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ATF2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 70
GCID: GC02M175937

Activating Transcription Factor 2

(Previous name: cAMP responsive element binding protein 2)
(Previous symbol: CREB2)
  See ATF2-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Activating Transcription Factor 21 2 3     CAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 21
CREB21 2 3 5     CRE-BP12
Cyclic AMP-Responsive Element-Binding Protein 22 3     TREB72
Histone Acetyltransferase ATF22 3     Activating Transcription Factor 2 Splice Variant ATF2-Var22
CREB-22 3     CAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 2, Formerly2
HB162 3     Cyclic AMP-Dependent Transcription Factor ATF-22
CAMP Response Element-Binding Protein CRE-BP12 3     CREBP13
CAMP-Dependent Transcription Factor ATF-22 3     EC 2.3.1.483
CAMP-Responsive Element-Binding Protein 22 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 7841   Entrez Gene: 13862   Ensembl: ENSG000001159667   OMIM: 1238115   UniProtKB: P153363   

Export aliases for ATF2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02M173991 GC02M174600 GC02M175903 GC02M176141 GC02M175762 GC02M175645 GC02M167819


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for ATF2 Gene:
This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins.
The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically
distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a
homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone
acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class
of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded
protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation.
Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene (provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014)

GeneCards Summary for ATF2 Gene:
ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with ATF2 include eccrine porocarcinoma. GO annotations related to this gene include chromatin binding and sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000267281.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ATF2_HUMAN, P15336
Function: Transcriptional activator which regulates the transcription of various genes, including those involved
in anti-apoptosis, cell growth, and DNA damage response. Dependent on its binding partner, binds to CRE (cAMP
response element) consensus sequences (5'-TGACGTCA-3') or to AP-1 (activator protein 1) consensus sequences
(5'-TGACTCA-3'). In the nucleus, contributes to global transcription and the DNA damage response, in addition to
specific transcriptional activities that are related to cell development, proliferation and death. In the
cytoplasm, interacts with and perturbs HK1- and VDAC1-containing complexes at the mitochondrial outer membrane,
thereby impairing mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing mitochondrial leakage and promoting cell death. The
phosphorylated form (mediated by ATM) plays a role in the DNA damage response and is involved in the ionizing
radiation (IR)-induced S phase checkpoint control and in the recruitment of the MRN complex into the IR-induced
foci (IRIF). Exhibits histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity which specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4
in vitro. In concert with CUL3 and RBX1, promotes the degradation of KAT5 thereby attenuating its ability to
acetylate and activate ATM. Can elicit oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities depending on the tissue or cell
type

Gene Wiki entry for ATF2 (Activating transcription factor 2) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000002.11  NC_018913.2  NT_005403.18  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the ATF2 gene promoter:
         AREB6   FAC1   HOXA5   p300   ATF-2   ATF   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidATF2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for ATF2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat ATF2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2q32   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2q31.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2q32

ATF2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
ATF2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02M175937:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
175,936,978 bp from pter      End:
176,033,110 bp from pter
Size:
96,133 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ATF2_HUMAN, P15336 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2  
Size: 505 amino acids; 54537 Da
Subunit: Binds DNA as a dimer and can form a homodimer in the absence of DNA. Can form a heterodimer with JUN.
Heterodimerization is essential for its transcriptional activity. Interacts with SMAD3 and SMAD4. Binds through
its N-terminal region to UTF1 which acts as a coactivator of ATF2 transcriptional activity. Interacts with the
HK1/VDAC1 complex. Interacts with NBN, MRE11A, XPO1, KAT5 and CUL3
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAY17203.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended;
Sequence=AAY17207.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended;
3 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for ATF2:
1BHI (3D)        1T2K (3D)        4H36 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A1L3Z2 A4D7U4 A4D7U5 A4D7V1 D3DPE9 G8JLM5 Q13000 Q3B7B7 Q4ZFU9 Q53RY2
Q8TAR1 Q96JT8
Alternative splicing: 8 isoforms:  P15336-1   P15336-2   P15336-3   P15336-4   P15336-5   P15336-6   P15336-7   P15336-8   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for ATF2: NX_P15336

