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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

BST2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 59
GCID: GC19M017513

Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 2

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 21 2     TETHERIN2
BST-22 3     Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 22
HM1.24 Antigen2 3     Tetherin3
CD3172     CD317 Antigen3
NPC-A-72     

External Ids:    HGNC: 11191   Entrez Gene: 6842   Ensembl: ENSG000001303037   OMIM: 6005345   UniProtKB: Q105893   

Export aliases for BST2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC19M018007 GC19M017906 GC19M017358 GC19M017374 GC19M017502 GC19M017080


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for BST2 Gene:
Bone marrow stromal cells are involved in the growth and development of B-cells. The specific function of the
protein encoded by the bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 is undetermined; however, this protein may play a role
in pre-B-cell growth and in rheumatoid arthritis. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for BST2 Gene: 
BST2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with BST2 include west nile encephalitis, and megakaryocytic leukemia. GO annotations related to this gene include metalloendopeptidase inhibitor activity and protein homodimerization activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: BST2_HUMAN, Q10589
Function: IFN-induced antiviral host restriction factor which efficiently blocks the release of diverse mammalian
enveloped viruses by directly tethering nascent virions to the membranes of infected cells. Acts as a direct
physical tether, holding virions to the cell membrane and linking virions to each other. The tethered virions can
be internalized by endocytosis and subsequently degraded or they can remain on the cell surface. In either case,
their spread as cell-free virions is restricted. Its target viruses belong to diverse families, including
retroviridae: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), simian
immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV),
prototype foamy virus (PFV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), Rous
sarcoma virus (RSV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV), flavivirideae: hepatitis C virus (HCV), filoviridae: ebola
virus (EBOV) and marburg virus (MARV), arenaviridae: lassa virus (LASV) and machupo virus (MACV), herpesviridae:
kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), rhabdoviridae: vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), orthomyxoviridae:
influenza A virus, and paramyxoviridae: nipah virus. Can inhibit cell surface proteolytic activity of MMP14
causing decreased activation of MMP15 which results in inhibition of cell growth and migration. Can stimulate
signaling by LILRA4/ILT7 and consequently provide negative feedback to the production of IFN by plasmacytoid
dendritic cells in response to viral infection. Plays a role in the organization of the subapical actin
cytoskeleton in polarized epithelial cells

Gene Wiki entry for BST2 (Tetherin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000019.9  NT_011295.11  NC_018930.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the BST2 gene promoter:
         STAT1   AP-1   ATF-2   STAT1beta   CUTL1   STAT1alpha   PPAR-gamma1   PPAR-gamma2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): BST2 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for BST2

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat BST2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 19p13.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  19p13.11   HGNC cytogenetic band: 19p13.2

BST2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
BST2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 19         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC19M017513:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
17,513,748 bp from pter      End:
17,516,457 bp from pter
Size:
2,710 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: BST2_HUMAN, Q10589 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 precursor  
Size: 180 amino acids; 19769 Da
Subunit: Parallel homodimer; disulfide-linked. May form homotetramers under reducing conditions. Dimerization is
essential for its antiviral activity. Interacts (via cytoplasmic domain) with ARHGAP44 (By similarity). Interacts
with MMP14 (via C-terminal cytoplasmic tail). Interacts with LILRA4/ILT7. Interacts (via transmembrane domain)
with HIV-1 VPU (via transmembrane domain). Interacts with HIV-2 ENV and ebola GP protein
Subcellular location: Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network. Cell membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein.
Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor, GPI-anchor. Late endosome. Membrane raft. Cytoplasm. Apical cell membrane (By
similarity). Note=Shuttles between the cell membrane, where it is present predominantly in membrane/lipid rafts,
and the trans-Golgi network. HIV-1 VPU and HIV-2 ENV can target it to the trans-Golgi network thus sequestering
it away from virus assembly sites on the cell membrane. Targeted to late endosomes upon KSHV infection and
subsequent ubiquitination. Forms a complex with MMP14 and localizes to the cytoplasm
Miscellaneous: Tetherin shows evidence of positive (adaptive) selection, presumably as a result of evolutionary
pressure applied by antagonistic viral proteins that counteract its inhibitiory activity and this has led to the
species-specific tetherin sensitivity to viral countermeasures. For example, Tantalus monkey tetherin cannot be
abrogated by HIV-1 VPU due to variation in the tetherin transmembrane region. Similarly, SIV Nefs are able to
overcome simian tetherins, but not human tetherin, due to a unique 5-amino-acid deletion in the cytoplasmic tail
domain of human tetherin (PubMed:19917491)
6/8 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for BST2 (see all 8):
2LK9 (3D)        2X7A (3D)        2XG7 (3D)        3MQ7 (3D)        3MQ9 (3D)        3MQB (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K4Y4 Q53G07

