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AXL Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC19P041725

AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase1 2     JTK112
UFO2 3     AXL Transforming Sequence/Gene2
AXL Oncogene2 3     Tyrosine-Protein Kinase Receptor UFO2
EC 2.7.10.13 8     EC 2.7.108

External Ids:    HGNC: 9051   Entrez Gene: 5582   Ensembl: ENSG000001676017   OMIM: 1091355   UniProtKB: P305303   

Export aliases for AXL gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC19P042364 GC19P042116 GC19P046400 GC19P046416 GC19P038157


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for AXL Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The
encoded protein possesses an extracellular domain which is composed of two immunoglobulin-like motifs at the
N-terminal, followed by two fibronectin type-III motifs. It transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into
the cytoplasm by binding to the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6). This gene may be
involved in several cellular functions including growth, migration, aggregation and anti-inflammation in multiple
cell types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jul
2013)

GeneCards Summary for AXL Gene:
AXL (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with AXL include femoral neuropathy, and critical limb ischemia. GO annotations related to this gene include phosphatidylserine binding and protein heterodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is MET.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: UFO_HUMAN, P30530
Function: Receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by
binding growth factor GAS6 and which is thus regulating many physiological processes including cell survival,
cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Ligand binding at the cell surface induces dimerization and
autophosphorylation of AXL. Following activation by ligand, ALX binds and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of
PI3-kinase subunits PIK3R1, PIK3R2 and PIK3R3; but also GRB2, PLCG1, LCK and PTPN11. Other downstream substrate
candidates for AXL are CBL, NCK2, SOCS1 and TENC1. Recruitment of GRB2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase
regulatory subunits by AXL leads to the downstream activation of the AKT kinase. GAS6/AXL signaling plays a role
in various processes such as endothelial cell survival during acidification by preventing apoptosis, optimal
cytokine signaling during human natural killer cell development, hepatic regeneration, gonadotropin-releasing
hormone neuron survival and migration, platelet activation, or regulation of thrombotic responses. Plays also an
important role in inhibition of Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated innate immune response. In case of filovirus
infection, seems to function as a cell entry factor

Gene Wiki entry for AXL (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000019.10  NC_018930.2  NT_011109.17  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the AXL gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   c-Jun   c-Myc   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidAXL promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for AXL

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat AXL


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 19q13.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  19q13.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 19q13.1

AXL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
AXL gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 19         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC19P041725:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
41,725,108 bp from pter      End:
41,767,671 bp from pter
Size:
42,564 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: UFO_HUMAN, P30530 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO precursor  
Size: 894 amino acids; 98336 Da
Subunit: Heterodimer and heterotetramer with ligand GAS6. Interacts with CBL, GRB2, LCK, NCK2, PIK3R1, PIK3R2,
PIK3R3, PLCG1, SOCS1 and TENC1. Part of a complex including AXL, TNK2 and GRB2, in which GRB2 promotes AXL
recruitment by TNK2
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for AXL:
2C5D (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q8N5L2 Q9UD27
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P30530-1   P30530-2   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for AXL: NX_P30530

Explore proteomics data for AXL at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Monoubiquitinated upon GAS6-binding. A very small proportion of the receptor could be subjected to
    polyubiquitination in a very transient fashion1
  • Phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by autocatalysis, which activates kinase activity1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys540
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn43, Asn157, Asn198, Asn339, Asn345, Asn401
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for AXL (P30530) (see all 9)
     GNRLKQP  RDLAARN  GDYYRQG  FSCEAHN 


    See AXL Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001265528.1  NP_001690.2  NP_068713.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000301178   ENSP00000351995   ENSP00000471497  

    AXL Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene MassSpec for AXL
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for AXL
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for AXL
    Novus Biologicals AXL Proteins
    Novus Biologicals AXL Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for AXL
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for AXL
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for AXL