Explore proteomics data for ATF2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Phosphorylation of Thr-69 by MAPK14 and MAPK11, and at Thr-71 by MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1, MAPK11, MAPK12 and MAPK14
    in response to external stimulus like insulin causes increased transcriptional activity. Phosphorylated by PLK3
    following hyperosmotic stress. Also phosphorylated and activated by JNK and CaMK4. ATM-mediated phosphorylation
    at Ser-490 and Ser-498 stimulates its function in DNA damage response. Phosphorylation at Ser-62, Thr-73 and
    Ser-121 activates its transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation at Thr-69 or Thr-71 enhances its histone
    acetyltransferase (HAT) activity1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys409
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See ATF2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001243019.1  NP_001243020.1  NP_001243021.1  NP_001243022.1  NP_001243023.1  NP_001871.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000264110   ENSP00000340576   ENSP00000386326   ENSP00000387093   ENSP00000406995  
     ENSP00000412293   ENSP00000376327   ENSP00000389504   ENSP00000402190   ENSP00000410224  
     ENSP00000402229   ENSP00000410086   ENSP00000386282   ENSP00000414171   ENSP00000416854  
     ENSP00000386526   ENSP00000407911   ENSP00000376326   ENSP00000437952   ENSP00000443513  
    Reactome Protein details: P15336

    ATF2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant ATF2 Protein
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    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
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    Browse OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysates
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    OriGene Custom Protein Services for ATF2
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for ATF2
    Novus Biologicals ATF2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals ATF2 Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for ATF2
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for ATF2
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for ATF2

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for ATF2 

    ATF2 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of ATF2
    R&D Systems Antibodies for ATF2
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for ATF2  (ATF-2)
    OriGene Antibodies for ATF2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for ATF2
    Novus Biologicals ATF2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for ATF2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for ATF2
    ThermoFisher Antibody for ATF2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for ATF2

    ATF2 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for ATF2
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for ATF2
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for ATF2 (ATF-2)
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for ATF2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for ATF2
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for ATF2 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    bZIP: basic leucine zipper proteins

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR004827 bZIP
     IPR015880 Znf_C2H2-like
     IPR016378 TF_cAMP-dep
     IPR013087 Znf_C2H2/integrase_DNA-bd
     IPR007087 Znf_C2H2

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P15336

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P15336

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB011616 bZIP transcription factor

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ATF2_HUMAN, P15336
    Domain: The nuclear export signal 1 (N-NES) negatively regulates its nuclear localization and transcriptional
    activity
    Similarity: Belongs to the bZIP family. ATF subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 bZIP (basic-leucine zipper) domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 C2H2-type zinc finger


    Find genes that share domains with ATF2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ATF2_HUMAN, P15336
    Function: Transcriptional activator which regulates the transcription of various genes, including those involved
    in anti-apoptosis, cell growth, and DNA damage response. Dependent on its binding partner, binds to CRE (cAMP
    response element) consensus sequences (5'-TGACGTCA-3') or to AP-1 (activator protein 1) consensus sequences
    (5'-TGACTCA-3'). In the nucleus, contributes to global transcription and the DNA damage response, in addition to
    specific transcriptional activities that are related to cell development, proliferation and death. In the
    cytoplasm, interacts with and perturbs HK1- and VDAC1-containing complexes at the mitochondrial outer membrane,
    thereby impairing mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing mitochondrial leakage and promoting cell death. The
    phosphorylated form (mediated by ATM) plays a role in the DNA damage response and is involved in the ionizing
    radiation (IR)-induced S phase checkpoint control and in the recruitment of the MRN complex into the IR-induced
    foci (IRIF). Exhibits histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity which specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4
    in vitro. In concert with CUL3 and RBX1, promotes the degradation of KAT5 thereby attenuating its ability to
    acetylate and activate ATM. Can elicit oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities depending on the tissue or cell
    type
    Catalytic activity: Acetyl-CoA + [histone] = CoA + acetyl-[histone]

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for ATF2:
    activating transcription factor 2,cAMP response element binding protein

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2.3.1.481

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 18):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000980RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding IDA19861239
    GO:0001076RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding transcription factor activity IC19861239
    GO:0001077RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription IEA--
    GO:0001102RNA polymerase II activating transcription factor binding IPI19861239
    GO:0003676nucleic acid binding ----
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with ATF2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for ATF2:
     Decreased homologous recombina 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 5 alleles(MGI details for Atf2) (see all 20):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  embryogenesis 
     growth/size/body  hearing/vestibular/ear  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system 
     integument  limbs/digits/tail  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  nervous system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with ATF2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for ATF2: Atf2tm1Nicj Atf2tm1Sis Atf2tm1Glm

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for ATF2
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for ATF2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for ATF2
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for ATF2

    Transcription Factor Targeting: 
    Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for ATF2 (see all 190):
    AARS,  ACOX1,  ACTL7A,  ACTL7B,  ACTN2,  ADAMTS10,  ADORA2B,  AFG3L2,  AGPAT3,  ANKS6