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for BST2: NX_Q10589

Explore proteomics data for BST2 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Monoubiquitinated by KSHV E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase K5, leading to its targeting to late endosomes and
    degradation
  • UniProtKB: The GPI anchor is essential for its antiviral activity
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q10589

  • BST2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    BST2 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_004326.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000252593  

    Human Recombinant Protein Products for BST2: 
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    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for BST2
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for BST2
    OriGene MassSpec for BST2 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for BST2
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for BST2
    Novus Biologicals BST2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals BST2 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for BST2
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for BST2 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for BST2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for BST2 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/11 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular ----
    GO:0005737colocalizes with cytoplasm IDA--
    GO:0005770late endosome IEA--
    GO:0005794Golgi apparatus IEA--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane IDA19036818

    BST2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    BST2 Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of BST2
    R&D Systems Antibodies for BST2 (BST2/Tetherin)
    OriGene Antibodies for BST2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for BST2
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for BST2
    Novus Biologicals BST2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for BST2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for BST2 
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for BST2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for BST2 

    Assay Products for BST2: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for BST2
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for BST2
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for BST2 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for BST2


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    CD: CD molecules

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR024886 BST2

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q10589

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q10589

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: BST2_HUMAN, Q10589
    Domain: The extracellular coiled coil domain forms an extended 170 A long semi-flexible rod-like structure
    important for virion retention at the cell surface and prevention of virus spreading
    Similarity: Belongs to the tetherin family


    BST2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: BST2_HUMAN, Q10589
    Function: IFN-induced antiviral host restriction factor which efficiently blocks the release of diverse mammalian
    enveloped viruses by directly tethering nascent virions to the membranes of infected cells. Acts as a direct
    physical tether, holding virions to the cell membrane and linking virions to each other. The tethered virions can
    be internalized by endocytosis and subsequently degraded or they can remain on the cell surface. In either case,
    their spread as cell-free virions is restricted. Its target viruses belong to diverse families, including
    retroviridae: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), simian
    immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV),
    prototype foamy virus (PFV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), Rous
    sarcoma virus (RSV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV), flavivirideae: hepatitis C virus (HCV), filoviridae: ebola
    virus (EBOV) and marburg virus (MARV), arenaviridae: lassa virus (LASV) and machupo virus (MACV), herpesviridae:
    kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), rhabdoviridae: vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), orthomyxoviridae:
    influenza A virus, and paramyxoviridae: nipah virus. Can inhibit cell surface proteolytic activity of MMP14
    causing decreased activation of MMP15 which results in inhibition of cell growth and migration. Can stimulate
    signaling by LILRA4/ILT7 and consequently provide negative feedback to the production of IFN by plasmacytoid
    dendritic cells in response to viral infection. Plays a role in the organization of the subapical actin
    cytoskeleton in polarized epithelial cells
    Induction: By type I interferons. Down-regulated by viral antagonistic factors which include: HIV-1 VPU protein,
    HIV-2 ENV protein, KSHV K5 protein and ebola virus GP protein. VPU and ENV antagonize its function by targeting
    it to the trans-Golgi network, sequestering it away from virus assembly sites on the cell membrane. VPU also acts
    as an adapter molecule linking it to BTRC, a substrate recognition subunit of the Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein E3
    ubiquitin ligase, inducing its ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. K5 ubiquitinates it leading
    to its targeting to late endosomes and degradation

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for BST2:
    bone marrow stromal antigen 2,involved in pre-B-cell growth,36kDa,expressed in various tissues

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004871signal transducer activity IMP12761501
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI19564354
    GO:0008191metalloendopeptidase inhibitor activity IDA--
    GO:0042803protein homodimerization activity IPI--
         
    BST2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for BST2:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

         4 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Bst2):
     cellular  hematopoietic system  immune system  no phenotypic analysis 

