Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for ATG12 Gene

Aliases for ATG12 Gene

  • Autophagy Related 12 2 3 5
  • APG12L 3 4
  • APG12 3 4
  • ATG12 Autophagy Related 12 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae) 2
  • Apg12 (Autophagy 12, S. Cerevisiae)-Like 2
  • APG12 Autophagy 12-Like (S. Cerevisiae) 2
  • ATG12 Autophagy Related 12 Homolog 3
  • Apg12 (Autophagy, Yeast) Homolog 3
  • Ubiquitin-Like Protein ATG12 3
  • Autophagy-Related Protein 12 4
  • APG12 Autophagy 12-Like 2
  • APG12-Like 4
  • HAPG12 3
  • FBR93 3

External Ids for ATG12 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ATG12 Gene

  • APG12L

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ATG12 Gene

  • GC05M115195
  • GC05M110344
  • GC05M115163

Summaries for ATG12 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ATG12 Gene

  • Autophagy is a process of bulk protein degradation in which cytoplasmic components, including organelles, are enclosed in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation. ATG12 is the human homolog of a yeast protein involved in autophagy (Mizushima et al., 1998 [PubMed 9852036]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ATG12 Gene

ATG12 (Autophagy Related 12) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Cellular Senescence and mTOR signalling. GO annotations related to this gene include Atg8 ligase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATG12 Gene

  • Ubiquitin-like protein involved in autophagy vesicles formation. Conjugation with ATG5 through a ubiquitin-like conjugating system involving also ATG7 as an E1-like activating enzyme and ATG10 as an E2-like conjugating enzyme, is essential for its function. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3-like enzyme which is required for lipidation of ATG8 family proteins and their association to the vesicle membranes. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate also regulates negatively the innate antiviral immune response by blocking the type I IFN production pathway through direct association with RARRES3 and MAVS. Plays also a role in translation or delivery of incoming viral RNA to the translation apparatus.

Gene Wiki entry for ATG12 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ATG12 Gene

Genomics for ATG12 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ATG12 Gene

Enhancers for ATG12 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association

Enhancers around ATG12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for ATG12 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around ATG12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for ATG12 Gene

Chromosome:
5
Start:
115,828,196 bp from pter
End:
115,841,858 bp from pter
Size:
13,663 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for ATG12 Gene

Genes around ATG12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ATG12 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ATG12 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ATG12 Gene

Proteins for ATG12 Gene

  • Protein details for ATG12 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O94817-ATG12_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Ubiquitin-like protein ATG12
    Protein Accession:
    O94817
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q6PJV2

    Protein attributes for ATG12 Gene

    Size:
    140 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    15113 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms a conjugate with ATG5. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate forms a complex with several units of ATG16L. Interacts with ATG3, ATG7 and ATG10. ATG12-ATG5 also interacts with MAVS, MGA, RARRES3 and TECPR1.
    Miscellaneous:
    • Small amount of ATG5-ATG12 conjugate is enough to perform normal autophagy.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAH12266.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ATG12 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ATG12 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for ATG12 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ATG12 Gene

Other Protein References for ATG12 Gene

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ATG12 Gene

Domains & Families for ATG12 Gene

Gene Families for ATG12 Gene

Protein Domains for ATG12 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ATG12 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O94817

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ATG12_HUMAN :
  • Shares weak sequence similarity with ubiquitin family, but contains an ubiquitin superfold and the C-terminal Gly is required for isopeptide linkage.
  • Belongs to the ATG12 family.
Domain:
  • Shares weak sequence similarity with ubiquitin family, but contains an ubiquitin superfold and the C-terminal Gly is required for isopeptide linkage.
Family:
  • Belongs to the ATG12 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ATG12: view

Function for ATG12 Gene

Molecular function for ATG12 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Ubiquitin-like protein involved in autophagy vesicles formation. Conjugation with ATG5 through a ubiquitin-like conjugating system involving also ATG7 as an E1-like activating enzyme and ATG10 as an E2-like conjugating enzyme, is essential for its function. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3-like enzyme which is required for lipidation of ATG8 family proteins and their association to the vesicle membranes. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate also regulates negatively the innate antiviral immune response by blocking the type I IFN production pathway through direct association with RARRES3 and MAVS. Plays also a role in translation or delivery of incoming viral RNA to the translation apparatus.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Expression is induced by mitochondrial DNA deletions, chloramphenicol and nicotinamide.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ATG12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 9852036
GO:0019776 Atg8 ligase activity IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATG12: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ATG12: view

Animal Models for ATG12 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ATG12:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ATG12

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ATG12 Gene

Localization for ATG12 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATG12 Gene

Cytoplasm. Preautophagosomal structure membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Note=TECPR1 recruits the ATG12-ATG5 conjugate to the autolysosomal membrane.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for ATG12 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ATG12 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 3
vacuole 3
endoplasmic reticulum 2
lysosome 2
nucleus 2
endosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ATG12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0030670 phagocytic vesicle membrane TAS --
GO:0034045 pre-autophagosomal structure membrane ISS --
GO:0034274 Atg12-Atg5-Atg16 complex IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATG12: view

