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CARF Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 38
GCID: GC02P203777

Calcium Responsive Transcription Factor

(Previous names: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) chromosome region,...)
(Previous symbol: ALS2CR8)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Calcium Responsive Transcription Factor1 2     Testis Development Protein NYD-SP242 3
ALS2CR81 2 3 5     NYD-SP242
Calcium-Response Factor1 2 3     Calcium-Responsive Transcription Factor2
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 2 (Juvenile) Chromosome Region, Candidate 81 2     CaRF3
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 2 Chromosomal Region Candidate Gene 8
Protein2 3
     

External Ids:    HGNC: 144351   Entrez Gene: 798002   Ensembl: ENSG000001383807   OMIM: 6075865   UniProtKB: Q8N1873   

Export aliases for CARF gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC04P185045 GC04P184950 GC04P185061 GC04P184740 GC04P184602


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for CARF Gene:
CARF (calcium responsive transcription factor) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with CARF include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2, juvenile, and lateral sclerosis. GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CARTF_HUMAN, Q8N187
Function: Acts as a transcriptional activator that mediates the calcium- and neuron-selective induction of BDNF
exon III transcription. Binds to the consensus calcium-response element CaRE1 5'-CTATTTCGAG-3' sequence

Gene Wiki entry for CARF (ALS2CR8) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for CARF
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidCARF promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for CARF

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat CARF


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2q33.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2q33.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2q33.3

CARF Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
CARF gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02P203777:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
203,776,937 bp from pter      End:
203,851,786 bp from pter
Size:
74,850 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CARTF_HUMAN, Q8N187 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Calcium-responsive transcription factor  
Size: 725 amino acids; 80698 Da
Sequence caution: Sequence=BAB15088.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Sequence=BAB69018.1; Type=Frameshift;
Positions=715;
Secondary accessions: Q8ND29 Q8WXC0 Q96J78 Q96Q38 Q96Q39 Q9H712
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q8N187-1   Q8N187-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for CARF: NX_Q8N187

Explore proteomics data for CARF at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See CARF Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001098056.1  NP_001269839.1  NP_001269840.1  NP_001269841.1  NP_079020.13  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000384006   ENSP00000413296   ENSP00000395276   ENSP00000416812   ENSP00000391617  
     ENSP00000392274   ENSP00000394298   ENSP00000408998   ENSP00000401918   ENSP00000413166  
     ENSP00000387785   ENSP00000416160   ENSP00000396221   ENSP00000394990   ENSP00000414789  
     ENSP00000415948   ENSP00000409985   ENSP00000414644   ENSP00000439769   ENSP00000411134  
     ENSP00000440467   ENSP00000316224  

    CARF Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals CARF Proteins
    Novus Biologicals CARF Lysate
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for CARF

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for CARF


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q8N187

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CARTF_HUMAN, Q8N187
    Domain: The N-terminus is necessary for DNA-binding. The C-terminus is necessary for transcriptional activation
    (PubMed:11832226)


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CARTF_HUMAN, Q8N187
    Function: Acts as a transcriptional activator that mediates the calcium- and neuron-selective induction of BDNF
    exon III transcription. Binds to the consensus calcium-response element CaRE1 5'-CTATTTCGAG-3' sequence

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003677DNA binding IDA11832226
    GO:0003700sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity IDA11832226
         
    CARF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for CARF:
     Decreased G3BP1 protein expres 

         1 MGI mutant phenotype (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Carf):
     behavior/neurological 

    CARF for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Carftm1.1Aew for CARF

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for CARF
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for CARF
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for CARF

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target CARF:
    hsa-mir-331-3p (MIRT043277), hsa-mir-34a-5p (MIRT025457)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat CARF using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate CARF
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidCARF 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat CARF

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CARF


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    CARTF_HUMAN, Q8N187: Nucleus (By similarity)

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus ISS--
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm IEA--
    GO:0005730nucleolus IEA--

    CARF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for CARF
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for CARF

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 3 interactants - click image to see more details)

    Selected Interacting proteins for CARF (Q8N1872, 3 ENSP000003162244) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 6)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    LMO3Q8TAP43, ENSP000003466894I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000346689
    NFE2Q166213I2D: score=1 
    CDKN2AENSP000003551534STRING: ENSP00000355153
    HNRNPA1ENSP000003418264STRING: ENSP00000341826
    --Q9NYC63, 2MINT-66679 I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006351transcription, DNA-templated IEA--
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ----
    GO:0035865cellular response to potassium ion IDA--
    GO:0061400positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to calcium ion IDA11832226
    GO:0071277cellular response to calcium ion IDA11832226

    CARF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for CARF (CARTF)

    1 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationship for CARF gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    calcium 37 7 11832226 (2), 10409470 (1), 12924208 (1), 2222965 (1)



    CARF for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for CARF gene (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001104586.2  NM_001282910.1  NM_001282911.1  NM_001282912.1  NM_024744.15  