    BST2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Bst2tm1.1Bsz for BST2

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for BST2 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for BST2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for BST2 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for BST2 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat BST2
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate BST2
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidBST2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for BST2
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat BST2

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for BST2
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of BST2

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for BST2 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for BST2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: BST2 (NM_004335)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for BST2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for BST2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat BST2
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of BST2 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of BST2 

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for BST2
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for BST2
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for BST2


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section




    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for BST2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 4 interactants - click image to see more details)

    5/8 Interacting proteins for BST2 (Q105892, 3 ENSP000002525934) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 8)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    UBCP0CG483, ENSP000003448184I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000344818
    BTRCQ9Y2973I2D: score=1 
    LILRA4P599013I2D: score=1 
    TFRCP027863I2D: score=1 
    HAGHENSP000003805144STRING: ENSP00000380514
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/19 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 19):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002737negative regulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cell cytokine production IDA19564354
    GO:0006959humoral immune response TAS7607676
    GO:0007165signal transduction IMP12761501
    GO:0007267cell-cell signaling TAS7607676
    GO:0007275multicellular organismal development TAS7607676

    BST2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for BST2

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about BST2

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for BST2 gene: 
    NM_004335.3  

    Unigene Cluster for BST2:

    Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2
    Hs.118110  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BQ679629
    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000252593(uc002ngl.3) ENST00000533098 ENST00000527220
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat BST2
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate BST2
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidBST2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for BST2
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat BST2
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for BST2 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for BST2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: BST2 (NM_004335)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for BST2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat BST2
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of BST2 
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    Primer
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      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat BST2
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat BST2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK223124.1 AK291099.1 AK303593.1 AY320400.1 AY320402.1 BC033873.1 D28137.1 

    9 DOTS entries:

    DT.75161707  DT.101973854  DT.91757455  DT.97819337  DT.100796120  DT.102829816  DT.91757448  DT.95150545 
    DT.95370619 

