Aliases for AZIN2 Gene
External Ids for AZIN2 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for AZIN2 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the antizyme inhibitor family, which plays a role in cell growth and proliferation by maintaining polyamine homeostasis within the cell. Antizyme inhibitors are homologs of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, the key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis) that have lost the ability to decarboxylase ornithine; however, retain the ability to bind to antizymes. Antizymes negatively regulate intracellular polyamine levels by binding to ODC and targeting it for degradation, as well as by inhibiting polyamine uptake. Antizyme inhibitors function as positive regulators of polyamine levels by sequestering antizymes and neutralizing their effect. This gene encodes antizyme inhibitor 2, the second member of this gene family. Like antizyme inhibitor 1, antizyme inhibitor 2 interacts with all 3 antizymes and stimulates ODC activity and polyamine uptake. However, unlike antizyme inhibitor 1, which is ubiquitously expressed and localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm, antizyme inhibitor 2 is predominantly expressed in the brain and testis and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum-golgi intermediate compartment. Recent studies indicate that antizyme inhibitor 2 is also expressed in specific cell types in ovaries, adrenal glands and pancreas, and in mast cells. The exact function of this gene is not known, however, available data suggest its role in cell growth, spermiogenesis, vesicular trafficking and secretion. Accumulation of antizyme inhibitor 2 has also been observed in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. There has been confusion in literature and databases over the nomenclature of this gene, stemming from an earlier report that a human cDNA clone (identical to ODCp/AZIN2) had arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity (PMID:14738999). Subsequent studies in human and mouse showed that antizyme inhibitor 2 was devoid of arginine decarboxylase activity (PMID:19956990). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
GeneCards Summary for AZIN2 Gene
AZIN2 (Antizyme Inhibitor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Viral mRNA Translation and Arginine and proline metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include ornithine decarboxylase activity and putrescine transmembrane transporter activity. An important paralog of this gene is ODC1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AZIN2 Gene
Antizyme inhibitor (AZI) protein that positively regulates ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and polyamine uptake. AZI is an enzymatically inactive ODC homolog that counteracts the negative effect of ODC antizymes (AZs) OAZ1, OAZ2 and OAZ3 on ODC activity by competing with ODC for antizyme-binding (PubMed:17900240). Inhibits antizyme-dependent ODC degradation and releases ODC monomers from their inactive complex with antizymes, leading to formation of the catalytically active ODC homodimer and restoring polyamine production (PubMed:17900240). Participates in the morphological integrity of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and functions as a regulator of intracellular secretory vesicle trafficking (PubMed:20188728).