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BCL2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 73
GCID: GC18M060763

B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma 2

  See BCL2-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma 21 2     PPP1R502
Protein Phosphatase 11     Apoptosis Regulator Bcl-22
Regulatory Subunit 501     Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory Subunit 502
Bcl-22     

External Ids:    HGNC: 9901   Entrez Gene: 5962   Ensembl: ENSG000001717917   OMIM: 1514305   UniProtKB: P104153   

Export aliases for BCL2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC18M060629 GC18M058939 GC18M058941 GC18M057487


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for BCL2 Gene:
This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells
such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy
chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate
splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for BCL2 Gene:
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with BCL2 include follicular lymphoma, and leukemia/lymphoma, b-cell, 2. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and identical protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is BAK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: BCL2_HUMAN, P10415
Function: Suppresses apoptosis in a variety of cell systems including factor-dependent lymphohematopoietic and
neural cells. Regulates cell death by controlling the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Appears to function in
a feedback loop system with caspases. Inhibits caspase activity either by preventing the release of cytochrome c
from the mitochondria and/or by binding to the apoptosis-activating factor (APAF-1)

summary for BCL2 Gene:
Bcl-2 family proteins regulate and contribute to programmed cell death or apoptosis. It is a large protein
family and all members contain at least one of four BH (bcl-2 homology) domains. Certain members such as
Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Mcl1 are anti-apoptotic, whilst others are pro-apoptotic. The pro-apoptotic group of Bcl-2
proteins can be further sub-divided into the structurally diverse 'BH3' only proteins (e.g. Bid, Noxa, Puma
and Bad) and the multidomain proteins that share BH1 to 3 (e.g. Bax and Bak). Most Bcl-2 family members
contain a C-terminal transmembrane domain that functions to target these proteins to the outer mitochondrial
and other intracellular membranes.

Gene Wiki entry for BCL2 (Bcl-2) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000018.9  NT_010966.15  NC_018929.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the BCL2 gene promoter:
         AP-2alpha isoform 3   AP-2alpha isoform 4   AP-2alpha isoform 2   AP-2alpha   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 5): BCL2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for BCL2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat BCL2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 18q21.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  18q21.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 18q21.3

BCL2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
BCL2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 18         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC18M060763:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
60,790,579 bp from pter      End:
60,987,361 bp from pter
Size:
196,783 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: BCL2_HUMAN, P10415 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2  
Size: 239 amino acids; 26266 Da
Subunit: Forms homodimers, and heterodimers with BAX, BAD, BAK and Bcl-X(L). Heterodimerization with BAX requires
intact BH1 and BH2 motifs, and is necessary for anti-apoptotic activity (By similarity). Interacts with EI24 (By
similarity). Also interacts with APAF1, BBC3, BCL2L1, BNIPL, MRPL41 and TP53BP2. Binding to FKBP8 seems to target
BCL2 to the mitochondria and probably interferes with the binding of BCL2 to its targets. Interacts with BAG1 in
an ATP-dependent manner. Interacts with RAF1 (the 'Ser-338' and 'Ser-339' phosphorylated form). Interacts (via
the BH4 domain) with EGLN3; the interaction prevents the formation of the BAX-BCL2 complex and inhibits the
anti-apoptotic activity of BCL2. Interacts with G0S2; this interaction also prevents the formation of the
anti-apoptotic BAX-BCL2 complex. Interacts with BOP
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for BCL2 (see all 13):
1G5M (3D)        1GJH (3D)        1YSW (3D)        2O21 (3D)        2O22 (3D)        2O2F (3D)    
Secondary accessions: P10416 Q13842 Q16197
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P10415-1   P10415-2   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for BCL2: NX_P10415

