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Aliases for BCO1 Gene

Aliases for BCO1 Gene

  • Beta-Carotene Oxygenase 1 2 3 4
  • BCMO1 3 4 6
  • Beta-Carotene 15,15-Monooxygenase 1 2 3
  • Beta-Carotene 15, 15-Dioxygenase 1 2 3
  • Beta-Carotene Dioxygenase 1 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • BCDO1 3 4
  • BCDO 3 4
  • Beta,Beta-Carotene 15,15-Monooxygenase 3
  • BCDO, 6
  • BCMO 3
  • BCO 3

External Ids for BCO1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for BCO1 Gene

  • BCDO
  • BCDO1
  • BCMO1

Summaries for BCO1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for BCO1 Gene

  • Vitamin A metabolism is important for vital processes such as vision, embryonic development, cell differentiation, and membrane and skin protection. The protein encoded by this gene is a key enzyme in beta-carotene metabolism to vitamin A. It catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of beta,beta-carotene into two retinal molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for BCO1 Gene

BCO1 (Beta-Carotene Oxygenase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Disease. An important paralog of this gene is BCO2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BCO1 Gene

  • Symmetrically cleaves beta-carotene into two molecules of retinal. The reaction proceeds in three stages, epoxidation of the 15,15-double bond, hydration of the double bond leading to ring opening, and oxidative cleavage of the diol formed

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for BCO1 Gene

Genomics for BCO1 Gene

Genomic Location for BCO1 Gene

81,238,448 bp from pter
81,291,142 bp from pter
52,695 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for BCO1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for BCO1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for BCO1 Gene

No data available for Regulatory Elements for BCO1 Gene

Proteins for BCO1 Gene

  • Protein details for BCO1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Beta,beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0AV48
    • A0AV50
    • Q9NVH5

    Protein attributes for BCO1 Gene

    547 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    62637 Da
    Name=Fe(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29033; Note=Binds 1 Fe(2+) ion per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for BCO1 Gene

Proteomics data for BCO1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for BCO1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for BCO1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for BCO1 Gene

Protein Domains for BCO1 Gene


Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q9HAY6
  • Belongs to the carotenoid oxygenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with BCO1: view

No data available for Gene Families and Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for BCO1 Gene

Function for BCO1 Gene

Molecular function for BCO1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Beta-carotene + O(2) = 2 all-trans-retinal
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Symmetrically cleaves beta-carotene into two molecules of retinal. The reaction proceeds in three stages, epoxidation of the 15,15-double bond, hydration of the double bond leading to ring opening, and oxidative cleavage of the diol formed

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for BCO1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for BCO1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003834 beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase activity TAS --
GO:0004497 monooxygenase activity IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BCO1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with BCO1: view

No data available for Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for BCO1 Gene

Localization for BCO1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for BCO1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BCO1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS for BCO1 Gene

Pathways for BCO1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with BCO1: view

Pathways by source for BCO1 Gene

2 KEGG pathways for BCO1 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for BCO1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q9HAY6-BCDO1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Cofactor metabolism; retinol metabolism

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for BCO1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001523 retinoid metabolic process TAS --
GO:0007603 phototransduction, visible light TAS --
GO:0035238 vitamin A biosynthetic process NAS 15983114
GO:0042572 retinol metabolic process IEA --
GO:0042574 retinal metabolic process NAS 15983114
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BCO1: view

Compounds for BCO1 Gene

(5) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for BCO1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
all trans beta-carotene 88.8 2
betacarotene 81.4 22
vitamin a 71.1 7
retinoid 65.9 3
retinoic acid 56.5 3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with BCO1: view

Transcripts for BCO1 Gene

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for BCO1

Primer Products

  • OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human,mouse,rat for BCO1
  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for BCO1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for BCO1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for BCO1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for BCO1 Gene

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for BCO1 Gene

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in retinal pigment epithelium. Also expressed in kidney, testis, liver, brain, small intestine and colon.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with BCO1: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein expression for BCO1 Gene

Orthologs for BCO1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for BCO1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia BCMO1 35
  • 95.82 (n)
  • 93.94 (a)
BCMO1 36
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia BCMO1 35
  • 83.71 (n)
  • 82.71 (a)
BCMO1 36
  • 84 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia BCMO1 35
  • 87.93 (n)
  • 87.68 (a)
BCMO1 36
  • 83 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Bcmo1 35
  • 83.58 (n)
  • 86.3 (a)
Bcmo1 16
Bcmo1 36
  • 83 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia BCMO1 36
  • 71 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 70 (a)
-- 36
  • 76 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Bcmo1 35
  • 83.02 (n)
  • 85.37 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves BCMO1 35
  • 70.45 (n)
  • 70.77 (a)
BCMO1 36
  • 70 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia BCMO1 36
  • 69 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia bcmo1 35
  • 66.47 (n)
  • 68.8 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2837 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii bcdo1 35
bcmo1 36
  • 60 (a)
bcmo1l 35
  • 62.78 (n)
  • 57.28 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea bcmo-1 35
  • 47.27 (n)
  • 36.23 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons CCD8 35
  • 45.31 (n)
  • 33.48 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0746400 35
  • 46.93 (n)
  • 31.36 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU11424 35
  • 45.89 (n)
  • 30.33 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.9281 36
  • 36 (a)
Species with no ortholog for BCO1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for BCO1 Gene

Gene Tree for BCO1 (if available)
Gene Tree for BCO1 (if available)

Paralogs for BCO1 Gene

Paralogs for BCO1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with BCO1: view

Variants for BCO1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for BCO1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs3803651 -- 81,285,277(+) GTTGG(A/G)TAATT intron-variant
rs3803652 -- 81,290,719(+) GAGAG(A/C)TTGTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs4377147 -- 81,291,402(+) TGCTG(A/C)GAACT downstream-variant-500B
rs4497677 -- 81,289,066(+) accaa(C/T)gggat intron-variant
rs4611449 -- 81,286,053(+) TTATT(A/T)AAAAA intron-variant

Relevant External Links for BCO1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for BCO1 Gene

Disorders for BCO1 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for BCO1 Gene (605748)


  • Hypercarotenemia and vitamin A deficiency, autosomal dominant (ADHVAD) [MIM:115300]: A disorder characterized by increased serum beta-carotene, decreased conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A and decreased serum vitamin A. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17951468}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

No disorders were found for BCO1 Gene.

Publications for BCO1 Gene

  1. Cloning and characterization of a human beta,beta-carotene-15,15- prime dioxygenase that is highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium. (PMID: 11401432) Yan W. … Zack D.J. (Genomics 2001) 3 4 23
  2. Filling the gap in vitamin A research. Molecular identification of an enzyme cleaving beta-carotene to retinal. (PMID: 10766819) von Lintig J. … Vogt K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000) 2 3
  3. Cloning and expression of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase. (PMID: 10799297) Wyss A. … Hunziker W. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000) 2 3
  4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4

Products for BCO1 Gene

Sources for BCO1 Gene

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