    AXL Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of AXL
    R&D Systems Antibodies for AXL
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for AXL 
    OriGene Antibodies for AXL
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for AXL
    Novus Biologicals AXL Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for AXL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for AXL
    ThermoFisher Antibody for AXL
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for AXL

    AXL Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for AXL
    R&D Systems ELISAs for AXL         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for AXL
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for AXL
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for AXL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for AXL


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    FN3: Fibronectin type III domain containing
    IGD: Immunoglobulin superfamily / Immunoglobulin-like domain containing
    VSET: Immunoglobulin superfamily / V-set domain containing

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: AXL receptor tyrosine kinase
    TAM (or AXL) receptor family
    Axl family

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 11):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR003961 Fibronectin_type3
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR013783 Ig-like_fold
     IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P30530

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P30530

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB003599 Immunoglobulin subtype
    IPB008266 Tyrosine protein kinase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: UFO_HUMAN, P30530
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. AXL/UFO subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains
    Similarity: Contains 2 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    AXL for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: UFO_HUMAN, P30530
    Function: Receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by
    binding growth factor GAS6 and which is thus regulating many physiological processes including cell survival,
    cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Ligand binding at the cell surface induces dimerization and
    autophosphorylation of AXL. Following activation by ligand, ALX binds and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of
    PI3-kinase subunits PIK3R1, PIK3R2 and PIK3R3; but also GRB2, PLCG1, LCK and PTPN11. Other downstream substrate
    candidates for AXL are CBL, NCK2, SOCS1 and TENC1. Recruitment of GRB2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase
    regulatory subunits by AXL leads to the downstream activation of the AKT kinase. GAS6/AXL signaling plays a role
    in various processes such as endothelial cell survival during acidification by preventing apoptosis, optimal
    cytokine signaling during human natural killer cell development, hepatic regeneration, gonadotropin-releasing
    hormone neuron survival and migration, platelet activation, or regulation of thrombotic responses. Plays also an
    important role in inhibition of Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated innate immune response. In case of filovirus
    infection, seems to function as a cell entry factor
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate
    Enzyme regulation: Activated by GAS6-binding and subsequent autophosphorylation

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for AXL:
    AXL transforming sequence,activated by GAS6,involved in the protection of neurons from apoptosis across neuronal
    migration,expressed in neural lymphoid,vascular and reproductive tissue,involved in the regulation of
    spermatogenesis and in primary and tumor cell lines derived from these sources

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.10.11 2 EC 2.7.102

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001786phosphatidylserine binding IDA--
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity ----
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
    GO:0004714transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI16362042
         
    AXL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         4 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for AXL:
     Decreased substrate adherent c  Increased cell death in breast  Increased mitotic index  Increased viability after born 

         14 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Axl):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  endocrine/exocrine gland  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  integument  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  nervous system 
     normal  reproductive system  skeleton  vision/eye 

    AXL for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Axltm1Grl for AXL

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for AXL
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for AXL

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for AXL
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for AXL

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target AXL:
    hsa-mir-1 (MIRT002758), hsa-mir-34a-5p (MIRT006664), hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT020726), hsa-mir-375 (MIRT019798)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat AXL using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate AXL (see all 22):
    hsa-miR-25 hsa-miR-650 hsa-miR-449a hsa-miR-24 hsa-miR-33b hsa-miR-3612 hsa-miR-92b hsa-miR-3173-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidAXL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for AXL
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat AXL

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for AXL
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): AXL (NM_021913)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for AXL
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for AXL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat AXL

    Cell Line
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for AXL 
    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for AXL


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    UFO_HUMAN, P30530: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    plasma membrane5
    cytoskeleton1
    cytosol1
    golgi apparatus1
    lysosome1
    mitochondrion1
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA--
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane TAS1656220
    GO:0009986cell surface IDA19657094
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane ----

