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Aliases for AXL Gene

Aliases for AXL Gene

  • AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 3
  • AXL Oncogene 3 4
  • EC 2.7.10.1 4 63
  • UFO 3 4
  • AXL Transforming Sequence/Gene 3
  • EC 2.7.10 63
  • JTK11 3
  • Tyro7 3
  • ARK 3

External Ids for AXL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AXL Gene

  • GC19P042364
  • GC19P042116
  • GC19P046400
  • GC19P046416
  • GC19P041725
  • GC19P038157

Summaries for AXL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AXL Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The encoded protein possesses an extracellular domain which is composed of two immunoglobulin-like motifs at the N-terminal, followed by two fibronectin type-III motifs. It transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6). This gene may be involved in several cellular functions including growth, migration, aggregation and anti-inflammation in multiple cell types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GeneCards Summary for AXL Gene

AXL (AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AXL include lymphocytic choriomeningitis and femoral neuropathy. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and GPCR Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MET.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AXL Gene

  • Receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding growth factor GAS6 and which is thus regulating many physiological processes including cell survival, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Ligand binding at the cell surface induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of AXL. Following activation by ligand, ALX binds and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PI3-kinase subunits PIK3R1, PIK3R2 and PIK3R3; but also GRB2, PLCG1, LCK and PTPN11. Other downstream substrate candidates for AXL are CBL, NCK2, SOCS1 and TNS2. Recruitment of GRB2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase regulatory subunits by AXL leads to the downstream activation of the AKT kinase. GAS6/AXL signaling plays a role in various processes such as endothelial cell survival during acidification by preventing apoptosis, optimal cytokine signaling during human natural killer cell development, hepatic regeneration, gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron survival and migration, platelet activation, or regulation of thrombotic responses. Plays also an important role in inhibition of Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated innate immune response.

  • (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for lassa virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope (PubMed:22156524, PubMed:22673088, PubMed:25277499, PubMed:21501828). Acts as a receptor for ebolavirus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope (PubMed:17005688).

Gene Wiki entry for AXL Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AXL Gene

Genomics for AXL Gene

Regulatory Elements for AXL Gene

Genomic Location for AXL Gene

Chromosome:
19
Start:
41,219,199 bp from pter
End:
41,261,767 bp from pter
Size:
42,569 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for AXL Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for AXL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AXL Gene

Proteins for AXL Gene

  • Protein details for AXL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P30530-UFO_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO
    Protein Accession:
    P30530
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q8N5L2
    • Q9UD27

    Protein attributes for AXL Gene

    Size:
    894 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    98336 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer and heterotetramer with ligand GAS6. Interacts with CBL, GRB2, LCK, NCK2, PIK3R1, PIK3R2, PIK3R3, PLCG1, SOCS1 and TNS2. Part of a complex including AXL, TNK2 and GRB2, in which GRB2 promotes AXL recruitment by TNK2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for AXL Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for AXL Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for AXL Gene

Proteomics data for AXL Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for AXL Gene

Post-translational modifications for AXL Gene

  • Monoubiquitinated upon GAS6-binding. A very small proportion of the receptor could be subjected to polyubiquitination in a very transient fashion.
  • Phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by autocatalysis, which activates kinase activity.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 540
  • Glycosylation at Asn 43, Asn 157, Asn 198, Asn 339, Asn 345, and Asn 401
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for AXL Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for AXL (AXL)

Domains & Families for AXL Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for AXL Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P30530

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

UFO_HUMAN :
  • Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. AXL/UFO subfamily.
Domain:
  • Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains.
  • Contains 2 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains.
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. AXL/UFO subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AXL: view

Function for AXL Gene

Molecular function for AXL Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
AXL transforming sequence,activated by GAS6,involved in the protection of neurons from apoptosis across neuronal migration,expressed in neural lymphoid,vascular and reproductive tissue,involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and in primary and tumor cell lines derived from these sources
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Activated by GAS6-binding and subsequent autophosphorylation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding growth factor GAS6 and which is thus regulating many physiological processes including cell survival, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Ligand binding at the cell surface induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of AXL. Following activation by ligand, ALX binds and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PI3-kinase subunits PIK3R1, PIK3R2 and PIK3R3; but also GRB2, PLCG1, LCK and PTPN11. Other downstream substrate candidates for AXL are CBL, NCK2, SOCS1 and TNS2. Recruitment of GRB2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase regulatory subunits by AXL leads to the downstream activation of the AKT kinase. GAS6/AXL signaling plays a role in various processes such as endothelial cell survival during acidification by preventing apoptosis, optimal cytokine signaling during human natural killer cell development, hepatic regeneration, gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron survival and migration, platelet activation, or regulation of thrombotic responses. Plays also an important role in inhibition of Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated innate immune response.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for lassa virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope (PubMed:22156524, PubMed:22673088, PubMed:25277499, PubMed:21501828). Acts as a receptor for ebolavirus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope (PubMed:17005688).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for AXL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AXL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001618 virus receptor activity IEA --
GO:0001786 phosphatidylserine binding IDA 21501828
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity --
GO:0004713 protein tyrosine kinase activity EXP --
GO:0004714 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AXL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AXL: view

Animal Models for AXL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AXL:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for AXL

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AXL Gene

Localization for AXL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AXL Gene

Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for AXL Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AXL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AXL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 20088931
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 1656220
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 19581412
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AXL: view

Pathways & Interactions for AXL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AXL: view

Pathways by source for AXL Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for AXL Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for AXL Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AXL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001764 neuron migration IEA --
GO:0001779 natural killer cell differentiation IEA --
GO:0001961 positive regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IDA 18840707
GO:0001974 blood vessel remodeling IEA --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AXL: view

Drugs & Compounds for AXL Gene

(13) Drugs for AXL Gene - From: HMDB, IUPHAR, DGIdb, ApexBio, NovoSeek, and ClinicalTrials

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Warfarin Approved Pharma 391
Phosphatidylserine Approved Nutra 0
XL999 Investigational Pharma inhibitor Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 0
growth arrest specific protein 6 Pharma 0

(3) Additional Compounds for AXL Gene - From: HMDB and NovoSeek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
gamma-Carboxyglutamic acid
53445-96-8
Phosphatidylinositol
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AXL: view

Transcripts for AXL Gene

Unigene Clusters for AXL Gene

AXL receptor tyrosine kinase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for AXL

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AXL Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3:

Relevant External Links for AXL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
AXL
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
AXL

Expression for AXL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for AXL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for AXL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (41.6) and Breast (10.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for AXL Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AXL Gene Hs.590970

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AXL Gene

P30530-UFO_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in metastatic colon tumors. Expressed in primary colon tumors. Weakly expressed in normal colon tissue.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AXL: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for AXL Gene

Orthologs for AXL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for AXL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AXL 35
  • 84.39 (n)
  • 86.09 (a)
AXL 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AXL 35
  • 89.12 (n)
  • 91.75 (a)
AXL 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Axl 35
  • 85.61 (n)
  • 88.39 (a)
Axl 16
Axl 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AXL 35
  • 99.32 (n)
  • 99.4 (a)
AXL 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Axl 35
  • 85.34 (n)
  • 88.39 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AXL 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 52 (a)
ManyToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AXL 36
  • 61 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia axl 35
  • 63.02 (n)
  • 64.36 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CABZ01088927.1 36
  • 57 (a)
OneToMany
CABZ01088930.1 36
  • 57 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea old-2 37
  • 33 (a)
T14E8.1a 37
  • 34 (a)
T14E8.1b 37
  • 34 (a)
F11E6.8 36
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 30 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for AXL:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for AXL Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for AXL (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for AXL (if available)

Paralogs for AXL Gene

Paralogs for AXL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AXL: view

Variants for AXL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AXL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1004955 -- 41,259,608(-) CTCTG(C/T)AAAAC reference, missense
rs1051126 -- 41,259,962(+) TGGGG(A/G)AAACT utr-variant-3-prime
rs1061079 -- 41,238,067(+) CTCAC(A/C)CCCCT reference, missense
rs1138335 -- 41,238,487(+) CCCCT(A/G)AGAAC missense, reference
rs1138336 -- 41,252,957(+) CGGGG(A/C/G)CCAGC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AXL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv911768 CNV Loss 21882294
esv995062 CNV Loss 20482838
nsv819422 CNV Loss 19587683

Variation tolerance for AXL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 26.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.47; 43.36% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for AXL Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
AXL
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
AXL

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AXL Gene

Disorders for AXL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for AXL Gene - From: DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
lymphocytic choriomeningitis
  • lymphocytic meningoencephalitis
femoral neuropathy
  • femoral nerve lesions
lassa fever
  • lf
mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis
  • glomerulonephritis - mesangial proliferative
borna disease
  • enzootic encephalomyelitis
- elite association
Search AXL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

UFO_HUMAN
  • Note=AXL and its ligand GAS6 are highly expressed in thyroid carcinoma tissues, and might thus be involved in thyroid tumorigenesis. Overexpression of AXL and its ligand was also detected in many other cancers such as myeloproliferative disorders, prostatic carcinoma cells, or breast cancer.

Relevant External Links for AXL

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
AXL
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
AXL
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
AXL
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AXL: view

No data available for Genatlas for AXL Gene

Publications for AXL Gene

  1. AXL, a transforming gene isolated from primary human myeloid leukemia cells, encodes a novel receptor tyrosine kinase. (PMID: 1656220) O'Bryan J.P. … Liu E.T. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1991) 2 23 67
  2. Myeloid zinc finger 1 induces migration, invasion, and in vivo metastasis through Axl gene expression in solid cancer. (PMID: 20145042) Mudduluru G. … Allgayer H. (Mol. Cancer Res. 2010) 23 67
  3. R428, a selective small molecule inhibitor of Axl kinase, blocks tumor spread and prolongs survival in models of metastatic breast cancer. (PMID: 20145120) Holland S.J. … Hitoshi Y. (Cancer Res. 2010) 23 67
  4. Inhibition of Mer and Axl receptor tyrosine kinases in astrocytoma cells leads to increased apoptosis and improved chemosensitivity. (PMID: 20423999) Keating A.K. … Graham D.K. (Mol. Cancer Ther. 2010) 23 67
  5. Plasma concentrations of growth arrest specific protein 6 and the soluble form of its tyrosine kinase receptor Axl as markers of large abdominal aortic aneurysms. (PMID: 19660445) Ekman C. … DahlbAock B. (Clin. Biochem. 2010) 23 67

Products for AXL Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for AXL

Sources for AXL Gene

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