    399 AceView cDNA sequences (see top 24):

    BI223714 BQ057827 BX481937 BU168554 BU854816 BP341915 BQ053580 BE896478 
    BG165219 BM688662 BQ230530 BQ716644 BI115017 BQ058341 BE275026 AL560990 
    BM562301 BX474586 BI819227 BG385866 BM829102 BI819604 CR591045 CB999904 
    BG745305 AI914688 BM784895 CR609450 BM727155 BQ878379 BF978915 BQ712639 
    BM766483 BQ957470 BQ056957 BU595585 BF971297 BI762508 AA485371 BI836883 
    BU184531 BF203853 BU844701 BI835417 BM752166 BU855701 BQ430313 AA485528 
    CK822727 CD246551 BQ050050 AI077344 BM019248 AA349268 BX108532 CA310141 
    CB139365 BQ213120 AA827002 BE208322 BM017737 CF454134 BQ679222 BE858229 
    BU619103 BQ015703 BF343353 AA641428 BG570607 AI915084 AA769762 BF514764 
    BG767043 BU616463 BU594700 BE018877 AW273318 BG387621 BM712653 BQ051805 
    AI660299 CK822728 BE464581 BM019524 CA308111 BG252592 BE545063 BF793300 
    BM784047 BE383918 AW075780 BU629873 BQ051763 BF338825 AW166982 AA485492 
    BG171175 BC033873 BG385546 AI282235 CD247473 BG167629 AU126209 AW872740 
    AW873017 CB127554 AA576781 CA417492 BU683526 BF307153 BU848985 BI907994 
    CA416217 BF338419 BI222887 BG421824 BQ017351 BM045162 AI859425 BF796766 
    BM999201 AI076939 CA422928 BG765514 AI884333 BE562117 CA424714 AA304122 
    BG746821 BU931983 BQ055477 BU738369 F37677 AI660446 BG177057 BX334526 
    BG032537 BG754284 BU630754 BQ961462 BM017273 BU739064 AW873736 NM_004335 
    BF340056 D31427 AW439296 BM544080 T47131 CD367985 AI758714 BI758144 
    BE207926 BU626427 BI114610 BG719645 BM664860 BQ574448 BM008774 BM681623 
    BI862536 BU687805 BG770179 BG325199 AW063904 BM756373 BE311504 BI335140 
    BM989041 BE385258 CD048869 BQ681203 BM510043 AI453759 BQ030267 AI922723 
    AI885578 CA416197 BQ004355 BM838538 BF308261 BM756132 BG563545 BI836072 
    BM702166 BI008725 BU538018 AL547357 BM503901 BU681662 CA417724 BE389612 
    AI631419 BV197603 CA419178 BU683244 BE513212 CB137942 AA099852 BQ884014 
    AW131143 BG060158 CA406220 AW130895 AW103531 R54976 AA635998 BU727036 
    AI284877 T74185 BM714296 AW087282 BP339523 AW084960 CB116697 AA485335 
    AI547316 BE272745 AI547315 AW796686 AA932698 BG177274 CA433515 BG821364 
    AW793108 T47132 BI115486 AI347214 C01770 AW105580 CD047874 BF662869 
    AW474819 BE926397 AV701548 AA932540 BM041916 BE868309 BX476042 BI334646 
    F20462 BG338838 AW675388 AW473089 AI537745 BG419099 BG422659 AI744795 
    CB114781 BG477349 BX395993 AI819676 AA582345 BE294146 AI580226 D28137 
    BG474897 AW793114 AW793115 BG572707 BE262811 BI836792 AW083669 AW793188 
    AI874164 BG540673 AI680231 AA613656 CA423229 AA335651 AW085843 T69301 
    N88483 AI612866 AA769108 AW467350 CD049785 AI887599 AA317949 AI914926 
    AW166667 AW972300 BI007833 BE940753 AW103994 BG334772 AA349222 AI673587 
    BE019142 AI266687 BF813305 AW050884 AW272535 BG767323 AI687025 R54786 
    AW793105 BU634075 BI008729 AA974186 T69376 AI815064 AA974427 BG166304 
    AI284232 BF771652 AW085668 BM171904 BM720562 AA299677 AA569064 AW883205 
    BM544878 BG422488 AW130809 AW173742 AU137783 BE833311 AW674771 CA443588 
    AW381808 AW793107 AW394192 AV747117 AA515323 AW167989 AW793102 BQ015926 
    AW381802 BF378307 BE010487 AW190185 AV747973 AW793104 BE150893 CF529099 
    AA568373 AI971285 AW610497 CB047888 AU099756 AY320400 AW793178 BE150996 
    AW102937 BF964567 BQ054341 BE150943 CD694471 BF742556 BM917047 AW951888 
    BI835312 AY320402 AA662083 CB161646 BI833836 CD618359 BE151249 BG719194 
    AW364262 AW392770 AW793229 BI820396 AW885482 AW391615 AW793101 BE939722 
    AW793151 AW883743 AW372362 AW387219 AW793141 AW392430 AW793152 AW605104 
    AW605105 AI634376 AI360433 BF094069 BF572024 AW884550 AI745502 AW189314 
    CD618360 BE833011 BE938590 BG430768 T58370 AW394196 BQ879679 AW884455 
    AA662119 BU166518 BQ679629 AW392791 BG236213 AW381330 AW884464 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    BST2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      BST2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGCTGCCTGT
    BST2 Expression
    About this image


    BST2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/18 selected tissues (see all 18) fully expand
     
     Uncategorized (Uncategorized)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             PureStem Progenitor W10
     
     Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             C2a
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Human Ovarian Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HOMEC)   
     
     Endothelium (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Human Ovarian Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HOMEC)   
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Human Renal Mesangial Cells (HRMC)   

    See BST2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for BST2

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.118110

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: BST2_HUMAN, Q10589
    Tissue specificity: Predominantly expressed in liver, lung, heart and placenta. Lower levels in pancreas, kidney,
    skeletal muscle and brain. Overexpressed in multiple myeloma cells. Highly expressed during B-cell development,
    from pro-B precursors to plasma cells. Highly expressed on T-cells, monocytes, NK cells and dendritic cells (at
    protein level)

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Array including BST2: 
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and mouse.