    AXL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for AXL About   (see all 11)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1GPCR Pathway
    Ras Pathway0.73
    Breast Cancer Regulation by Stathmin10.58
    Paxillin Interactions0.73
    NFAT in Immune Response0.58
    GPCR Pathway0.62
    Estrogen Pathway0.55
    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma0.59
    P2Y Receptor Signaling0.38
    2ERK Signaling
    Rho Family GTPases0.61
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer0.51
    ERK Signaling0.61
    ILK Signaling0.49
    MAPK Signaling0.58
    3Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
    Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency0.61
    14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling0.59
    GSK3 Signaling0.61
    eNOS Signaling0.48
    4Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
    Actin Nucleation and Branching0.66
    CDC42 Pathway0.41
    Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex0.66
    5Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
    Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA0.77
    Activation of PKA through GPCR0.71

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for AXL (see all 29)
        MAPK Signaling
    Paxillin Interactions
    Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for AXL
        Tyrosine Kinases / Adaptors




    AXL for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for AXL
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for AXL

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for AXL (P305301, 2, 3 ENSP000003011784) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 38)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GAS6Q143931, 2, 3, ENSP000003318314EBI-2850927,EBI-2802811 MINT-2735822 MINT-2735908 MINT-2738515 MINT-2735786 MINT-2735853 MINT-2735881 MINT-2735935 MINT-2735964 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000331831
    PIK3R1P279862, 3, ENSP000002743354MINT-8028639 MINT-8028655 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000274335
    PLCG1P191742, 3, ENSP000002440074MINT-8028607 MINT-8028623 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000244007
    GRB2P629931, 2, 3, ENSP000003390074EBI-2850927,EBI-401755 MINT-8026688 MINT-8028671 MINT-8028687 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000339007
    LCKP062393, ENSP000003378254I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000337825
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 37):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001764neuron migration IEA--
    GO:0001779natural killer cell differentiation IEA--
    GO:0001961positive regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IDA18840707
    GO:0001974blood vessel remodeling IEA--
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation ----

    AXL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for AXL
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for AXL (UFO)

    2 HMDB Compounds for AXL    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--

    2 IUPHAR Ligands for AXL (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    protein S
    NoneNone7867073
    growth arrest specific protein 6
    NoneNone8939948

    7 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for AXL gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tyrosine 80.5 193 1656220 (5), 15964779 (4), 9259426 (4), 9287338 (3) (see all 99)
    gamma-carboxyglutamic acid 62.4 8 18760998 (2), 12871548 (1), 15605394 (1)
    wortmannin 51.2 1 17255529 (1)
    warfarin 44.4 4 11290560 (1), 15199298 (1), 11546821 (1)
    ly294002 41.7 2 15380678 (1), 19027714 (1)
    phosphatidylinositol 39.2 2 17255529 (1), 15380678 (1)
    phosphatidylserine 18.2 3 18760998 (2)



    AXL for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for AXL gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001278599.1  NM_001699.5  NM_021913.4  

    Unigene Cluster for AXL:

    AXL receptor tyrosine kinase
    Hs.590970  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_021913
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000301178(uc010ehi.1 uc010ehj.3) ENST00000359092(uc010ehk.3)
    ENST00000599659 ENST00000594880 ENST00000593513
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate AXL (see all 22):
    hsa-miR-25 hsa-miR-650 hsa-miR-449a hsa-miR-24 hsa-miR-33b hsa-miR-3612 hsa-miR-92b hsa-miR-3173-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidAXL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat AXL
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): AXL (NM_021913)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for AXL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat AXL
    Primer
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat AXL
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat AXL

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK309139.1 AK310881.1 BC032229.1 M76125.1 S65125.1 X57019.1 X66029.1 

    15 DOTS entries:

    DT.100786483  DT.97805775  DT.91755245  DT.100029048  DT.100041719  DT.100780536  DT.456157  DT.121460717 
    DT.121460881  DT.121461087  DT.91677197  DT.91681161  DT.95191274  DT.95375668  DT.91683879 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 304):

