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Aliases for BST2 Gene

Aliases for BST2 Gene

  • Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 2 2 3
  • HM1.24 Antigen 3 4
  • TETHERIN 3 4
  • BST-2 3 4
  • Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2 3
  • CD317 Antigen 4
  • NPC-A-7 3
  • CD317 3

External Ids for BST2 Gene

Summaries for BST2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for BST2 Gene

  • Bone marrow stromal cells are involved in the growth and development of B-cells. The specific function of the protein encoded by the bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 is undetermined; however, this protein may play a role in pre-B-cell growth and in rheumatoid arthritis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for BST2 Gene

BST2 (Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with BST2 include west nile encephalitis and rheumatoid arthritis. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and metalloendopeptidase inhibitor activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BST2 Gene

  • IFN-induced antiviral host restriction factor which efficiently blocks the release of diverse mammalian enveloped viruses by directly tethering nascent virions to the membranes of infected cells. Acts as a direct physical tether, holding virions to the cell membrane and linking virions to each other. The tethered virions can be internalized by endocytosis and subsequently degraded or they can remain on the cell surface. In either case, their spread as cell-free virions is restricted. Its target viruses belong to diverse families, including retroviridae: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), prototype foamy virus (PFV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV), flavivirideae: hepatitis C virus (HCV), filoviridae: ebola virus (EBOV) and marburg virus (MARV), arenaviridae: lassa virus (LASV) and machupo virus (MACV), herpesviridae: kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), rhabdoviridae: vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), orthomyxoviridae: influenza A virus, and paramyxoviridae: nipah virus. Can inhibit cell surface proteolytic activity of MMP14 causing decreased activation of MMP15 which results in inhibition of cell growth and migration. Can stimulate signaling by LILRA4/ILT7 and consequently provide negative feedback to the production of IFN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in response to viral infection. Plays a role in the organization of the subapical actin cytoskeleton in polarized epithelial cells. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are both effective viral restriction factors but have differing antiviral and signaling activities. Isoform 2 is resistant to HIV-1 Vpu-mediated degradation and restricts HIV-1 viral budding in the presence of Vpu. Isoform 1 acts as an activator of NF-kappa-B and this activity is inhibited by isoform 2.

Gene Wiki entry for BST2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for BST2 Gene

Genomics for BST2 Gene

Genomic Location for BST2 Gene

Start:
17,402,939 bp from pter
End:
17,405,648 bp from pter
Size:
2,710 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for BST2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for BST2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for BST2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for BST2 Gene

Proteins for BST2 Gene

  • Protein details for BST2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q10589-BST2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Bone marrow stromal antigen 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q10589
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K4Y4
    • Q53G07

    Protein attributes for BST2 Gene

    Size:
    180 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    19769 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Parallel homodimer; disulfide-linked. May form homotetramers under reducing conditions. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 form homodimers and also heterodimers with each other. Dimerization is essential for its antiviral activity. Interacts (via cytoplasmic domain) with ARHGAP44 (By similarity). Interacts with MMP14 (via C-terminal cytoplasmic tail). Interacts with LILRA4/ILT7. Interacts (via transmembrane domain) with HIV-1 VPU (via transmembrane domain). Interacts with HIV-2 ENV and ebola GP protein.
    Miscellaneous:
    • Tetherin shows evidence of positive (adaptive) selection, presumably as a result of evolutionary pressure applied by antagonistic viral proteins that counteract its inhibitiory activity and this has led to the species-specific tetherin sensitivity to viral countermeasures. For example, Tantalus monkey tetherin cannot be abrogated by HIV-1 VPU due to variation in the tetherin transmembrane region. Similarly, SIV Nefs are able to overcome simian tetherins, but not human tetherin, due to a unique 5-amino-acid deletion in the cytoplasmic tail domain of human tetherin (PubMed:19917491).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for BST2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for BST2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for BST2 Gene

Proteomics data for BST2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for BST2 Gene

  • Monoubiquitinated by KSHV E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase K5, leading to its targeting to late endosomes and degradation.
  • The GPI anchor is essential for its antiviral activity
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys18
  • Glycosylation at Asn65, Asn92, Thr121, Thr122, and Ser131

Other Protein References for BST2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for BST2 Gene

Domains for BST2 Gene

Gene Families for BST2 Gene

HGNC:
  • CD :CD molecules

Protein Domains for BST2 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for BST2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q10589

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

BST2_HUMAN
Domain:
  • The extracellular coiled coil domain forms an extended 170 A long semi-flexible rod-like structure important for virion retention at the cell surface and prevention of virus spreading.:
    • Q10589
Family:
  • Belongs to the tetherin family.:
    • Q10589
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with BST2: view