    Orthologs for BST2 gene from 1/5 species (see all 5)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Bst21 , 5 bone marrow stromal cell antigen 21, 5 58.27(n)1
    46.67(a)1
      8 (34.43 cM)5
    695501  NM_198095.21  NP_932763.11 
     715342645 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for BST2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for BST2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/34 SNPs in BST2 are shown (see all 34)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 19 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0120674
    ----see VAR_0120672 V F mis40--------
    rs1137246881,2
    F--17445510(+) GAAACG/AGTGAG 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs1503500571,2
    C--17445564(+) CAAGGG/TCTGGG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs23036831,2
    C,F,A,H--17445694(-) TTAGTC/ACCCAA 1 -- ds500130Minor allele frequency- A:0.23EA NS NA WA CSA 4276
    rs22455191,2
    C,F,A,H--17445728(-) CACCTT/GACTCT 1 -- ds500124Minor allele frequency- G:0.29EA NS NA WA CSA 3838
    rs10543241,2
    C--17445782(-) TTTTTT/CTGGGG 1 -- ut31 ese32Minor allele frequency- C:0.17MN NA 186
    rs1996841361,2
    C--17445793(+) AGCAA-/CCCCCC 1 -- ut310--------
    rs134851,2
    C,F,A--17445905(-) CAGAGC/GCTCCC 1 -- ut31 ese38Minor allele frequency- G:0.21MN NA CSA WA EA 736
    rs95761,2
    C,F,A,H--17445960(-) TGGGGC/AAGTCC 1 -- ut3125Minor allele frequency- A:0.23EA MN NS NA WA CSA 3928
    rs10542311,2
    H--17446022(-) GGTTAG/ACGGGG 1 -- ut31 ese36Minor allele frequency- A:0.01MN NS EA NA 586

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for BST2 (17513748 - 17516457 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for BST2:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv911182CNV Loss21882294
    nsv911198CNV Loss21882294
    nsv833768CNV Loss17160897
    nsv911201CNV Loss21882294

    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 600534    OMIM disorders: --

    20/25 diseases for BST2 (see all 25):    About MalaCards
    west nile encephalitis    megakaryocytic leukemia    rheumatoid arthritis    hiv/aids
    mumps    arthritis    kaposi's sarcoma    encephalitis
    stomatitis    multiple myeloma    human t-cell leukemia virus type 1    down syndrome
    influenza    myeloma    sarcoma    renal cell carcinoma
    hepatitis b    t-cell leukemia    anemia    hepatitis c

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for BST2:
    Multiple myeloma     West Nile encephalitis

    BST2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) 9 - 13 March 2014

    1 Novoseek inferred disease relationship for BST2 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    immunodeficiency 31.2 8 20078884 (1), 19605472 (1), 20147395 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): BST2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: BST2 (2 documents)

    Export disorders for BST2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for BST2 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 214):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with BST2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of a bone marrow stromal cell surface gene, BST2, that may be involved in pre-B-cell growth. (PubMed id 7607676)1, 2, 3, 9 Ishikawa J.... Hirano T. (1995)
    2. The formation of cysteine-linked dimers of BST-2/teth erin is important for inhibition of HIV-1 virus release but not for sensitivity to Vpu. (PubMed id 19737401)1, 2, 9 Andrew A.J....Strebel K. (2009)
    3. Regulation of TLR7/9 responses in plasmacytoid dendri tic cells by BST2 and ILT7 receptor interaction. (PubMed id 19564354)1, 2, 9 Cao W....Liu Y.J. (2009)
    4. HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu internalizes cell-surface BST-2/tetherin through transmembrane interactions leading to lysosomes. (PubMed id 19837671)1, 2, 9 Iwabu Y....Tokunaga K. (2009)
    5. Vpu and BST2: still not there yet? (PubMed id 22509177)1, 2 Sato K.... Koyanagi Y. (2012)
    6. Modulation of hepatitis C virus release by the interfe ron-induced protein BST-2/tetherin. (PubMed id 22520941)1, 2 Dafa-Berger A....Taube R. (2012)
    7. Restriction of retroviral replication by tetherin/BST-2. (PubMed id 22811908)1, 2 Hammonds J.... Spearman P. (2012)
    8. Antiviral inhibition of enveloped virus release by tet herin/BST-2: action and counteraction. (PubMed id 21994744)1, 2 Le Tortorec A....Neil S.J. (2011)
    9. structural basis for the antiviral activity of Bst-2/tetherin and its viral antagonism. (PubMed id 22180752)1, 2 Arias J.F.... Tokunaga K. (2011)
    10. Tetherin and its viral antagonists. (PubMed id 21222046)1, 2 Kuhl B.D....Liang C. (2011)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 684 HGNC: 1119 AceView: BST2 Ensembl:ENSG00000130303 euGenes: HUgn684
    ECgene: BST2 H-InvDB: BST2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for BST2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for BST2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving BST2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

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