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Aliases for BCO2 Gene

Aliases for BCO2 Gene

  • Beta-Carotene Oxygenase 2 2 3
  • Beta-Carotene Dioxygenase 2 2 3 4
  • Carotenoid-9,10-Cleaving Dioxygenase 2 3
  • Beta-Carotene 9,10 Oxygenase 2 3
  • B-DIOX-II 3 4
  • BCDO2 3 4
  • Beta,Beta-Carotene 9,10-Dioxygenase Variant 1 3
  • Beta,Beta-Carotene 9,10-Oxygenase 3
  • B,B-Carotene-9,10-Dioxygenase 3
  • EC 1.14.99.36 64
  • EC 1.13.11.71 4
  • EC 1.14.99 64
  • BCDO2, 6

External Ids for BCO2 Gene

Previous Symbols for BCO2 Gene

  • BCDO2

Summaries for BCO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for BCO2 Gene

  • This gene encodes an enzyme which oxidizes carotenoids such as beta-carotene during the biosynthesis of vitamin A. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GeneCards Summary for BCO2 Gene

BCO2 (Beta-Carotene Oxygenase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Vitamin A and carotenoid metabolism and Chemical carcinogenesis. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen. An important paralog of this gene is BCO1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BCO2 Gene

  • Asymmetrically cleaves beta-carotene at the 9,10 double bond resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10-carotenal and beta-ionone. Besides beta-carotene, lycopene is also oxidatively cleaved. The apocarotenals formed by this enzyme may be the precursors for the biosynthesis of retinoic acid or exert unknown physiological effects.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for BCO2 Gene

Genomics for BCO2 Gene

Genomic Location for BCO2 Gene

Start:
112,175,467 bp from pter
End:
112,224,699 bp from pter
Size:
49,233 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for BCO2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for BCO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for BCO2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for BCO2 Gene

Proteins for BCO2 Gene

  • Protein details for BCO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9BYV7-BCDO2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Beta,beta-carotene 9,10-oxygenase
    Protein Accession:
    Q9BYV7
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0YIX5
    • B4DNC3
    • E9PBI8
    • E9PJJ1
    • Q8IUS0
    • Q96JC8
    • Q96JY5

    Protein attributes for BCO2 Gene

    Size:
    579 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    65674 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Fe(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29033; Note=Binds 1 Fe(2+) ion per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=CAC27994.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for BCO2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for BCO2 Gene

Proteomics data for BCO2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for BCO2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains for BCO2 Gene

Protein Domains for BCO2 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

BCDO2_HUMAN
Family:
  • Belongs to the carotenoid oxygenase family.:
    • Q9BYV7
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with BCO2: view

No data available for Gene Families for BCO2 Gene

Function for BCO2 Gene

Molecular function for BCO2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: All-trans-beta-carotene + O(2) = all-trans-10-apo-beta-carotenal + beta-ionone
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Asymmetrically cleaves beta-carotene at the 9,10 double bond resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10-carotenal and beta-ionone. Besides beta-carotene, lycopene is also oxidatively cleaved. The apocarotenals formed by this enzyme may be the precursors for the biosynthesis of retinoic acid or exert unknown physiological effects.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for BCO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for BCO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016702 oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen TAS --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BCO2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with BCO2: view

No data available for Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for BCO2 Gene

Localization for BCO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BCO2 Gene

Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for BCO2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for BCO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for BCO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IC 11278918
GO:0005739 mitochondrion TAS 21106934
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BCO2: view

Pathways for BCO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with BCO2: view

Pathways by source for BCO2 Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters Life Sciences Research) pathway for BCO2 Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for BCO2 Gene

Interacting Proteins for BCO2 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see details)
http://string-db.org/version_10/api/image/networkList?limit=0&targetmode=proteins&caller_identity=gene_cards&network_flavor=evidence&identifiers=9606.ENSP00000350314%0d%0a9606.ENSP00000399753%0d%0a
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000350314 for BCO2 Gene via STRING

Symbol External ID(s) Details
--

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for BCO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001523 retinoid metabolic process TAS --
GO:0007603 phototransduction, visible light TAS --
GO:0016116 carotenoid metabolic process ISS 21106934
GO:0016119 carotene metabolic process IDA 11278918
GO:0016121 carotene catabolic process IDA 21302131
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BCO2: view