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target ATF2:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT019034), hsa-mir-21-5p (MIRT031029), hsa-mir-15a-5p (MIRT051336), hsa-mir-19b-3p (MIRT031297), hsa-mir-374b-5p (MIRT016080)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat ATF2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate ATF2 (see all 12):
    hsa-miR-623 hsa-miR-374b hsa-miR-548e hsa-miR-374a hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-211 hsa-miR-548a-3p hsa-miR-369-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidATF2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for ATF2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat ATF2

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for ATF2

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for ATF2 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for ATF2
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: ATF2 (NM_001880)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for ATF2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for ATF2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ATF2

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for ATF2 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ATF2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ATF2_HUMAN, P15336: Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion outer membrane. Note=Shuttles between the cytoplasm and
    the nucleus and heterodimerization with JUN is essential for the nuclear localization. Localization to the
    cytoplasm is observed under conditions of cellular stress and in disease states. Localizes at the mitochondrial
    outer membrane in response to genotoxic stress. Phosphorylation at Thr-52 is required for its nuclear
    localization and negatively regulates its mitochondrial localization. Co-localizes with the MRN complex in the
    IR-induced foci (IRIF)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    extracellular1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--
    GO:0005741mitochondrial outer membrane IDA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with ATF2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for ATF2 About   (see all 80)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways
    NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways0.58
    Mucin expression in CF via TLRs, EGFR signaling pathways0.42
    Inflammasome Activation Pathways0.51
    Immune response IL 1 signaling pathway0.42
    IL-1 Family Signaling Pathways0.44
    Pathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Receptor Signaling Pathways0.31
    2RNA Polymerase I Promoter Opening
    HATs acetylate histones0.34
    Chromatin organization0.34
    Chromatin modifying enzymes0.34
    Alcoholism0.34
    3MAPK targets/ Nuclear events mediated by MAP kinases
    MAPK targets/ Nuclear events mediated by MAP kinases0.80
    MAP Kinase Signaling0.31
    MAP kinase activation in TLR cascade0.61
    4G protein signaling Ras family GTPases in kinase cascades scheme
    G protein signaling Ras family GTPases in kinase cascades scheme 0.44
    Activation of the AP-1 family of transcription factors0.00
    Immune response Oncostatin M signaling via MAPK in human cells0.39
    5MAPK signaling pathway
    MAPK signaling pathway0.50
    MAPK signaling pathway0.50


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with ATF2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected R&D Systems Pathways for ATF2 (see all 6)
        NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways
    Inflammasome Activation Pathways
    IL-1 Family Signaling Pathways
    Pathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Receptor Signaling Pathways
    VEGF - VEGF R2 Signaling Pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for ATF2 (see all 34)
        Toll-Like Receptors Pathway
    Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C
    JNK Pathway
    PI3K Signaling in B-Lymphocyte
    BMP Pathway

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for ATF2
        MAP Kinase Signaling

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for ATF2 (see all 21)
        Development A2A receptor signaling
    G-protein signaling Regulation of p38 and JNK signaling mediated by G-proteins
    Immune response CD16 signaling in NK cells
    Immune response IL-12-induced IFN-gamma production
    Mucin expression in CF via IL-6, IL-17 signaling pathways

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for ATF2 (see all 20)
        Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways
    MAPK signaling pathway
    p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway
    AGE/RAGE pathway
    TGF-beta Receptor Signaling Pathway

    3 Sino Biological Pathways for ATF2
        TNF Signaling
    Non-Canonical Wnt Pathway
    TGF-beta Signaling Pathway

    4 Reactome Pathways for ATF2
        HATs acetylate histones
    Circadian Clock
    Transcriptional activation of mitochondrial biogenesis
    Activation of the AP-1 family of transcription factors

    1 PharmGKB Pathway for ATF2
        Tacrolimus/Cyclosporine Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for ATF2) (see all 16):
        MAPK signaling pathway
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes
    TNF signaling pathway
    Dopaminergic synapse

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including ATF2 (see all 6): 
              Epigenetic Chromatin Modification Enzymes in human mouse rat
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat
              NFKB Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              EGF / PDGF Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Transcription Factors in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for ATF2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for ATF2 (P153361, 2, 3 ENSP000002641104) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 280)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    JUNP054121, 2, 3, ENSP000003602664EBI-1170906,EBI-852823 MINT-6699748 MINT-6628041 I2D: score=6 STRING: ENSP00000360266
    HDAC4P565241, 2, 3, ENSP000002646064EBI-1170906,EBI-308629 MINT-7555712 MINT-7555703 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000264606
    CITED1Q999661, 2, 3, ENSP000003885484EBI-1170906,EBI-2624951 MINT-6628046 MINT-6628051 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000388548
    FOSP011001, 3, ENSP000003062454EBI-1170906,EBI-852851 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000306245
    MAPK11Q157592, 3, ENSP000003336854MINT-4789511 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000333685
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 30):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002224toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0002755MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0002756MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0003151outflow tract morphogenesis IEA--
    GO:0006325chromatin organization TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with ATF2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for ATF2