Explore proteomics data for BCL2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation on Ser-70 regulates anti-apoptotic activity. Growth factor-stimulated
    phosphorylation on Ser-70 by PKC is required for the anti-apoptosis activity and occurs during the G2/M phase of
    the cell cycle. In the absence of growth factors, BCL2 appears to be phosphorylated by other protein kinases such
    as ERKs and stress-activated kinases. Phosphorylated by MAPK8/JNK1 at Thr-69, Ser-70 and Ser-87, wich stimulates
    starvation-induced autophagy. Dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) (By similarity)1
  • Proteolytically cleaved by caspases during apoptosis. The cleaved protein, lacking the BH4 motif, has
    pro-apoptotic activity, causes the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol promoting further caspase activity1
  • Monoubiquitinated by PARK2, leading to increase its stability1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See BCL2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000624.2  NP_000648.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000381185   ENSP00000329623   ENSP00000466417   ENSP00000404214  
    Reactome Protein details: P10415

    BCL2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for BCL2 (Bcl-2)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for BCL2
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for BCL2
    OriGene MassSpec for BCL2
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for BCL2
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for BCL2
    Novus Biologicals BCL2 Proteins
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for BCL2
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for BCL2
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for BCL2 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for BCL2 (19 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for BCL2

    BCL2 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of BCL2
    R&D Systems Antibodies for BCL2 (Bcl-2)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for BCL2  (Bcl-2)
    OriGene Antibodies for BCL2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for BCL2
    Novus Biologicals BCL2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for BCL2
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for BCL2
    antibodies-online antibodies for BCL2 (504 products) 

    BCL2 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for BCL2
    R&D Systems ELISAs for BCL2 (Bcl-2)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for BCL2
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for BCL2 (Bcl-2)
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for BCL2
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    eBioscience ELISAs for BCL2:  
                        Human Bcl-2 Platinum ELISA 96 tests
    antibodies-online kits for BCL2 (22 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    PPP1R: Serine/threonine phosphatases / Protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunits

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 9):
     IPR020728 Bcl2_BH3_motif_CS
     IPR013278 Apop_reg_Bcl2
     IPR020717 Bcl2_BH1_motif_CS
     IPR004725 Bcl2/BclX
     IPR020726 Bcl2_BH2_motif_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P10415

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P10415

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000712 Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 protein
    IPB003093 Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 protein


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: BCL2_HUMAN, P10415
    Domain: The BH4 motif is required for anti-apoptotic activity and for interaction with RAF1 and EGLN3
    Similarity: Belongs to the Bcl-2 family


    Find genes that share domains with BCL2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: BCL2_HUMAN, P10415
    Function: Suppresses apoptosis in a variety of cell systems including factor-dependent lymphohematopoietic and
    neural cells. Regulates cell death by controlling the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Appears to function in
    a feedback loop system with caspases. Inhibits caspase activity either by preventing the release of cytochrome c
    from the mitochondria and/or by binding to the apoptosis-activating factor (APAF-1)

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for BCL2:
    inner mitochondrial membrane protein,C elegans CED9 homolog,key regulator of apoptosis by inhibiting the release
    of cytochrome from the mitochondrial and by protecting a wide variety of cells including B cells and neuronal
    cells,activated by nerve growth factor,mediated by the p42/p44 MAPK cascade,inhibited by phosphorylation mediated
    by microtubule-damaging drugs through JNK- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases ; interacting with SMN1,also
    modulating CDK2 activation during thymocyte apoptosis,overexpressed in endometrial carcinoma

         Gene Ontology (GO): 13 molecular function terms (see first 5):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002020protease binding IDA10620603
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI10837489
    GO:0008134transcription factor binding IEA--
    GO:0015267channel activity IDA9219694
    GO:0016248channel inhibitor activity IDA9219694
    GO:0019903protein phosphatase binding ----
    GO:0031625ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI--
    GO:0042802identical protein binding IPI18835031
    GO:0042803protein homodimerization activity IPI9111042
    GO:0043565sequence-specific DNA binding IDA12086670
    GO:0046982protein heterodimerization activity IPI9111042
    GO:0051434BH3 domain binding IPI9111042
    GO:0051721protein phosphatase 2A binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with BCL2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for BCL2:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 9 alleles(MGI details for Bcl2) (see all 22):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  craniofacial 
     digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  hearing/vestibular/ear  hematopoietic system 
     homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument  mortality/aging  muscle 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with BCL2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for BCL2: Bcl2tm1Dlo Bcl2tm1Sjk Bcl2tm1Tsu