    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 23):
    ENST00000402905(uc010zhy.1 uc010zhz.1 uc010ftu.1) ENST00000414490
    ENST00000431787 ENST00000444724(uc002uzn.3 uc002uzm.3) ENST00000414857
    ENST00000422368 ENST00000430899 ENST00000445120 ENST00000441569 ENST00000432024
    ENST00000443740 ENST00000471271 ENST00000414439 ENST00000428585 ENST00000447539
    ENST00000457031 ENST00000434998 ENST00000427712
    miRNA
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat CARF
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat CARF

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 47):

    CK825814 BQ286380 AA812496 BX107308 AI094262 NM_024744 AB053309 AL035977 
    AI672379 AI050677 AI744905 BC033777 CD358335 BC021999 AK025232 BM993125 
    BX446625 CK002016 AF454946 AL834188 CF993771 AB053310 BI463740 AW503159 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CARF (see all 13)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^
    SP1:              -     -           -     -     -                             -                                               -                                 
    SP2:                                            -                             -                                               -                                 
    SP3:              -     -                       -     -     -     -     -     -                                                                                 
    SP4:                                -           -           -                 -                                                                                 
    SP5:                                -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                               -                                 

    ExUns: 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
    SP1:                        
    SP2:                        
    SP3:                        
    SP4:                        
    SP5:                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for CARF

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    CARF expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    CARF Expression
    About this image

    CARF Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    CARF Protein Expression
        Custom PCR Arrays for CARF
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for CARF

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for CARF gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Carf1 , 5 calcium response factor1, 5 82.73(n)1
    75.04(a)1
      1 (30.45 cM)5
    2410661  NM_139150.51  NP_631889.11 
     600982475 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves ALS2CR81 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) chromosome more 72.57(n)
    68.21(a)
      424090  XM_421946.4  XP_421946.3 
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia carf1 calcium responsive transcription factor 62.66(n)
    55.78(a)
      100494660  XM_002937717.2  XP_002937763.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii carf1 calcium responsive transcription factor 57.52(n)
    53.97(a)
      555728  XM_005167498.1  XP_005167555.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for CARF (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for CARF (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for CARF (see all 1168)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1818727371,2
    --203779040(+) AGACTA/GTGCAT 2 -- int10--------
    rs1872069341,2
    --203779386(+) AATCCA/GAGCTA 2 -- int10--------
    rs1895142041,2
    --203779459(+) ATCACA/GCCACT 2 -- int10--------
    rs67234551,2
    C--203779515(+) aaaaaA/Caaaca 2 -- int12Minor allele frequency- C:0.00WA NA 4
    rs3755242011,2
    C--203779515(+) AAAAA-/CAAACA 2 -- int10--------
    rs802843641,2
    C--203779519(+) ACAAAA/CAAAAA 2 -- int10--------
    rs562803951,2
    C--203779579(+) ATGGAC/TTGCAG 2 -- int10--------
    rs1807482881,2
    --203779680(+) TTTTTA/TATTTT 2 -- int10--------
    rs1854011121,2
    --203779801(+) GTGGCA/GCTATC 2 -- int10--------
    rs1899608401,2
    --203779826(+) CCTCCA/GCCTTC 2 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for CARF (203776937 - 203851786 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for CARF: --
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing CARF
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for CARF

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 607586    OMIM disorders: --

    5 diseases for CARF:    About MalaCards
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2, juvenile    lateral sclerosis    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis    hypertension
    neuronitis


    CARF for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Export disorders for CARF gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for CARF gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 19):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with CARF)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A calcium-responsive transcription factor, CaRF, that regulates neuronal activity-dependent expression of BDNF. (PubMed id 11832226)1, 2, 3, 9 Tao X.... Greenberg M.E. (Neuron 2002)
    2. A gene encoding a putative GTPase regulator is mutated in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2. (PubMed id 11586298)1, 2, 3 Hadano S....Ikeda J.-E. (Nat. Genet. 2001)
    3. Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4. (PubMed id 15815621)1, 2 Hillier L.W.... Wilson R.K. (Nature 2005)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    6. DBIRD complex integrates alternative mRNA splicing with RNA polymerase II transcript elongation. (PubMed id 22446626)1 Close P.... Svejstrup J.Q. (Nature 2012)
    7. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor exon IV transcription through calcium responsive elements in cortical neurons. (PubMed id 22174809)2 Zheng F.... Wang H. (PLoS ONE 2011)
    8. Interactions of pathological hallmark proteins: tubulin polymerization promoting protein/p25, beta-amyloid, and alpha-synuclein. (PubMed id 21832049)1 OlA!h J....OvA!di J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2011)
    9. CARF: an emerging regulator of p53 tumor suppressor and senescence pathway. (PubMed id 18555516)1 Cheung C.T....Wadhwa R. (Mech. Ageing Dev. 2009)
    10. The full-ORF clone resource of the German cDNA consortium. (PubMed id 17974005)2 Bechtel S.... Schupp I. (BMC Genomics 2007)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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      Query String
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      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 79800 HGNC: 14435 AceView: ALS2CR8 Ensembl:ENSG00000138380 euGenes: HUgn79800
    ECgene: CARF H-InvDB: CARF

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for CARF Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for CARF gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving CARF

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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