Function for BST2 Gene

Molecular function for BST2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: bone marrow stromal antigen 2,involved in pre-B-cell growth,36kDa,expressed in various tissues
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: IFN-induced antiviral host restriction factor which efficiently blocks the release of diverse mammalian enveloped viruses by directly tethering nascent virions to the membranes of infected cells. Acts as a direct physical tether, holding virions to the cell membrane and linking virions to each other. The tethered virions can be internalized by endocytosis and subsequently degraded or they can remain on the cell surface. In either case, their spread as cell-free virions is restricted. Its target viruses belong to diverse families, including retroviridae: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), prototype foamy virus (PFV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV), flavivirideae: hepatitis C virus (HCV), filoviridae: ebola virus (EBOV) and marburg virus (MARV), arenaviridae: lassa virus (LASV) and machupo virus (MACV), herpesviridae: kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), rhabdoviridae: vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), orthomyxoviridae: influenza A virus, and paramyxoviridae: nipah virus. Can inhibit cell surface proteolytic activity of MMP14 causing decreased activation of MMP15 which results in inhibition of cell growth and migration. Can stimulate signaling by LILRA4/ILT7 and consequently provide negative feedback to the production of IFN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in response to viral infection. Plays a role in the organization of the subapical actin cytoskeleton in polarized epithelial cells. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are both effective viral restriction factors but have differing antiviral and signaling activities. Isoform 2 is resistant to HIV-1 Vpu-mediated degradation and restricts HIV-1 viral budding in the presence of Vpu. Isoform 1 acts as an activator of NF-kappa-B and this activity is inhibited by isoform 2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: By type I interferons. Down-regulated by viral antagonistic factors which include: HIV-1 VPU protein, HIV-2 ENV protein, KSHV K5 protein and ebola virus GP protein. VPU and ENV antagonize its function by targeting it to the trans-Golgi network, sequestering it away from virus assembly sites on the cell membrane. VPU also acts as an adapter molecule linking it to BTRC, a substrate recognition subunit of the Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase, inducing its ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. K5 ubiquitinates it leading to its targeting to late endosomes and degradation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for BST2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IMP 12761501
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 19564354
GO:0008191 metalloendopeptidase inhibitor activity IDA 22065321
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IPI 20399176
GO:0044822 poly(A) RNA binding IDA 22658674
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BST2: view

Phenotypes for BST2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with BST2: view

Animal Models for BST2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for BST2:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for BST2 Gene

Localization for BST2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BST2 Gene

Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network. Cell membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein. Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor, GPI-anchor. Late endosome. Membrane raft. Cytoplasm. Apical cell membrane. Note=Shuttles between the cell membrane, where it is present predominantly in membrane/lipid rafts, and the trans-Golgi network. HIV-1 VPU and HIV-2 ENV can target it to the trans-Golgi network thus sequestering it away from virus assembly sites on the cell membrane. Targeted to late endosomes upon KSHV infection and subsequent ubiquitination. Forms a complex with MMP14 and localizes to the cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for BST2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for BST2 gene
Compartment Confidence
endosome 5
plasma membrane 5
golgi apparatus 3
nucleus 2
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
lysosome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for BST2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005737 colocalizes_with cytoplasm IDA 22065321
GO:0005768 endosome --
GO:0005771 multivesicular body IMP 22072966
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BST2: view

Pathways for BST2 Gene

SuperPathways for BST2 Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for BST2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002737 negative regulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cell cytokine production IDA 19564354
GO:0006959 humoral immune response TAS 7607676
GO:0007165 signal transduction --
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 7607676
GO:0007275 multicellular organismal development TAS 7607676
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BST2: view

No data available for Pathways by source for BST2 Gene

Transcripts for BST2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for BST2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for BST2 Gene

Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for BST2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for BST2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
BST2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
BST2

Expression for BST2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for BST2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for BST2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (6.9) and Adrenal Gland (5.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for BST2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for BST2 Gene Hs.118110

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for BST2 Gene

Q10589-BST2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Predominantly expressed in liver, lung, heart and placenta. Lower levels in pancreas, kidney, skeletal muscle and brain. Overexpressed in multiple myeloma cells. Highly expressed during B-cell development, from pro-B precursors to plasma cells. Highly expressed on T-cells, monocytes, NK cells and dendritic cells (at protein level).
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with BST2: view

Orthologs for BST2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for BST2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia BST2 35
  • 98.15 (n)
  • 97.22 (a)
BST2 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 34 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia BST2 35
  • 59.8 (n)
  • 44.85 (a)
BST2 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Bst2 16
Bst2 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for BST2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for BST2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for BST2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for BST2 (if available)

Paralogs for BST2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for BST2 Gene

Variants for BST2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for BST2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
VAR_012067 -

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for BST2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv911182 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv911198 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv833768 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv911201 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for BST2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
BST2
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
BST2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BST2 Gene

Disorders for BST2 Gene

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for BST2 Gene

(1) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for BST2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
immunodeficiency 31.2 3

Relevant External Links for BST2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
BST2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
BST2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with BST2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BST2 Gene

Publications for BST2 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of a bone marrow stromal cell surface gene, BST2, that may be involved in pre-B-cell growth. (PMID: 7607676) Ishikawa J. … Hirano T. (Genomics 1995) 2 3 4 23
  2. Regulation of TLR7/9 responses in plasmacytoid dendritic cells by BST2 and ILT7 receptor interaction. (PMID: 19564354) Cao W. … Liu Y.J. (J. Exp. Med. 2009) 3 4 23
  3. HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu internalizes cell-surface BST-2/tetherin through transmembrane interactions leading to lysosomes. (PMID: 19837671) Iwabu Y. … Tokunaga K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 4 23
  4. The formation of cysteine-linked dimers of BST-2/tetherin is important for inhibition of HIV-1 virus release but not for sensitivity to Vpu. (PMID: 19737401) Andrew A.J. … Strebel K. (Retrovirology 2009) 3 4 23
  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a surface antigen preferentially overexpressed on multiple myeloma cells. (PMID: 10329429) Ohtomo T. … Tsuchiya M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1999) 3 4

Products for BST2 Gene

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate BST2
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for BST2
    • Block miRNA regulation of BST2 using miScript Target Protectors
    • Addgene plasmids for BST2

    Sources for BST2 Gene

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