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for BCL2

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target BCL2:
    hsa-mir-200b-3p (MIRT006670), hsa-mir-630 (MIRT005578), hsa-mir-34c-5p (MIRT003979), hsa-mir-7-5p (MIRT006904), hsa-let-7a-5p (MIRT000418), hsa-mir-181d-5p (MIRT003498), hsa-mir-365a-3p (MIRT006243), hsa-mir-29b-3p (MIRT003290), hsa-mir-24-2-5p (MIRT006977), hsa-mir-200c-3p (MIRT006673), hsa-mir-20a-5p (MIRT003011), hsa-mir-451a (MIRT005744), hsa-mir-148a-3p (MIRT006975), hsa-mir-181a-5p (MIRT003501), hsa-mir-17-5p (MIRT003014), hsa-mir-449a (MIRT006445), hsa-mir-21-5p (MIRT000159), hsa-mir-29c-3p (MIRT003289), hsa-mir-34a-5p (MIRT002298), hsa-mir-96-5p (MIRT027929), hsa-mir-196b-5p (MIRT007146), hsa-mir-153-3p (MIRT000290), hsa-mir-16-5p (MIRT001800), hsa-mir-182-5p (MIRT007063), hsa-mir-34b-5p (MIRT000065), hsa-mir-125b-5p (MIRT006253), hsa-mir-181c-5p (MIRT003499), hsa-mir-136-5p (MIRT006868), hsa-mir-15b-5p (MIRT000978), hsa-mir-215-5p (MIRT024494), hsa-mir-15a-5p (MIRT000815), hsa-mir-143-3p (MIRT007348), hsa-mir-103a-3p (MIRT027158), hsa-mir-204-5p (MIRT000192), hsa-mir-29a-3p (MIRT003291), hsa-mir-429 (MIRT006674), hsa-mir-195-5p (MIRT005362), hsa-mir-181b-5p (MIRT003500), hsa-mir-192-5p (MIRT004844), hsa-mir-375 (MIRT019975)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat BCL2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate BCL2 (see all 117):
    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-1307 hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-605 hsa-miR-632 hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-550a*
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for BCL2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat BCL2

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for BCL2

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for BCL2 (see all 15)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for BCL2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): BCL2 (NM_000633)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for BCL2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for BCL2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat BCL2
    Addgene plasmids for BCL2 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for BCL2
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    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for BCL2

    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-10189) for BCL2 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    BCL2_HUMAN, P10415: Mitochondrion outer membrane; Single-pass membrane protein. Nucleus membrane; Single-pass
    membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Single-pass membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    endoplasmic reticulum5
    mitochondrion5
    nucleus5
    cytosol3
    cytoskeleton2
    extracellular2
    plasma membrane2
    lysosome1
    vacuole1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular ----
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA7546744
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA11530860
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA7896880
    GO:0005741mitochondrial outer membrane TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with BCL2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for BCL2 About   (see all 83)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1TWEAK Pathway
    Apoptosis and survival TNFR1 signaling pathway0.52
    Apoptotic Pathways Triggered By HIV10.42
    HIV-1 Nef- Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha0.46
    Apoptosis through Death Receptors0.42
    2Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade
    Apoptosis and survival FAS signaling cascades0.44
    Caspase cascade in apoptosis0.42
    FAS pathway and Stress induction of HSP regulation0.44
    3Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)0.63
    Pathogenesis of ALS0.31
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)0.63
    4Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways
    Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways0.68
    Inflammasomes0.00
    Influenza A virus infection0.00
    The NLRP1 inflammasome0.00
    5Development HGF signaling pathway
    Apoptosis and survival Role of CDK5 in neuronal death and survival0.37
    Apoptosis and survival Anti apoptotic action of membrane bound ESR10.35
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway0.36