    AL042293 AI027054 BQ774129 BQ960243 AA301801 BQ011864 BM669998 BI871630 
    CD671303 BM449982 AW838033 AW377752 AI343551 AW008618 BQ708279 AW838036 
    AA330590 BU553583 CA440405 F07212 CB160525 AI371020 BQ955114 BM559268 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    3 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AXL    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21
    SP1:              -                                                                                                                           
    SP2:              -                                                           -                                                               
    SP3:                                                                                                                                          


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for AXL

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    AXL expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      AXL embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTGCCCCCGT
    AXL Expression
    About this image


    AXL expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 5) fully expand
     
     Smooth Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)
             Paraxial mesoderm-derived smooth muscle cells
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)
             Basal Cells Trachea
     
     Peripheral Nervous System (Nervous System)
             Schwann Precursor Cells Peripheral Nerve Domain
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)
             Plasmacytoid Dendritic cells Peripheral Blood
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
    AXL Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    AXL Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.590970

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: UFO_HUMAN, P30530
    Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in metastatic colon tumors. Expressed in primary colon tumors. Weakly
    expressed in normal colon tissue

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for AXL gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Axl1 , 5 AXL receptor tyrosine kinase1, 5 85.61(n)1
    88.39(a)1
      7 (14.02 cM)5
    263621  NM_009465.41  NP_033491.21 
     257572735 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia AXL6
    AXL receptor tyrosine kinase
    61(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    LGf(3521319-3616786)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia axl1 AXL receptor tyrosine kinase 63.02(n)
    64.36(a)
      100036629  NM_001097188.1  NP_001090657.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii CABZ01088927.16
    CABZ01088930.16
    Uncharacterized protein
    57(a)
    57(a)
    many → 1
    many → 1
    15(27341-34669) ENSDARG00000063691
    15(20172-27007) ENSDARG00000088884
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea T14E8.1b3   -- 34(a)
    (best of 3)
      X(6588581-6594203)   --


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for AXL (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for AXL (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for AXL gene
    MET2  RYK2  TYRO32  MERTK2  MST1R2  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for AXL using alignment to 2 protein entries:     UFO_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    ufo    FLT4    EPHA4    ABL1    TYRO3    EPHA2
    MST1R    MERTK    BRAF    DKFZp434L0319    BTK kinase deficient isoform 6    FES
    MET    RYK    PTK7    TXK    STK25    DDR1

    AXL for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for AXL (see all 1126)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 19 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0455974
    A lung neuroendocrine carcinoma sample4--see VAR_0455972 R W mis40--------
    VAR_0418774
    A gastric adenocarcinoma sample4--see VAR_0418772 R C mis40--------
    rs1427061271,2
    C--41723175(+) GGGGC-/AGAGGT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1467017151,2
    --41723274(+) ATGGCC/TGGGCA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1400585351,2
    C--41723335(+) ATCACA/GAGTTC 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1814930321,2
    --41723426(+) CACACC/TTGTAA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs104246461,2
    C,F,A--41723512(+) agccaC/Ttgcac 2 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- T:0.33WA CSA 3
    rs575523731,2
    C--41723571(+) AAAAA-/A/GGACAC 2 -- us2k11NA 2
    rs1458552291,2
    C--41723724(+) AAATGA/GGAGAA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1490197301,2
    --41723740(+) TGACAG/TTAGAG 2 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for AXL (41725108 - 41767671 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for AXL:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv911768CNV Loss21882294
    nsv819422CNV Loss19587683
    esv995062CNV Loss20482838

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): AXL
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for AXL

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 109135    OMIM disorders: --

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: UFO_HUMAN, P30530
  • Note=AXL and its ligand GAS6 are highly expressed in thyroid carcinoma tissues, and might thus be
    involved in thyroid tumorigenesis. Overexpression of AXL and its ligand was also detected in many other cancers
    such as myeloproliferative disorders, prostatic carcinoma cells, or breast cancer

