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Aliases for BOLA3 Gene

Aliases for BOLA3 Gene

  • BolA Family Member 3 2 3 5
  • BolA Homolog 3 (E. Coli) 2
  • BolA-Like 3 (E. Coli) 2
  • BolA-Like Protein 3 3
  • BolA Homolog 3 3
  • MMDS2 3

External Ids for BOLA3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for BOLA3 Gene

  • GC02M074275
  • GC02M074216
  • GC02M074362

Summaries for BOLA3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for BOLA3 Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein that plays an essential role in the production of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters for the normal maturation of lipoate-containing 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases, and for the assembly of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. Mutation in this gene has been associated with multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms with distinct subcellular localization have been reported for this gene (PMID:21944046). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

GeneCards Summary for BOLA3 Gene

BOLA3 (BolA Family Member 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with BOLA3 include Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome 2 and Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for BOLA3 Gene

Genomics for BOLA3 Gene

Regulatory Elements for BOLA3 Gene

Enhancers for BOLA3 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH02F073892 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 10.2 +254.2 254245 3.2 ARNT CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF766 ZNF143 STAMBP SEMA4F SMYD5 ACTG2 C2orf81 MTHFD2 DGUOK TET3 DCTN1 BOLA3
GH02F074184 1.3 FANTOM5 ENCODE 10.8 -37.9 -37869 2.0 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 GATA2 ZNF263 SP5 JUNB NCOA1 MIER2 TBX21 BOLA3-AS1 LOC107985899 BOLA3 FNBP1P1 MOB1A MTHFD2 TET3 LBX2 ENSG00000279201
GH02F073968 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE 10 +177.0 176994 5.2 HDGF PKNOX1 CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 SEMA4F C2orf81 LOC107985899 KRT18P26 RPSAP28 SMYD5 DGUOK-AS1 DCTN1 DGUOK WBP1
GH02F074035 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 10.7 +108.2 108161 8.5 ATF1 PKNOX1 ARNT MLX WRNIP1 ARID4B GATA2 SP5 NCOA1 REST WBP1 TET3 ENSG00000273245 BOLA3 BOLA3-AS1 ACTG2 LOC107985899 DUSP11 MTHFD2 DGUOK-AS1
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around BOLA3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for BOLA3 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00001543688 94 1401 HDGF MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143 SP3 SP5 MXD4

Genomic Location for BOLA3 Gene

74,135,398 bp from pter
74,147,994 bp from pter
12,597 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for BOLA3 Gene

Genes around BOLA3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
BOLA3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for BOLA3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for BOLA3 Gene

Proteins for BOLA3 Gene

  • Protein details for BOLA3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    BolA-like protein 3
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • G3XAB0

    Protein attributes for BOLA3 Gene

    107 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12114 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for BOLA3 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for BOLA3 Gene


neXtProt entry for BOLA3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for BOLA3 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for BOLA3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for BOLA3 Gene

Domains & Families for BOLA3 Gene

Protein Domains for BOLA3 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for BOLA3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the BolA/IbaG family.
  • Belongs to the BolA/IbaG family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with BOLA3: view

No data available for Gene Families for BOLA3 Gene

Function for BOLA3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for BOLA3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003674 molecular_function ND --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BOLA3: view

Phenotypes for BOLA3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with BOLA3: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for BOLA3 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for BOLA3 Gene

Localization for BOLA3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BOLA3 Gene

Secreted. Note=Could be secreted via a non-classical export pathway.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for BOLA3 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 3
mitochondrion 3
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for BOLA3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005575 cellular_component ND --
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BOLA3: view

Pathways & Interactions for BOLA3 Gene

SuperPathways for BOLA3 Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for BOLA3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for BOLA3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008150 biological_process ND --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BOLA3: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for BOLA3 Gene