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with BCL2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    4 R&D Systems Pathways for BCL2
        IL-7 Signaling and its Primary Biological Effects in Different Immune Cell Types
    Apoptosis Signaling Pathways
    IL-15 Signaling and its Primary Biological Effects in Different Immune Cell Types
    Notch Signaling Pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for BCL2 (see all 48)
        FLT3 Signaling
    14-3-3 Induced Apoptosis
    IL-4 Pathway
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for BCL2
        Apoptosis and Autophagy

    1 Tocris Bioscience Pathway for BCL2
        Apoptosis Pathway

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for BCL2 (see all 15)
        Apoptosis and survival BAD phosphorylation
    Transcription P53 signaling pathway
    Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic action of membrane-bound ESR1
    Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic action of nuclear ESR1 and ESR2
    Apoptosis and survival FAS signaling cascades

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for BCL2 (see all 33)
        Focal Adhesion
    Apoptosis
    Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling
    Senescence and Autophagy
    Estrogen signaling pathway

    2 Sino Biological Pathways for BCL2
        p53 Pathway
    Death Receptor Signaling

    3 Reactome Pathways for BCL2
        The NLRP1 inflammasome
    Activation of BAD and translocation to mitochondria
    BH3-only proteins associate with and inactivate anti-apoptotic BCL-2 members

    2 PharmGKB Pathways for BCL2
        Busulfan Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Vinka Alkaloid Pathway, Pharmacokinetics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for BCL2) (see all 19):
        NF-kappa B signaling pathway
    HIF-1 signaling pathway
    Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Apoptosis

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including BCL2 (see all 34): 
              Neurogenesis in human mouse rat
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              Lymphoma in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for BCL2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for BCL2 (P104151, 2, 3 ENSP000003296234) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 167)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    TP53BP2Q136251, 2, 3, ENSP000003419574EBI-77694,EBI-77642 MINT-7235804 MINT-7235946 MINT-7235823 MINT-7236118 MINT-7236027 MINT-7236079 MINT-7236102 MINT-7236042 MINT-7236003 MINT-7235965 MINT-7235839 MINT-7236061 MINT-7235784 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000341957
    AMBRA1Q9C0C71, 2, 3, ENSP000003183134EBI-77694,EBI-2512975 MINT-8182706 MINT-8182670 MINT-8182688 MINT-8182559 MINT-8182625 MINT-8174974 MINT-8182589 MINT-8182650 MINT-8182607 MINT-8182574 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000318313
    BECN1Q144571, 2, 3, ENSP000003552314EBI-77694,EBI-949378 MINT-8182780 MINT-4821014 MINT-4820784 MINT-8095220 MINT-8182706 MINT-7014531 MINT-7712827 MINT-8095201 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000355231
    HSPA1AP081073, ENSP000003648024I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000364802
    ENSG00000212866P081073I2D: score=3 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 148):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000082G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle ----
    GO:0000209protein polyubiquitination IDA16717086
    GO:0000902cell morphogenesis ----
    GO:0001101response to acid IEA--
    GO:0001503ossification IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with BCL2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for BCL2
    Selected ApexBio Compounds for BCL2 (see all 19)     About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    2,3-DCPE hydrochlorideSelectively induces apoptosis and downregulates Bcl-XL protein expression in various human cancer cells versus normal cells in vitro[418788-90-6]
    ABT-199Selective Bcl-2 inhibitor[1257044-40-8]
    ABT-263 (Navitoclax)orally sellecitive inhibitor of Bcl-2 family proteins[923564-51-6]
    ABT-737novel and potent inhibitor of BCL-2 family proteins[852808-04-9]
    Apogossypolone (ApoG2)pan Bcl-2 inhibitor[886578-07-0]
    AT-101R-(-) enantiomer of Gossypol acetic acid, binds with Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1[90141-22-3]
    Bax channel blockerPotent inhibitor of Bax-mediated mitochondrial cytochrome c release[335165-68-9]
    Bax inhibitor peptide P5Cell-permeable synthetic peptide inhibitor of Bax translocation to mitochondria[579492-83-4]
    Bax inhibitor peptide V5Cell-permeable synthetic peptide inhibitor of Bax translocation to mitochondria[579492-81-2]
    Bax inhibitor peptide, negative controlNegative control peptide for the Bax inhibitor peptides V5 and P5[1315378-74-5]

