Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for BCAT2 Gene

Aliases for BCAT2 Gene

  • Branched Chain Amino Acid Transaminase 2 2 3 5
  • Branched Chain Aminotransferase 2, Mitochondrial 2 3
  • Placental Protein 18 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • BCATM 3 4
  • PP18 3 4
  • BCT2 3 4
  • Branched-Chain-Amino-Acid Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Branched Chain Amino-Acid Transaminase 2, Mitochondrial 3
  • BCAT(M) 4
  • ECA40 4
  • BCAM 3

External Ids for BCAT2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for BCAT2 Gene

  • BCT2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for BCAT2 Gene

  • GC19M049857
  • GC19M049666
  • GC19M053974
  • GC19M053990
  • GC19M049298
  • GC19M045677

Summaries for BCAT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for BCAT2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a branched chain aminotransferase found in mitochondria. The encoded protein forms a dimer that catalyzes the first step in the production of the branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

GeneCards Summary for BCAT2 Gene

BCAT2 (Branched Chain Amino Acid Transaminase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with BCAT2 include Hyperleucine-Isoleucinemia and Maple Syrup Urine Disease, Type Ii. Among its related pathways are Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation and Viral mRNA Translation. GO annotations related to this gene include branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase activity and L-valine transaminase activity. An important paralog of this gene is BCAT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BCAT2 Gene

  • Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. May also function as a transporter of branched chain alpha-keto acids.

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for BCAT2 Gene

Genomics for BCAT2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for BCAT2 Gene

Enhancers for BCAT2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH19G048958 2.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.1 -153.0 -152967 10.2 MLX CREB3L1 AGO1 ZFP64 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 PPP1R15A PRR12 NUP62 IZUMO1 RUVBL2 CA11 SEC1P SNORD35B C19orf68 ALDH16A1
GH19G048724 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.8 +85.3 85262 3.5 HDGF ATF1 CREB3L1 ETS1 ZNF766 ELK1 ZNF143 FOS SP3 YY2 FUT2 PRR12 IZUMO1 ADM5 FUT1 FGF21 PIH1D1 DBP SEC1P BCAT2
GH19G048970 1.3 ENCODE dbSUPER 11.1 -159.9 -159859 1.5 PKNOX1 CREB3L1 ARNT AGO1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YBX1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B NUCB1 TULP2 BCAT2 GC19P048966 GC19P048967 GYS1 RUVBL2
GH19G048672 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 11 +135.1 135123 7.0 HDGF ARID4B SIN3A YBX1 ZNF48 YY1 TCF12 ZNF121 ZNF143 ZNF207 FUT2 RASIP1 MAMSTR SEC1P DBP IZUMO1 BCAT2 NUCB1 TULP2 NUCB1-AS1
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around BCAT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for BCAT2 Gene

48,795,062 bp from pter
48,811,063 bp from pter
16,002 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for BCAT2 Gene

Genes around BCAT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
BCAT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for BCAT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for BCAT2 Gene

Proteins for BCAT2 Gene

  • Protein details for BCAT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RB87
    • O00269
    • Q96KG1
    • Q9BTB6
    • Q9BUU6

    Protein attributes for BCAT2 Gene

    392 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    44288 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • Sequence=AAB53087.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for BCAT2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for BCAT2 Gene


neXtProt entry for BCAT2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for BCAT2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for BCAT2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=246246 and Lys321
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for BCAT2 Gene

Gene Families for BCAT2 Gene

Protein Domains for BCAT2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for BCAT2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-IV pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
  • Belongs to the class-IV pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with BCAT2: view

Function for BCAT2 Gene

Molecular function for BCAT2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
branched chain aminotransferase 2,cytosolic
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-isoleucine + 2-oxoglutarate = (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-valine + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + L-glutamate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. May also function as a transporter of branched chain alpha-keto acids.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for BCAT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for BCAT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004084 branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase activity IEA,IBA --
GO:0008483 transaminase activity IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0052654 L-leucine transaminase activity IEA --
GO:0052655 L-valine transaminase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BCAT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with BCAT2: view

Animal Models for BCAT2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for BCAT2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for BCAT2

CRISPR Products

miRNA for BCAT2 Gene

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for BCAT2 Gene

Localization for BCAT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BCAT2 Gene

Isoform A: Mitochondrion.
Isoform B: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for BCAT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for BCAT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion TAS 9165094
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BCAT2: view

Pathways & Interactions for BCAT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with BCAT2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for BCAT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006549 isoleucine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006550 isoleucine catabolic process IEA --
GO:0006551 leucine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006573 valine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BCAT2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for BCAT2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for BCAT2 Gene

