Aliases for ATR Gene
External Ids for ATR Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ATR Gene
The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Mutations of this gene are associated with Seckel syndrome. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been reported, however, its full length nature is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA sites exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for ATR Gene
ATR (ATR Serine/Threonine Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ATR include cutaneous telangiectasia and cancer syndrome, familial and seckel syndrome 1. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and Cellular response to heat stress. GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and binding. An important paralog of this gene is PRKDC.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATR Gene
Serine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light (UV), or DNA replication stalling, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates BRCA1, CHEK1, MCM2, RAD17, RPA2, SMC1 and p53/TP53, which collectively inhibit DNA replication and mitosis and promote DNA repair, recombination and apoptosis. Phosphorylates Ser-139 of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX at sites of DNA damage, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Required for FANCD2 ubiquitination. Critical for maintenance of fragile site stability and efficient regulation of centrosome duplication.
ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related) are closely related kinases that are activated by DNA damage. They are serine-threonine protein kinases which are part of the phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase-like kinase (PIKK) enzyme family.