    Compounds for BCL2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    AT 101Downregulates Bcl-2 and Mcl-1; pro-apoptotic[90141-22-3]
    HA14-1Bcl-2 inhibitor. Induces apoptosis[65673-63-4]
    MIM1Mcl-1 inhibitor; proapoptotic--
    Bax channel blockerInhibits Bax-mediated mitochondrial cytochrome c release[335165-68-9]
    Bax inhibitor peptide V5Inhibitor of Bax-mediated apoptosis[579492-81-2]

    4 DrugBank Compounds for BCL2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    DocetaxelDocetaxel anhydrous (see all 4)114977-28-5target--15643508 15161985 15714982 15685445 17674353 15277270
    Paclitaxel7-epi-Paclitaxel (see all 8)33069-62-4targetinhibitor17119350 16741658 17062688 16895478 17230521
    Rasagiline-- 136236-51-6targetactivator12057839 14555244 16148027 12043833 12200198
    IbuprofenIbuprophen (see all 3)15687-27-1targetmodulator22668799

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for BCL2 gene (see all 126)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    genasense 81.3 45 16584297 (3), 16564596 (3), 11751483 (2), 12393493 (1) (see all 24)
    noxa 75.3 52 19372561 (3), 17018621 (3), 16673057 (2), 19540835 (2) (see all 34)
    dutp 75.2 39 9212738 (1), 11920781 (1), 12210368 (1), 14761612 (1) (see all 38)
    adpribose 71.7 49 12490780 (2), 11328292 (1), 11896536 (1), 18767861 (1) (see all 44)
    paclitaxel 71.3 393 9716607 (8), 9699642 (7), 19671798 (6), 10097113 (6) (see all 99)
    etoposide 68.8 137 10367743 (4), 8752171 (4), 9554589 (4), 8395979 (4) (see all 86)
    doxorubicin 66.8 175 8781438 (6), 12579337 (3), 18498876 (3), 19818735 (3) (see all 96)
    oridonin 66.3 15 17260801 (3), 15008459 (2), 15703811 (2), 16638644 (1) (see all 10)
    3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide 66.1 6 12144824 (1), 15033191 (1), 18471799 (1), 15749633 (1) (see all 6)
    paraffin 65.4 126 9343323 (4), 9521469 (1), 10652623 (1), 10491515 (1) (see all 99)

    3 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for BCL2 gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    carboplatinCA  
    docetaxelCA  
    paclitaxelCA  



    Find genes that share compounds with BCL2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for BCL2 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000633.2  NM_000657.2  

    Unigene Cluster for BCL2:

    B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2
    Hs.150749  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000633
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000398117(uc002liu.1) ENST00000333681(uc002lit.1) ENST00000590515
    ENST00000589955 ENST00000444484(uc002liv.1)
    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-1307 hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-605 hsa-miR-632 hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-550a*
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF401211.1 BC027258.1 EU287875.1 M13994.1 M13995.1 M14745.1 X06487.1 

    4 DOTS entries:

    DT.216205  DT.100749960  DT.86998979  DT.40316825 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 148):

    BG503428 BM986952 CB118071 F07940 F04196 AI480094 BM463468 AW241434 
    N42615 AF401211 BE550816 AI142026 BQ440944 BU195508 AA321638 BQ215366 
    N29770 AI261915 BQ224622 BF222234 AI391699 BU159596 BM996398 BG388287 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    2 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for BCL2    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3
    SP1:                        
    SP2:                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for BCL2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    BCL2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGTGTGGAGA
    BCL2 Expression
    About this image


    BCL2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 10) fully expand
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Intermediate Keratinocytes Embryonic Epidermis
     
     Tooth (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Odontoblasts Dentin
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
             T Helper Cells Thymus
     
     Gonad (Reproductive System)
             Primordial Germ Cells Primitive Gonad
     
     Epidermis (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Intermediate Keratinocytes Embryonic Epidermis
    BCL2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    BCL2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.150749

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: BCL2_HUMAN, P10415
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in a variety of tissues