(12) Drugs for BCAT2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Isoleucine Approved Nutra Target 0
L-Leucine Approved Nutra Target 0
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 61
L-Valine Approved Nutra 0
alpha-ketoisovalerate Experimental Pharma Target 0

(6) Additional Compounds for BCAT2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid
  • (3R)-3-Methyl-2-oxopentanoate
  • (3R)-3-Methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid
  • (R)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate
  • (R)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid
  • (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate
  • 2-Keto-4-Methylvalerate
  • 2-Keto-4-Methylvaleric acid
  • 2-Ketoisocaproate
  • 2-Ketoisocaproic acid
  • 2-Oxo-4-methylpentanoate
Oxoglutaric acid
  • 2-Ketoglutarate
  • 2-Ketoglutaric acid
  • 2-Oxo-1,5-pentanedioate
  • 2-Oxo-1,5-pentanedioic acid
  • 2-Oxoglutarate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with BCAT2: view

Transcripts for BCAT2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for BCAT2 Gene

Branched chain amino-acid transaminase 2, mitochondrial:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for BCAT2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: -
SP13: - - - - -
SP14: - - - -

ExUns: 13a · 13b ^ 14
SP1: -
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for BCAT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for BCAT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for BCAT2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for BCAT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (9.1) and Skin (7.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for BCAT2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for BCAT2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of BCAT2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for BCAT2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for BCAT2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for BCAT2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Heart(4.4)
  • Lung(4.4)
  • Skin(4.3)
  • Muscle(2.5)
  • Liver(2.1)
  • Kidney(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with BCAT2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for BCAT2 Gene

Orthologs for BCAT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for BCAT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia BCAT2 34 35
  • 98.81 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia BCAT2 34 35
  • 86.3 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia BCAT2 34 35
  • 84.95 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Bcat2 34 16 35
  • 81.29 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Bcat2 34
  • 80.61 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia BCAT2 35
  • 62 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia BCAT2 35
  • 67 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia bcat2 34
  • 64.6 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii bcat2 34 35
  • 62.25 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1673 36 35
  • 54 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y44A6D.5 36 35
  • 44 (a)
bcat-1 35
  • 44 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A10307g 34
  • 49.81 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes BAT1 34 35
  • 48.93 (n)
BAT2 35
  • 44 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons BCAT-2 34
  • 43.72 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0231600 34
  • 47.88 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04754 34
  • 56.79 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.7238 35
  • 53 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes eca39 34
  • 52.75 (n)
Species where no ortholog for BCAT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for BCAT2 Gene

Gene Tree for BCAT2 (if available)
Gene Tree for BCAT2 (if available)

Paralogs for BCAT2 Gene

Paralogs for BCAT2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for BCAT2 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with BCAT2: view

Variants for BCAT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for BCAT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000190716 -- 48,803,206(+) AAAAC(A/G)AAACA intron-variant
rs1000313333 -- 48,800,965(+) CTTGG(-/CA)CAGAG intron-variant
rs1000314372 -- 48,796,166(+) GCCGC(A/T)GAGGA intron-variant
rs1000433484 -- 48,797,563(+) CTTTT(C/T)TTTTT intron-variant
rs1000598893 -- 48,801,839(+) ACCAC(A/G)TTGGC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for BCAT2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2677313 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3644600 CNV loss 21293372
esv3644601 CNV loss 21293372
nsv833855 CNV loss 17160897
nsv9739 CNV gain+loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for BCAT2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 66.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.46; 54.87% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for BCAT2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BCAT2 Gene

Disorders for BCAT2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for BCAT2 Gene - From: GeneTests, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
maple syrup urine disease, type ii
  • dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search BCAT2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for BCAT2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with BCAT2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for BCAT2 Gene

Publications for BCAT2 Gene

  1. Cloning of the rat and human mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferases (BCATm). (PMID: 9165094) Bledsoe R.K. … Hutson S.M. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1997) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of placental tissue protein 18 (PP18a)/human mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) and its novel alternatively spliced PP18b variant. (PMID: 11170829) Than N.G. … Bohn H. (Placenta 2001) 3 4 22 64
  3. Two yeast homologs of ECA39, a target for c-Myc regulation, code for cytosolic and mitochondrial branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases. (PMID: 8702755) Eden A. … Benvenisty N. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996) 3 4 22 64
  4. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 46 64
  5. S-Nitrosoglutathione inactivation of the mitochondrial and cytosolic BCAT proteins: S-nitrosation and S-thiolation. (PMID: 19119849) Coles S.J. … Conway M.E. (Biochemistry 2009) 3 22 64

Products for BCAT2 Gene

Sources for BCAT2 Gene

Loading form....