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Aliases for ATG12 Gene

Aliases for ATG12 Gene

  • Autophagy Related 12 2 3
  • APG12L 3 4
  • APG12 3 4
  • ATG12 Autophagy Related 12 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae) 2
  • Apg12 (Autophagy 12, S. Cerevisiae)-Like 2
  • APG12 Autophagy 12-Like (S. Cerevisiae) 2
  • ATG12 Autophagy Related 12 Homolog 3
  • Apg12 (Autophagy, Yeast) Homolog 3
  • Ubiquitin-Like Protein ATG12 3
  • Autophagy-Related Protein 12 4
  • APG12 Autophagy 12-Like 2
  • APG12-Like 4
  • HAPG12 3
  • FBR93 3

External Ids for ATG12 Gene

Previous Symbols for ATG12 Gene

  • APG12L

Summaries for ATG12 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ATG12 Gene

  • Autophagy is a process of bulk protein degradation in which cytoplasmic components, including organelles, are enclosed in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation. ATG12 is the human homolog of a yeast protein involved in autophagy (Mizushima et al., 1998 [PubMed 9852036]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ATG12 Gene

ATG12 (Autophagy Related 12) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Protein Stability and FoxO signaling pathway.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATG12 Gene

  • Ubiquitin-like protein involved in autophagy vesicles formation. Conjugation with ATG5 through a ubiquitin-like conjugating system involving also ATG7 as an E1-like activating enzyme and ATG10 as an E2-like conjugating enzyme, is essential for its function. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3-like enzyme which is required for lipidation of ATG8 family proteins and their association to the vesicle membranes. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate also regulates negatively the innate antiviral immune response by blocking the type I IFN production pathway through direct association with RARRES3 and MAVS. Plays also a role in translation or delivery of incoming viral RNA to the translation apparatus.

Gene Wiki entry for ATG12 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ATG12 Gene

Genomics for ATG12 Gene

Genomic Location for ATG12 Gene

Start:
115,828,196 bp from pter
End:
115,841,858 bp from pter
Size:
13,663 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for ATG12 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ATG12 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ATG12 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ATG12 Gene

Proteins for ATG12 Gene

  • Protein details for ATG12 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O94817-ATG12_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Ubiquitin-like protein ATG12
    Protein Accession:
    O94817
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q6PJV2

    Protein attributes for ATG12 Gene

    Size:
    140 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    15113 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms a conjugate with ATG5. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate forms a complex with several units of ATG16L. Interacts with ATG3, ATG7 and ATG10. ATG12-ATG5 also interacts with MAVS, MGA, RARRES3 and TECPR1.
    Miscellaneous:
    • Small amount of ATG5-ATG12 conjugate is enough to perform normal autophagy
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAH12266.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ATG12 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ATG12 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for ATG12 Gene

Proteomics data for ATG12 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ATG12 Gene

Other Protein References for ATG12 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ATG12 Gene

Domains for ATG12 Gene

Protein Domains for ATG12 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ATG12 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O94817

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ATG12_HUMAN
Domain:
  • Shares weak sequence similarity with ubiquitin family, but contains an ubiquitin superfold and the C-terminal Gly is required for isopeptide linkage.:
    • O94817
Family:
  • Belongs to the ATG12 family.:
    • O94817
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ATG12: view

No data available for Gene Families for ATG12 Gene

Function for ATG12 Gene

Molecular function for ATG12 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Ubiquitin-like protein involved in autophagy vesicles formation. Conjugation with ATG5 through a ubiquitin-like conjugating system involving also ATG7 as an E1-like activating enzyme and ATG10 as an E2-like conjugating enzyme, is essential for its function. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3-like enzyme which is required for lipidation of ATG8 family proteins and their association to the vesicle membranes. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate also regulates negatively the innate antiviral immune response by blocking the type I IFN production pathway through direct association with RARRES3 and MAVS. Plays also a role in translation or delivery of incoming viral RNA to the translation apparatus.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Expression is induced by mitochondrial DNA deletions, chloramphenicol and nicotinamide.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ATG12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11096062
GO:0019776 Atg8 ligase activity IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATG12: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ATG12: view

miRNA for ATG12 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ATG12

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for ATG12 Gene

Localization for ATG12 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATG12 Gene

