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Aliases for ATF2 Gene

Aliases for ATF2 Gene

  • Activating Transcription Factor 2 2 3 4 5
  • Cyclic AMP-Responsive Element-Binding Protein 2 3 4
  • CAMP Response Element-Binding Protein CRE-BP1 3 4
  • CAMP-Dependent Transcription Factor ATF-2 3 4
  • Histone Acetyltransferase ATF2 3 4
  • CREB-2 3 4
  • CREB2 3 4
  • HB16 3 4
  • Activating Transcription Factor 2 Splice Variant ATF2-Var2 3
  • CAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 2, Formerly 3
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Transcription Factor ATF-2 3
  • CAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 2 2
  • CAMP-Responsive Element-Binding Protein 2 4
  • EC 2.3.1.48 4
  • CRE-BP1 3
  • CREBP1 4
  • TREB7 3

External Ids for ATF2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ATF2 Gene

  • CREB2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ATF2 Gene

  • GC02M173991
  • GC02M174600
  • GC02M175903
  • GC02M176141
  • GC02M175762
  • GC02M175645
  • GC02M167819
  • GC02M175937

Summaries for ATF2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ATF2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GeneCards Summary for ATF2 Gene

ATF2 (Activating Transcription Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ATF2 include Metaphyseal Chondrodysplasia, Murk Jansen Type and Malignant Melanoma, Somatic. Among its related pathways are Activated TLR4 signalling and Regulation of retinoblastoma protein. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleic acid binding and sequence-specific DNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is ATF7.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATF2 Gene

  • Transcriptional activator which regulates the transcription of various genes, including those involved in anti-apoptosis, cell growth, and DNA damage response. Dependent on its binding partner, binds to CRE (cAMP response element) consensus sequences (5-TGACGTCA-3) or to AP-1 (activator protein 1) consensus sequences (5-TGACTCA-3). In the nucleus, contributes to global transcription and the DNA damage response, in addition to specific transcriptional activities that are related to cell development, proliferation and death. In the cytoplasm, interacts with and perturbs HK1- and VDAC1-containing complexes at the mitochondrial outer membrane, thereby impairing mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing mitochondrial leakage and promoting cell death. The phosphorylated form (mediated by ATM) plays a role in the DNA damage response and is involved in the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced S phase checkpoint control and in the recruitment of the MRN complex into the IR-induced foci (IRIF). Exhibits histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity which specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro. In concert with CUL3 and RBX1, promotes the degradation of KAT5 thereby attenuating its ability to acetylate and activate ATM. Can elicit oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities depending on the tissue or cell type.

Gene Wiki entry for ATF2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ATF2 Gene

Genomics for ATF2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ATF2 Gene

Enhancers for ATF2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH02F175096 0.5 ENCODE 10.5 +70.9 70861 1.3 RFX1 FOS NFE2L2 ATP5G3 ATF2 ENSG00000229750 MIR933 ENSG00000277948 GC02P175143
GH02F175061 0.4 ENCODE 10.3 +105.4 105441 2.1 ATF1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF48 SLC30A9 SP5 NFYC ZHX2 ATP5G3 CHRNA1 CHN1 ENSG00000229750 MIR933 ATF2 GC02M175073 RPL21P31
GH02F175057 0.5 ENCODE 10 +111.1 111095 0.2 SSRP1 ATF3 TCF7 TCF7L2 CHN1 RNU6-763P ATF2 ENSG00000229750 MIR933 GC02M175073 RPL21P31
GH02F175036 0.8 Ensembl 9.9 +131.9 131881 1.0 DMAP1 RAD21 RARA MIXL1 THAP11 ZNF654 PPARG NR2F2 KAT8 CREB3 CHN1 ATF2 ENSG00000229750 MIR933 WIPF1 RPL21P31 GC02M175073
GH02F175560 0.3 FANTOM5 1.5 -392.4 -392403 0.2 ATF2 GC02P175563 GC02P175553
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around ATF2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for ATF2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000602858 682 3800 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 WRNIP1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2

Genomic Location for ATF2 Gene

Chromosome:
2
Start:
175,072,250 bp from pter
End:
175,168,382 bp from pter
Size:
96,133 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for ATF2 Gene

Genes around ATF2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ATF2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ATF2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ATF2 Gene

