Aliases for CAMK2D Gene
External Ids for CAMK2D Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for CAMK2D Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CAMK2D Gene
The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a delta chain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Distinct isoforms of this chain have different expression patterns.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
GeneCards Summary for CAMK2D Gene
CAMK2D (Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Delta) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Proteoglycans in cancer and ERK Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include calmodulin binding and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is DCX.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CAMK2D Gene
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostatis and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in heart by targeting ion channels, transporters and accessory proteins involved in Ca(2+) influx into the myocyte, Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), SR Ca(2+) uptake and Na(+) and K(+) channel transport. Targets also transcription factors and signaling molecules to regulate heart function. In its activated form, is involved in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Contributes to cardiac decompensation and heart failure by regulating SR Ca(2+) release via direct phosphorylation of RYR2 Ca(2+) channel on Ser-2808. In the nucleus, phosphorylates the MEF2 repressor HDAC4, promoting its nuclear export and binding to 14-3-3 protein, and expression of MEF2 and genes involved in the hypertrophic program. Is essential for left ventricular remodeling responses to myocardial infarction. In pathological myocardial remodeling acts downstream of the beta adrenergic receptor signaling cascade to regulate key proteins involved in ECC. Regulates Ca(2+) influx to myocytes by binding and phosphorylating the L-type Ca(2+) channel subunit beta-2 CACNB2. In addition to Ca(2+) channels, can target and regulate the cardiac sarcolemmal Na(+) channel Nav1.5/SCN5A and the K+ channel Kv4.3/KCND3, which contribute to arrhythmogenesis in heart failure. Phosphorylates phospholamban (PLN/PLB), an endogenous inhibitor of SERCA2A/ATP2A2, contributing to the enhancement of SR Ca(2+) uptake that may be important in frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation (FDAR) and maintenance of contractile function during acidosis. May participate in the modulation of skeletal muscle function in response to exercise, by regulating SR Ca(2+) transport through phosphorylation of PLN/PLB and triadin, a ryanodine receptor-coupling factor.
Calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMK) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that mediate many of the second messenger effects of Ca2+. At basal Ca2+ levels, CaMKs are maintained in a dormant state through autoinhibition. Increases in Ca2+ levels allows calmodulin to relieve this autoinhibition and activate the kinase activity. There are two main classes of CaMKs; mulitfunctional CaMKs (CaMKK, CaMKI, CaMKII and CaMKIV) which have multiple downstream targets and substrate-specific CaMKs (CaMKIII) which have only one known downstream target. All CaMKs, with the exception of CaMKII, exist as monomers and most are expressed ubiquitously. Some subtypes display specific distributions, for example, CaMKIVbeta is expressed exclusively in cerebellar granule cells. CaMKs have numerous cellular functions and they influence processes as diverse as gene transcription, cell survival, apoptosis, cytoskeletal re-organization and learning and memory.