Compounds for BCO2 Gene

(2) HMDB Compounds for BCO2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Iron
  • Armco iron
7439-89-6
Lycopene
  • (6E,8E,10E,12E,14E,16E,18E,20E,22E,24E,26E)-2,6,10,14,19,23,27,31-Octamethyl-2,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22,24,26,30-dotriacontatridecaene
502-65-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with BCO2: view

Transcripts for BCO2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for BCO2 Gene

Beta-carotene oxygenase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for BCO2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c · 11d ^ 12 ^ 13
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: -
SP10: -
SP11: - -

Relevant External Links for BCO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
BCO2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
BCO2

Expression for BCO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for BCO2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for BCO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (8.5), Liver (8.0), Heart - Atrial Appendage (5.8), and Adrenal Gland (4.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for BCO2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for BCO2 Gene Hs.728325

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for BCO2 Gene

Q9BYV7-BCDO2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in retinal pigment epithelium. Also expressed in stomach, small intestine, liver, testis, kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas, heart, skeletal muscle and prostate (at protein level).
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with BCO2: view

Orthologs for BCO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for BCO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 99 (a)
OneToMany
BCO2 36
  • 99.65 (n)
  • 99.65 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 79 (a)
OneToMany
BCO2 36
  • 85.16 (n)
  • 79.83 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
BCO2 36
  • 87.06 (n)
  • 83.19 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Bco2 36
  • 83.33 (n)
  • 81.77 (a)
Bco2 16
Bco2 37
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 74 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 69 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 37
  • 72 (a)
ManyToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Bco2 36
  • 82.52 (n)
  • 80.45 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 37
  • 63 (a)
OneToMany
BCO2 36
  • 68.31 (n)
  • 63.97 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 37
  • 40 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia bco2 36
  • 64.15 (n)
  • 60.57 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii bcdo2 36
bco2a 36
  • 61.79 (n)
  • 58.35 (a)
bco2a 37
  • 53 (a)
ManyToMany
bco2b 37
  • 57 (a)
ManyToMany
bco2l 37
  • 54 (a)
ManyToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008143 36
  • 45.91 (n)
  • 38.32 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta ninaB 36
  • 45.07 (n)
  • 35.22 (a)
ninaB 37
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea bcmo-1 37
  • 31 (a)
ManyToMany
bcmo-2 37
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0566500 36
  • 43.85 (n)
  • 35.11 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 37
  • 40 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 37
  • 31 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 37
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 37
  • 30 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.76 37
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.9604 37
  • 30 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for BCO2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for BCO2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for BCO2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for BCO2 (if available)

Paralogs for BCO2 Gene

Paralogs for BCO2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for BCO2 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with BCO2: view

Variants for BCO2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for BCO2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2455 -- 112,218,043(-) TCTAA(C/T)GAACC utr-variant-3-prime
rs768146 -- 112,218,728(+) AAATA(A/G)AACTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs951761 -- 112,200,028(-) ACAGT(A/G)TATCT intron-variant
rs957090 -- 112,218,495(+) CTGCA(A/G)TGAGC utr-variant-3-prime
rs957091 -- 112,218,622(+) ACCCC(C/T)GAAAA utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for BCO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2745077 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv519192 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv525636 CNV Loss 19592680
esv267831 CNV Insertion 20981092
nsv493 CNV Insertion 18451855

Relevant External Links for BCO2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
BCO2

Disorders for BCO2 Gene

Relevant External Links for BCO2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
BCO2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
BCO2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with BCO2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BCO2 Gene

Publications for BCO2 Gene

  1. Identification and characterization of a mammalian enzyme catalyzing the asymmetric oxidative cleavage of provitamin A. (PMID: 11278918) Kiefer C. … von Lintig J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 2 3 4
  2. Cell type-specific expression of beta-carotene 9',10'-monooxygenase in human tissues. (PMID: 15983114) Lindqvist A. … Andersson S. (J. Histochem. Cytochem. 2005) 2 3 4
  3. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4
  4. Towards a better understanding of carotenoid metabolism in animals. (PMID: 15949678) von Lintig J. … Vogt K. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2005) 2 3
  5. A mitochondrial enzyme degrades carotenoids and protects against oxidative stress. (PMID: 21106934) Amengual J. … von Lintig J. (FASEB J. 2011) 3 4

Products for BCO2 Gene

Sources for BCO2 Gene

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