  • Selected diseases for AXL (see all 67):    About MalaCards
    femoral neuropathy    critical limb ischemia    ovarian endometriosis    ocular melanoma
    amblyopia    refractive error    leukemia/lymphoma, t-cell    noma
    myeloproliferative disorder    glomerulonephritis    diabetic nephropathy    endometriosis
    abdominal aortic aneurysm    myeloid leukemia    pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma    aortic aneurysm
    b-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia    myopia    malignant pleural mesothelioma    chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for AXL:
    Cancer     Refractive error

    AXL for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for AXL gene (see all 29)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    myeloid leukemia 49.9 7 8656672 (1), 9130617 (1), 1656220 (1), 15380678 (1) (see all 6)
    glomerulonephritis mesangial proliferative 45.7 1 11290560 (1)
    myeloid leukemia chronic 34.6 8 7521695 (2), 8235704 (1), 7848912 (1), 20145042 (1) (see all 5)
    thyroid carcinoma 25 17 10411118 (6), 9492013 (3), 12490074 (3)
    renal disease 24.1 3 14750094 (2), 12768229 (1)
    myeloproliferative disorders 17.9 3 7521695 (1)
    carcinoma papillary 17.1 1 12490074 (1)
    inflammation 16.6 3 9516131 (1), 16831897 (1), 15964779 (1), 17708828 (1)
    diabetic nephropathies 16.1 2 18374201 (1)
    metastasis 15.9 23 20145120 (2), 19633687 (2), 20080645 (2), 10411118 (2) (see all 10)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): AXL
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: AXL (6 documents)

    Export disorders for AXL gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for AXL gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 226):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with AXL)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. AXL, a transforming gene isolated from primary human myeloid leukemia cells, encodes a novel receptor tyrosine kinase. (PubMed id 1656220)1, 2, 3, 9 O'Bryan J.P.... Liu E.T. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1991)
    2. Effects of Gas6 and hydrogen peroxide in Axl ubiquitination and downregulation. (PubMed id 15958209)1, 2, 9 Valverde P. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005)
    3. Expression of receptor-type tyrosine kinase, Axl, and its ligand, Gas6, in pediatric thyroid carcinomas around Chernobyl. (PubMed id 12490074)1, 2, 9 Ito M.... Yamashita S. (Thyroid 2002)
    4. Cytoplasmic ACK1 interaction with multiple receptor tyrosine kinases is mediated by Grb2: an analysis of ACK1 effects on Axl signaling. (PubMed id 19815557)1, 2, 9 Pao-Chun L.... Manser E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)
    5. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated endothelial cell activation by Axl tyrosine kinase receptor. (PubMed id 15507525)1, 2, 9 Gallicchio M.... Bussolino F. (Blood 2005)
    6. Acidification prevents endothelial cell apoptosis by Axl activation. (PubMed id 12364394)1, 2, 9 D'Arcangelo D.... Capogrossi M.C. (Circ. Res. 2002)
    7. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase stimulated by the vitamin K-dependent protein encoded by growth-arrest-specific gene 6. (PubMed id 7854420)1, 2, 9 Varnum B.C.... Yamane H.K. (Nature 1995)
    8. Interaction of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase with C1-TEN, a novel C1 domain-containing protein with homology to tensin. (PubMed id 12470648)1, 2, 9 Hafizi S.... Dahlbaeck B. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002)
    9. Structural basis for Gas6-Axl signalling. (PubMed id 16362042)1, 2, 9 Sasaki T.... Hohenester E. (EMBO J. 2006)
    10. A novel putative tyrosine kinase receptor with oncogenic potential. (PubMed id 1834974)1, 2, 9 Janssen J.W.G.... Bartram C.R. (Oncogene 1991)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 558 HGNC: 905 AceView: AXL Ensembl:ENSG00000167601 euGenes: HUgn558
    ECgene: AXL H-InvDB: AXL

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for AXL Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for AXL Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for AXL gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving AXL

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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