 20364138
nsv8766 CNV loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for CARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 52.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.13; 80.64% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for CARS Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CARS Gene

Disorders for CARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for CARS Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor
  • inflammatory pseudotumor
hypocalcemia, autosomal dominant
  • hypocalcemia, autosomal dominant, with bartter syndrome
childhood disintegrative disease
  • disintegrative psychosis nos
x-linked chondrodysplasia punctata
  • chondrodystrophia calcificans congenita
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Note=A chromosomal aberration involving CARS is associated with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs). Translocation t(2;11)(p23;p15) with ALK.

Relevant External Links for CARS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CARS: view

No data available for Genatlas for CARS Gene

Publications for CARS Gene

  1. Genome-wide association scan for diabetic nephropathy susceptibility genes in type 1 diabetes. (PMID: 19252134) Pezzolesi M.G. … Krolewski A.S. (Diabetes 2009) 3 22 46 65
  2. Isolation of two cDNAs encoding functional human cytoplasmic cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 11347887) Davidson E. … King M.P. (Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4 22 65
  3. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of human cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 7987009) Cruzen M.E. … Arfin S.M. (DNA Seq. 1994) 3 4 22 65
  4. Assignment of the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase gene (CARS) to 11p15.5. (PMID: 8468064) Cruzen M.E. … Arfin S.M. (Genomics 1993) 2 3 22 65
  5. Replication study for the association between four Loci identified by a genome-wide association study on European American subjects with type 1 diabetes and susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. (PMID: 20460425) Maeda S. … Nakamura Y. (Diabetes 2010) 3 46 65

Products for CARS Gene

Sources for CARS Gene

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