Proteins for ATF2 Gene

  • Protein details for ATF2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P15336-ATF2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
    Protein Accession:
    P15336
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A1L3Z2
    • A4D7U4
    • A4D7U5
    • A4D7V1
    • D3DPE9
    • G8JLM5
    • Q13000
    • Q3B7B7
    • Q4ZFU9
    • Q53RY2
    • Q8TAR1
    • Q96JT8

    Protein attributes for ATF2 Gene

    Size:
    505 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    54537 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Binds DNA as a dimer and can form a homodimer in the absence of DNA. Can form a heterodimer with JUN. Heterodimerization is essential for its transcriptional activity. Interacts with SMAD3 and SMAD4. Binds through its N-terminal region to UTF1 which acts as a coactivator of ATF2 transcriptional activity. Interacts with the HK1/VDAC1 complex. Interacts with NBN, MRE11A, XPO1, KAT5 and CUL3.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAY17203.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAY17207.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ATF2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ATF2 Gene

neXtProt entry for ATF2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ATF2 Gene

  • Phosphorylation of Thr-69 by MAPK14 and MAPK11, and at Thr-71 by MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1, MAPK11, MAPK12 and MAPK14 in response to external stimulus like insulin causes increased transcriptional activity. Phosphorylated by PLK3 following hyperosmotic stress. Also phosphorylated and activated by JNK and CaMK4. ATM-mediated phosphorylation at Ser-490 and Ser-498 stimulates its function in DNA damage response. Phosphorylation at Ser-62, Thr-73 and Ser-121 activates its transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation at Thr-69 or Thr-71 enhances its histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ATF2 Gene

Domains & Families for ATF2 Gene

Gene Families for ATF2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P15336

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ATF2_HUMAN :
  • The nuclear export signal 1 (N-NES) negatively regulates its nuclear localization and transcriptional activity.
  • Belongs to the bZIP family. ATF subfamily.
  • Contains 1 C2H2-type zinc finger.
Domain:
  • The nuclear export signal 1 (N-NES) negatively regulates its nuclear localization and transcriptional activity.
  • Contains 1 bZIP (basic-leucine zipper) domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the bZIP family. ATF subfamily.
Similarity:
  • Contains 1 C2H2-type zinc finger.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ATF2: view

Function for ATF2 Gene

Molecular function for ATF2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
activating transcription factor 2,cAMP response element binding protein
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] = CoA + acetyl-[histone].
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Transcriptional activator which regulates the transcription of various genes, including those involved in anti-apoptosis, cell growth, and DNA damage response. Dependent on its binding partner, binds to CRE (cAMP response element) consensus sequences (5-TGACGTCA-3) or to AP-1 (activator protein 1) consensus sequences (5-TGACTCA-3). In the nucleus, contributes to global transcription and the DNA damage response, in addition to specific transcriptional activities that are related to cell development, proliferation and death. In the cytoplasm, interacts with and perturbs HK1- and VDAC1-containing complexes at the mitochondrial outer membrane, thereby impairing mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing mitochondrial leakage and promoting cell death. The phosphorylated form (mediated by ATM) plays a role in the DNA damage response and is involved in the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced S phase checkpoint control and in the recruitment of the MRN complex into the IR-induced foci (IRIF). Exhibits histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity which specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro. In concert with CUL3 and RBX1, promotes the degradation of KAT5 thereby attenuating its ability to acetylate and activate ATM. Can elicit oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities depending on the tissue or cell type.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ATF2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ATF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000977 RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IMP 2516827
GO:0000980 RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding IDA 19861239
GO:0001076 transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding IC 19861239
GO:0001077 transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding IEA --
GO:0001102 RNA polymerase II activating transcription factor binding IPI 19861239
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATF2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ATF2: view

Animal Models for ATF2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ATF2:

Animal Model Products

Transcription Factor Targets for ATF2 Gene

Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for ATF2
Targeted motifs for ATF2 Gene
HOMER Transcription Factor Regulatory Elements motif ATF2
  • Consensus sequence: NRRTGACGTCAT Submotif: canonical Cell Type: 3T3L1 GEO ID: GSE56872

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology for ATF2 Gene

Localization for ATF2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATF2 Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion outer membrane. Note=Shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and heterodimerization with JUN is essential for the nuclear localization. Localization to the cytoplasm is observed under conditions of cellular stress and in disease states. Localizes at the mitochondrial outer membrane in response to genotoxic stress. Phosphorylation at Thr-52 is required for its nuclear localization and negatively regulates its mitochondrial localization. Co-localizes with the MRN complex in the IR-induced foci (IRIF).