    1 HMDB Compound for ATF2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Cyclic AMPCyclic AMP (see all 19)60-92-4--

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ATF2 gene (see all 43)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    sb 203580 79.6 14 18028805 (2), 10082133 (1), 12093796 (1), 10201899 (1) (see all 9)
    sp 600125 76.3 7 12663670 (1), 15466475 (1), 19517066 (1), 12898508 (1) (see all 7)
    leucine 63.5 49 8479741 (5), 8440710 (3), 1836214 (2), 2320002 (2) (see all 20)
    cyclic amp 59.9 36 1453687 (4), 20178980 (2), 10871653 (2), 8816436 (1) (see all 17)
    anisomycin 57.1 2 8805335 (2)
    pd 98,059 50.7 2 12663670 (1), 16050133 (1)
    12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate 37.5 12 19176525 (3), 8020141 (1), 8440710 (1), 12592382 (1) (see all 6)
    threonine 36 6 19176525 (1), 11533064 (1), 17397142 (1), 11163354 (1) (see all 6)
    pge2 28.8 3 15640148 (1), 11564156 (1)
    forskolin 20.4 1 14519095 (1)



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    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for ATF2 gene (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001256090.1  NM_001256091.1  NM_001256092.1  NM_001256093.1  NM_001256094.1  NM_001880.3  

    Unigene Cluster for ATF2:

    Activating transcription factor 2
    Hs.592510  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NR_045769
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 23):
    ENST00000264110(uc002ujl.3 uc002ujv.3 uc002ujp.3 uc002ujq.3 uc010fqu.3 uc002ujr.3 uc002ujt.3)
    ENST00000345739(uc002ujm.3) ENST00000409437 ENST00000409635 ENST00000435004
    ENST00000428760 ENST00000392544 ENST00000417080(uc002ujw.1 uc002ujx.1)
    ENST00000456655 ENST00000421438 ENST00000429579 ENST00000415955 ENST00000409499
    ENST00000478905 ENST00000435231 ENST00000437522 ENST00000409833(uc002ujy.1)
    ENST00000413123
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate ATF2 (see all 12):
    hsa-miR-623 hsa-miR-374b hsa-miR-548e hsa-miR-374a hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-211 hsa-miR-548a-3p hsa-miR-369-3p
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat ATF2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF283776.2 AK128731.1 AL050192.1 AY029364.1 BC026175.1 BC107698.1 BC130335.1 BC130337.1 
    BX648469.1 DQ003036.1 DQ003037.1 DQ003038.1 DQ003039.1 DQ003040.1 DQ003041.1 DQ003042.1 
    DQ003043.1 DQ003044.1 DQ003045.1 DQ003046.1 DQ003047.1 DQ003048.1 DQ003049.1 M31630.1 
    NR_045768.1 NR_045769.1 NR_045770.1 NR_045771.1 NR_045772.1 NR_045773.1 NR_045774.1 X15875.1 

    22 DOTS entries:

    DT.120968633  DT.100783893  DT.95106445  DT.100783898  DT.100716537  DT.40295835  DT.120968676  DT.120968505 
    DT.120968595  DT.313621  DT.120968464  DT.120968580  DT.95132221  DT.92040518  DT.92381070  DT.120968564 
    DT.120968630  DT.95113271  DT.120968507  DT.120968548  DT.120968730  DT.95233368 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 167):

    CK821770 BX107614 AK128731 AW591709 AI078416 BQ102265 NM_001880 BM786714 
    AI270373 BM312012 BF477683 AA151848 BQ029188 BQ020046 AI191455 AA703894 
    BE786164 AI620747 BM725921 AI824548 AA417022 M31630 AW576316 BQ086150 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ATF2 (see all 17)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b
    SP1:                                                              -                                               -                     
    SP2:                                                              -                                               -           -         
    SP3:                                                              -     -                                         -           -         
    SP4:                                                              -                                   -           -     -     -         
    SP5:                                -     -                       -                                               -     -     -         


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for ATF2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    ATF2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AGTAAACCAT
    ATF2 Expression
    About this image