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including BCL2 (see all 34): 
              Neurogenesis in human mouse rat
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              Lymphoma in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for BCL2 gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Bcl21 , 5 B cell leukemia/lymphoma 21, 5 88.28(n)1
    90.25(a)1
      1 (49.76 cM)5
    120431  NM_009741.41  NP_033871.21 
     1065381785 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves BCL21 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 74.62(n)
    77.03(a)
      396282  NM_205339.1  NP_990670.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia BCL26
    B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2
    71(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL344304.1(26465-27025)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia bcl21 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 62.9(n)
    63.6(a)
      100485267  XM_002934396.2  XP_002934442.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii BCL2 (2 of 2)6
    bcl26
    B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2
    50(a)
    47(a)
    1 ↔ many
    1 ↔ many
    2(12977291-13008258) ENSDARG00000089109
    24(29060361-29151442) ENSDARG00000025613


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for BCL2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for BCL2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for BCL2 gene
    BAK12  BCL2L22  BCL2L12  
    4 SIMAP similar genes for BCL2 using alignment to 3 protein entries:     BCL2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    bcl-2    BCL2L2-PABPN1    BCL2L2    BCL2L1

    Find genes that share paralogs with BCL2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for BCL2 (see all 4066)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 18 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0008284
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma4--see VAR_0008282 P S mis40--------
    VAR_0008294
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma4--see VAR_0008292 V I mis40--------
    rs1883577131,2
    --57557443(+) TGGGGA/GGATGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs49405701,2
    C,F--57557629(+) ATTTCA/GGGATT 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- G:0.26WA NA EA 358
    rs729394581,2
    C,F--57557709(+) GTGAGT/AGTGAA 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.08NA EA 240
    rs1452288511,2
    --57557742(+) CTGTAC/TAGATG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1476544151,2
    --57557778(+) ATACTA/GCTGTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1158571541,2
    C,F--57557864(+) TAGCTC/TGTTTG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.06WA 118
    rs1926420051,2
    --57557871(+) TTTGCC/TGGCCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1854366011,2
    --57557976(+) CCTTGA/GTGTTT 1 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for BCL2 (60790579 - 60987361 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for BCL2 (see all 13):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2086747CNV Deletion18987734
    esv2667157CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2717200CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2717199CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2571485CNV Deletion19546169
    esv1187842CNV Insertion17803354
    nsv2334CNV Insertion18451855
    esv1004886CNV Insertion20482838
    nsv131879CNV Insertion16902084
    esv1611780CNV Insertion17803354

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): BCL2
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing BCL2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for BCL2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 151430    OMIM disorders: --

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: BCL2_HUMAN, P10415
  • Note=A chromosomal aberration involving BCL2 has been found in chronic lymphatic leukemia. Translocation
    t(14;18)(q32;q21) with immunoglobulin gene regions. BCL2 mutations found in non-Hodgkin lymphomas carrying the
    chromosomal translocation could be attributed to the Ig somatic hypermutation mechanism resulting in nucleotide
    transitions

  • Selected diseases for BCL2 (see all 35):    
    About MalaCards
    follicular lymphoma    leukemia/lymphoma, b-cell, 2    benign mammary dysplasia    adenoid cystic carcinoma
    malignant teratoma    lymphoma, follicular, somatic    keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma    intravascular large b-cell lymphoma
    cervical carcinosarcoma    lymphosarcoma    biphasic synovial sarcoma    superficial basal cell carcinoma
    extramedullary plasmacytoma    gastrointestinal lymphoma    benign metastasizing leiomyoma    natural killer cell leukemia
    seborrheic keratosis    spindle cell sarcoma    oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy    intraocular lymphoma

    6 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for BCL2:
    Lymphoma     Leukemia     Carcinoma     Breast cancer
    Lung cancer     Vascular disease