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for ATF2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ATF2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ATF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 8798441
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA,TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 22304920
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005741 mitochondrial outer membrane IEA,IDA 22304920
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATF2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ATF2 Gene

SuperPathways for ATF2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ATF2: view

Pathways by source for ATF2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for ATF2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ATF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA --
GO:0003151 outflow tract morphogenesis IEA --
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA,IMP 22304920
GO:0006357 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA,IC 19861239
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATF2: view

Drugs & Compounds for ATF2 Gene

(30) Drugs for ATF2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Pseudoephedrine Approved Pharma Target 606
cyclic amp Experimental Pharma 0

(14) Additional Compounds for ATF2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ATF2: view

Transcripts for ATF2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ATF2 Gene

Activating transcription factor 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ATF2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - -
SP12: - - - - - - -
SP13: - - - - - - -
SP14: - - - - - - - -
SP15: -
SP16: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP17: -

Relevant External Links for ATF2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ATF2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ATF2

Expression for ATF2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ATF2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ATF2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (55.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for ATF2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for ATF2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ATF2 Gene:

ATF2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ATF2 Gene:

Hs.592510

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ATF2 Gene:

P15336-ATF2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed, with more abundant expression in the brain.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ATF2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for ATF2 Gene

Orthologs for ATF2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for ATF2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CHN1 35
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
ATF2 34
  • 99.76 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ATF2 34 35
  • 96.37 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ATF2 35
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ATF2 34 35
  • 95.84 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ATF2 35
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Atf2 34 16 35
  • 94.39 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Atf2 34
  • 93.57 (n)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ATF2 34 35
  • 85.37 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ATF2 35
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia atf2 34
  • 80.46 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia atf2-A 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii atf2 34 35
  • 68.79 (n)
Species where no ortholog for ATF2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ATF2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ATF2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ATF2 (if available)

Paralogs for ATF2 Gene

Paralogs for ATF2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ATF2: view

Variants for ATF2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ATF2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_035999 A breast cancer sample
rs138225471 Uncertain significance 175,093,233(+) TTGTA(C/T)TTTGG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs10082889 -- 175,083,929(-) ggttt(G/T)gattt intron-variant
rs10165645 -- 175,085,553(+) TAACA(C/T)ACACA intron-variant
rs10168360 -- 175,128,662(+) cacag(A/G)aagca intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ATF2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3390245 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3575313 CNV gain 25503493
nsv1012709 CNV gain 25217958
nsv3044 CNV deletion 18451855

Variation tolerance for ATF2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 21% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.74; 15.60% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ATF2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
ATF2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATF2 Gene

Disorders for ATF2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for ATF2 Gene - From: DISEASES and Novoseek

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, murk jansen type
  • metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, jansen type
malignant melanoma, somatic
  • melanoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ATF2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for ATF2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
ATF2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
ATF2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
ATF2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ATF2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ATF2 Gene

Publications for ATF2 Gene

  1. Phosphorylation of Activation Transcription Factor-2 at Serine 121 by Protein Kinase C Controls c-Jun-mediated Activation of Transcription. (PMID: 19176525) Yamasaki T. … Yokoyama K.K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 4 22 64
  2. ATF2: a transcription factor that elicits oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities. (PMID: 18677098) Bhoumik A. … Ronai Z. (Cell Cycle 2008) 3 4 22 64
  3. Regulation of TIP60 by ATF2 modulates ATM activation. (PMID: 18397884) Bhoumik A. … Ronai Z.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2008) 3 4 22 64
  4. ATM-dependent phosphorylation of ATF2 is required for the DNA damage response. (PMID: 15916964) Bhoumik A. … Ronai Z. (Mol. Cell 2005) 3 4 22 64
  5. Human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) activates the ATF2 transcriptional activity by novel phosphorylation on Thr-73 and Ser-62 and cooperates with JNK. (PMID: 15105425) Sevilla A. … Lazo P.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 22 64

Products for ATF2 Gene

Sources for ATF2 Gene

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