Transcripts for BOLA3 Gene

Unigene Clusters for BOLA3 Gene

BolA homolog 3 (E. coli):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for BOLA3 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for BOLA3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for BOLA3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for BOLA3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for BOLA3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (16.6), Testis (13.5), Retina (10.7), Gallbladder (6.9), and Ovary (6.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for BOLA3 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of BOLA3 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for BOLA3 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for BOLA3 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with BOLA3: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for BOLA3 Gene

Orthologs for BOLA3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for BOLA3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia BOLA3 34 35
  • 100 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia BOLA3 34 35
  • 91.51 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia BOLA3 34 35
  • 89.31 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Bola3 34 16 35
  • 85.26 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Bola3 34
  • 84.21 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia BOLA3 35
  • 74 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia BOLA3 35
  • 68 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia bola3 34
  • 70.24 (n)
Str.15194 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.22067 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:100870 34
  • 67.36 (n)
BOLA3 35
  • 54 (a)
Dr.17192 34
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y105E8A.11 35
  • 33 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes AIM1 35
  • 25 (a)
BOL3 37
Species where no ortholog for BOLA3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for BOLA3 Gene

Gene Tree for BOLA3 (if available)
Gene Tree for BOLA3 (if available)

Paralogs for BOLA3 Gene Pseudogenes for BOLA3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with BOLA3: view

No data available for Paralogs for BOLA3 Gene

Variants for BOLA3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for BOLA3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs148674363 Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 2 with hyperglycinemia (MMDS2) [MIM:614299] 74,135,630(+) ATCCA(C/T)GCATC downstream-variant-500B, reference, synonymous-codon, missense
rs143492730 Pathogenic 74,145,222(+) AGCTC(A/G)TGGAA reference, stop-gained
rs869320737 Pathogenic 74,145,234(-) TCAAA(-/A)GAAAA reference, frameshift-variant
rs150626228 Uncertain significance 74,135,598(+) TCAGC(A/G)TTTGG downstream-variant-500B, reference, missense
rs746179125 Uncertain significance 74,145,287(+) ACATC(C/T)GATGG reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for BOLA3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv525117 CNV loss 19592680
esv3591278 CNV gain 21293372
esv3591277 CNV gain 21293372

Variation tolerance for BOLA3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 64.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.64; 13.74% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for BOLA3 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BOLA3 Gene

Disorders for BOLA3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for BOLA3 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 2
  • mmds2
multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome
  • multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 1
alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder
  • arnd
glycine encephalopathy
  • non-ketotic hyperglycinemia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search BOLA3 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 2 with hyperglycinemia (MMDS2) [MIM:614299]: A severe disorder of systemic energy metabolism, resulting in weakness, respiratory failure, lack of neurologic development, lactic acidosis, hyperglycinemia and early death. Some patients show failure to thrive, pulmonary hypertension, hypotonia and irritability. Biochemical features include severe combined deficiency of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases, defective lipoic acid synthesis and reduction in activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21944046, ECO:0000269 PubMed:26741492}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for BOLA3

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with BOLA3: view

No data available for Genatlas for BOLA3 Gene

Publications for BOLA3 Gene

  1. Mutations in iron-sulfur cluster scaffold genes NFU1 and BOLA3 cause a fatal deficiency of multiple respiratory chain and 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase enzymes. (PMID: 21944046) Cameron J.M. … Robinson B.H. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2011) 3 4 64
  2. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose J.E. … Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010) 3 46 64
  3. hBolA, novel non-classical secreted proteins, belonging to different BolA family with functional divergence. (PMID: 18548201) Zhou Y.B. … Han Z.G. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2008) 3 4 64
  4. Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4. (PMID: 15815621) Hillier L.W. … Wilson R.K. (Nature 2005) 3 4 64
  5. Solution structure of a BolA-like protein from Mus musculus. (PMID: 14718656) Kasai T. … Yokoyama S. (Protein Sci. 2004) 2 3 64

Products for BOLA3 Gene

Sources for BOLA3 Gene

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