    Find genes that share disorders with BCL2           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for BCL2 gene (see all 93)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    lymphoma follicular 87.1 381 18945749 (7), 2223650 (5), 18925696 (5), 9349233 (4) (see all 99)
    tumors 83.8 3055 2214188 (7), 9002964 (7), 17295204 (6), 15667975 (6) (see all 99)
    lymphoma b-cell 82.4 319 18925696 (5), 20459572 (4), 8639245 (3), 9242549 (3) (see all 99)
    lymphoma 78.3 595 16373664 (5), 1890741 (5), 11431360 (5), 8371594 (5) (see all 99)
    cancer 77.8 713 9416483 (5), 11728179 (5), 9000560 (4), 16531274 (4) (see all 99)
    leukemia 74.3 316 18422996 (5), 10456672 (4), 10023011 (4), 20350424 (4) (see all 99)
    breast cancer 70.7 671 20068093 (5), 19762066 (5), 11235572 (5), 17288732 (5) (see all 99)
    necrosis 69.1 225 10064615 (4), 10464427 (3), 19331832 (3), 10754212 (2) (see all 99)
    lymphoma non-hodgkins 68.1 150 15503680 (3), 11380403 (3), 9113013 (3), 1747446 (2) (see all 99)
    lymphocytic leukemia chronic b-cell 67.8 31 8104532 (2), 9373241 (1), 17132110 (1), 8260892 (1) (see all 27)

    Genatlas disease: BCL2
    non Hodgkin follicular lymphoma of B-cell type,diffuse large B cell lymphoma,with translocation
    t(14;18)(q32;q21.3),also extranodal B cell lymphoma (low grade lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid
    tissue),with translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) and a breakpoint on chromosome 18 between BCL2 and DCC

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): BCL2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: BCL2 (73 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): BCL2

    Export disorders for BCL2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for BCL2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 7276):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with BCL2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Germline BCL-2 sequence variants and inherited predisposition to prostate cancer. (PubMed id 16733517)1, 4, 9 Kidd L.R....Kittles R.A. (Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2006)
    2. Genetic variation in chromosomal translocation breakpoint and immune function genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (PubMed id 20087644)1, 4, 9 Fernberg P....EkstrAPm Smedby K. (amp 2010)
    3. p21-activated Kinase 1 (Pak1)-dependent phosphorylation of Raf-1 regulates its mitochondrial localization, phosphorylation of BAD, and Bcl-2 association. (PubMed id 15849194)1, 2, 9 Jin S.... Field J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005)
    4. Interaction between BCL2 and interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms alter outcomes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma following rituximab plus CHOP chemotherapy. (PubMed id 19276283)1, 4, 9 Park Y.H....Kim D.H. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2009)
    5. The AA genotype of the regulatory BCL2 promoter polymorphism ( 938C&gt;A) is associated with a favorable outcome in lymph node negative invasive breast cancer patients. (PubMed id 17908970)1, 4, 9 Bachmann H.S....Kimmig R. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2007)
    6. BCL-2 is phosphorylated and inactivated by an ASK1/Jun N-terminal protein kinase pathway normally activated at G(2)/M. (PubMed id 10567572)1, 2, 9 Yamamoto K.... Korsmeyer S.J. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1999)
    7. Association of a novel regulatory polymorphism (-938C&gt;A) in the BCL2 gene promoter with disease progression and survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (PubMed id 16960146)1, 4, 9 NA1ckel H....Siffert W. (Blood 2007)
    8. Apoptotic gene analysis in idiopathic talipes equinovarus (clubfoot). (PubMed id 17534194)1, 4, 9 Ester A.R....Hecht J.T. (Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2007)
    9. Regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, neurotrophic factors, and APP processing in the neurorescue activity of propargylamine. (PubMed id 16148027)1, 7, 9 Bar-Am O....Youdim M.B. (FASEB J. 2005)
    10. Phosphorylation of Bcl2 and regulation of apoptosis. (PubMed id 11368354)1, 2, 9 Ruvolo P.P.... May W.S. (Leukemia 2001)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 596 HGNC: 990 AceView: BCL2 Ensembl:ENSG00000171791 euGenes: HUgn596
    ECgene: BCL2 Kegg: 596 H-InvDB: BCL2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for BCL2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for BCL2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/bcl2/
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bcl-2

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for BCL2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving BCL2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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