Aliases for CA9 Gene
External Ids for CA9 Gene
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. They show extensive diversity in tissue distribution and in their subcellular localization. CA IX is a transmembrane protein and is one of only two tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes known. It is expressed in all clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, but is not detected in normal kidney or most other normal tissues. It may be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. This gene was mapped to 17q21.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, however, radiation hybrid mapping localized it to 9p13-p12. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
GeneCards Summary for CA9 Gene
CA9 (Carbonic Anhydrase IX) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CA9 include renal cell carcinoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Among its related pathways are Angiogenesis (CST) and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include carbonate dehydratase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CA14.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CA9 Gene
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervical neoplasia.
Carbonic anhydrases are zinc-containing enzymes belonging to the lyases family, and are primarily responsible for catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen (H+) ions. There are several different carbonic anhydrase isoforms; these can be broadly grouped into cytosolic (CA I, CA II, CA III, CA VII, CA XIII), mitochondrial (CA VA, CA VB), secreted (CA VI) and membrane-associated (CA IV, CA IX, CA XII, CA XIV) carbonic anhydrases. The functions of the remaining carbonic anhydrases are yet to be elucidated. Expression of the membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase, CA IX, has been reported in hypoxic tumors where its activity is linked to promoting survival of tumor cells and aiding cancer progression. This is thought to occur through the carbonic anhyrase-mediated production of bicarbonate ions, which neutralizes the abnormally acidic pH of the extracellular environment induced during hypoxia. Furthermore, as CA IX is a hypoxia- and HIF-1-inducible enzyme, its expression can be used as a biomarker for hypoxic tumors.