Pathways & Interactions for ATG12 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ATG12: view

Pathways by source for ATG12 Gene

1 GeneTex pathway for ATG12 Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for ATG12 Gene
1 R&D Systems pathway for ATG12 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for ATG12 Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ATG12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000045 autophagosome assembly ISS --
GO:0000422 mitophagy IBA --
GO:0006501 C-terminal protein lipidation IBA --
GO:0006914 autophagy IEA --
GO:0016236 macroautophagy TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATG12: view

Drugs & Compounds for ATG12 Gene

(6) Drugs for ATG12 Gene - From: ApexBio

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Nimodipine Approved Pharma Potentiation, Activator 22
Omeprazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Activator H+,K+-ATPase inhibitor 331
Dexamethasone (DHAP) Pharma Glucocorticoidan;ti-inflammatory 0
Sulfacetamide Sodium Pharma Sulfonamide antibiotic 0
Trifluoperazine 2HCl Pharma 0

(6) ApexBio Compounds for ATG12 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Dexamethasone (DHAP) Glucocorticoidan;ti-inflammatory 1950-02-2
Divalproex Sodium Epilepsy/migraines/bipolar disorder medicine 76584-70-8
Nimodipine 66085-59-4
Omeprazole H+,K+-ATPase inhibitor 73590-58-6
Sulfacetamide Sodium Sulfonamide antibiotic 127-56-0
Trifluoperazine 2HCl 440-17-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ATG12: view

Transcripts for ATG12 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ATG12 Gene

Autophagy related 12:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ATG12

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ATG12 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d · 8e · 8f · 8g · 8h
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - -
SP7:
SP8: - - - - - - - -
SP9:

Relevant External Links for ATG12 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ATG12
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ATG12

Expression for ATG12 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ATG12 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ATG12 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (10.4), Spleen (9.8), and Uterus (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for ATG12 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for ATG12 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ATG12 Gene:

ATG12

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ATG12 Gene:

Hs.264482

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ATG12 Gene:

O94817-ATG12_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ATG12: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for ATG12 Gene

Orthologs for ATG12 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ATG12 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ATG12 34
  • 88.57 (n)
  • 90 (a)
ATG12 35
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ATG12 34
  • 89.05 (n)
  • 92.86 (a)
ATG12 35
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Atg12 34
  • 85.48 (n)
  • 89.29 (a)
Atg12 16
Atg12 35
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ATG12 34
  • 99.29 (n)
  • 98.55 (a)
ATG12 35
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Atg12 34
  • 82.86 (n)
  • 85.71 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ATG12 35
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ATG12 34
  • 71.22 (n)
  • 76.98 (a)
ATG12 35
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ATG12 35
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100493403 34
  • 69.31 (n)
  • 74.6 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii atg12 34
  • 64.58 (n)
  • 71.43 (a)
ddah1 34
atg12 35
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.13941 34
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012847 34
  • 60.61 (n)
  • 60.23 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Atg12 34
  • 54.52 (n)
  • 55.14 (a)
Atg12 35
  • 52 (a)
OneToOne
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea lgg-3 35
  • 32 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for ATG12 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ATG12 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ATG12 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ATG12 (if available)

Paralogs for ATG12 Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for ATG12 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ATG12: view

No data available for Paralogs for ATG12 Gene

Variants for ATG12 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ATG12 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1968365 -- 115,830,066(-) aatct(C/T)ggctc nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs10052079 -- 115,829,683(+) TAAAA(A/G)TAAAT nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs10054972 -- 115,839,672(+) AACAC(C/T)TACTC intron-variant
rs12108983 -- 115,839,005(+) gtaat(C/T)tcagc intron-variant
rs17477896 -- 115,829,322(+) TGTCA(C/T)GTAAT nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime

Variation tolerance for ATG12 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 62.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.54; 29.87% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ATG12 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
ATG12
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
ATG12

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ATG12 Gene

Disorders for ATG12 Gene

Relevant External Links for ATG12

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
ATG12
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
ATG12
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
ATG12

No disorders were found for ATG12 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ATG12 Gene

Publications for ATG12 Gene

  1. Regulation of autophagy by the p300 acetyltransferase. (PMID: 19124466) Lee I.H. … Finkel T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 4 22 65
  2. Frameshift mutations of autophagy-related genes ATG2B, ATG5, ATG9B and ATG12 in gastric and colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability. (PMID: 19197948) Kang M.R. … Lee S.H. (J. Pathol. 2009) 3 22 46 65
  3. A new protein conjugation system in human. The counterpart of the yeast Apg12p conjugation system essential for autophagy. (PMID: 9852036) Mizushima N. … Ohsumi Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 2 3 4 65
  4. Structure of the human ATG12-ATG5 conjugate required for LC3 lipidation in autophagy. (PMID: 23202584) Otomo C. … Otomo T. (Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2013) 3 4 65
  5. A mammalian autophagosome maturation mechanism mediated by TECPR1 and the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate. (PMID: 22342342) Chen D. … Zhong Q. (Mol. Cell 2012) 3 4 65

Products for ATG12 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for ATG12

Sources for ATG12 Gene

Content