Cytoplasm. Preautophagosomal structure membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Note=TECPR1 recruits the ATG12-ATG5 conjugate to the autolysosomal membrane.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for ATG12 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ATG12 gene
Compartment Confidence
vacuole 3
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ATG12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0016020 membrane --
GO:0034045 pre-autophagosomal structure membrane ISS --
GO:0034274 Atg12-Atg5-Atg16 complex IBA --
GO:0043234 protein complex --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATG12: view

Pathways for ATG12 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ATG12: view

Pathways by source for ATG12 Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for ATG12 Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for ATG12 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ATG12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000045 autophagic vacuole assembly ISS --
GO:0000422 mitochondrion degradation IBA --
GO:0006501 C-terminal protein lipidation IBA --
GO:0006914 autophagy --
GO:0006995 cellular response to nitrogen starvation IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATG12: view

Transcripts for ATG12 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ATG12 Gene

Autophagy related 12:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ATG12 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d · 8e · 8f · 8g · 8h
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - -
SP7:
SP8: - - - - - - - -
SP9:

Relevant External Links for ATG12 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ATG12
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ATG12

Expression for ATG12 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ATG12 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ATG12 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ATG12 Gene Hs.264482

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ATG12 Gene

O94817-ATG12_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with ATG12: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for ATG12 Gene

Orthologs for ATG12 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ATG12 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ATG12 35
  • 99.29 (n)
  • 98.55 (a)
ATG12 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ATG12 35
  • 88.57 (n)
  • 90 (a)
ATG12 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ATG12 35
  • 89.05 (n)
  • 92.86 (a)
ATG12 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Atg12 35
  • 85.48 (n)
  • 89.29 (a)
Atg12 16
Atg12 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ATG12 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Atg12 35
  • 82.86 (n)
  • 85.71 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ATG12 35
  • 71.22 (n)
  • 76.98 (a)
ATG12 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ATG12 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100493403 35
  • 69.31 (n)
  • 74.6 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.13941 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii atg12 35
  • 64.58 (n)
  • 71.43 (a)
atg12 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
ddah1 35
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012847 35
  • 60.61 (n)
  • 60.23 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Atg12 35
  • 54.52 (n)
  • 55.14 (a)
Atg12 36
  • 52 (a)
OneToOne
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea lgg-3 36
  • 32 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for ATG12:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ATG12 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ATG12 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ATG12 (if available)

Paralogs for ATG12 Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for ATG12 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ATG12: view

No data available for Paralogs for ATG12 Gene

Variants for ATG12 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ATG12 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs26532 -- 115,837,981(+) AATGC(A/C)TTTTA intron-variant
rs26533 -- 115,838,961(+) TACTA(A/C)AAATA intron-variant
rs40094 -- 115,829,829(-) cgggc(C/T)TGGAC utr-variant-3-prime, nc-transcript-variant
rs566561 -- 115,832,512(-) TATAT(G/T)GTGTA intron-variant
rs1058600 -- 115,831,016(-) CAGTA(A/G)CATCT utr-variant-3-prime, nc-transcript-variant

Relevant External Links for ATG12 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
ATG12
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
ATG12

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ATG12 Gene

Disorders for ATG12 Gene

Relevant External Links for ATG12

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
ATG12
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
ATG12
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ATG12: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATG12 Gene

Publications for ATG12 Gene

  1. Regulation of autophagy by the p300 acetyltransferase. (PMID: 19124466) Lee I.H. … Finkel T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 4 23
  2. Frameshift mutations of autophagy-related genes ATG2B, ATG5, ATG9B and ATG12 in gastric and colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability. (PMID: 19197948) Kang M.R. … Lee S.H. (J. Pathol. 2009) 3 23 48
  3. A new protein conjugation system in human. The counterpart of the yeast Apg12p conjugation system essential for autophagy. (PMID: 9852036) Mizushima N. … Ohsumi Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 2 3 4
  4. The human homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Apg7p is a Protein- activating enzyme for multiple substrates including human Apg12p, GATE-16, GABARAP, and MAP-LC3. (PMID: 11096062) Tanida I. … Kominami E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4
  5. Human Apg3p/Aut1p homologue is an authentic E2 enzyme for multiple substrates, GATE-16, GABARAP, and MAP-LC3, and facilitates the conjugation of hApg12p to hApg5p. (PMID: 11825910) Tanida I. … Kominami E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002) 3 4

Products for ATG12 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for ATG12

Sources for ATG12 Gene

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