    ATF2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Chondrocytes Synchondroses
             Bone Marrow
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Chondrocytes Synchondroses
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Ovarian Mesenchymal Stroma Cells Ovary Interstitium
             Oviduct
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
    ATF2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    ATF2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.592510

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ATF2_HUMAN, P15336
    Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed, with more abundant expression in the brain

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including ATF2 (see all 6): 
              Epigenetic Chromatin Modification Enzymes in human mouse rat
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat
              NFKB Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              EGF / PDGF Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Transcription Factors in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for ATF2 gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Atf21 , 5 activating transcription factor 21, 5 94.39(n)1
    99.18(a)1
      2 (43.86 cM)5
    119091  NM_001025093.21  NP_001020264.11 
     738165095 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves ATF21 activating transcription factor 2 85.37(n)
    94.73(a)
      395727  NM_204904.1  NP_990235.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia ATF26
    activating transcription factor 2
    93(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343377.1(380814-444337)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia atf2-A2 activating transcription factor 2 94.47(n)    U16158.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii atf21 activating transcription factor 2 68.79(n)
    76.97(a)
      100006516  XM_001345201.5  XP_001345237.4 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for ATF2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for ATF2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for ATF2 gene
    ENSG000002672812  ATF72  CREB52  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for ATF2 using alignment to 12 protein entries:     ATF2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    CREB5    ATF7

    Find genes that share paralogs with ATF2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for ATF2 (see all 1914)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0359994
    A breast cancer sample4--see VAR_0359992 D H mis40--------
    rs1480295441,2
    --175936501(+) CTTGAC/TGGACT 12 -- ds50010--------
    rs1408101801,2
    --175936943(+) TGATGC/TTACTT 12 -- ds50010--------
    rs1501455691,2
    --175937191(+) TTACAA/GTGAAA 12 -- ut31 nc-transcript-variant0--------
    rs1384232131,2
    --175937255(+) TGTAGC/TTTTAT 12 -- ut31 nc-transcript-variant0--------
    rs1416851111,2
    --175937394(+) AAAAAC/TAGCCT 12 -- ut31 nc-transcript-variant0--------
    rs1162220571,2
    C,F--175937495(+) AATGAA/TATTAG 12 -- ut31 nc-transcript-variant1Minor allele frequency- T:0.19WA 118
    rs1860840261,2
    --175937517(+) AAATTA/TAAAAA 12 -- ut31 nc-transcript-variant0--------
    rs1452413361,2
    --175937618(+) ATAATC/TTGAAT 12 -- ut31 nc-transcript-variant0--------
    rs355072771,2
    C--175937662(+) TTTCCG/TTGAAT 12 -- ut31 nc-transcript-variant1Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for ATF2 (175936978 - 176033110 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for ATF2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv3044CNV Loss18451855

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing ATF2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for ATF2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 123811    OMIM disorders: --

    1 disease for ATF2:    
    About MalaCards
    eccrine porocarcinoma


    Find genes that share disorders with ATF2           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ATF2 gene (see all 22)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    leukemia t-cell 46.3 3 8610463 (1), 8407959 (1), 11478948 (1)
    picks disease 42.6 1 16496165 (1)
    necrosis 32.2 7 10318823 (2), 11234888 (1), 17804813 (1), 10521481 (1) (see all 6)
    melanoma 31 37 14678960 (5), 10318823 (5), 11234888 (3), 9484842 (3) (see all 11)
    tumors 26.9 39 18677098 (5), 11836564 (3), 11234888 (2), 10318823 (2) (see all 15)
    retinoblastoma 15.9 4 11566021 (2), 7786026 (2)
    adpkd 5.08 1 16049073 (1)
    polycystic kidney diseases 1.98 1 16049073 (1)
    glioma 1.16 3 15488325 (2)
    insulinoma 0 1 8617262 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): ATF2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: ATF2 (25 documents)

    Export disorders for ATF2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for ATF2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 531):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with ATF2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. ATF2: a transcription factor that elicits oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities. (PubMed id 18677098)1, 2, 9 Bhoumik A. and Ronai Z. (Cell Cycle 2008)
    2. Human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) activates the ATF2 transcriptional activity by novel phosphorylation on Thr-73 and Ser-62 and cooperates with JNK. (PubMed id 15105425)1, 2, 9 Sevilla A....Lazo P.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    3. ATM-dependent phosphorylation of ATF2 is required for the DNA damage response. (PubMed id 15916964)1, 2, 9 Bhoumik A....Ronai Z. (Mol. Cell 2005)
    4. Characterization and functional analysis of cAMP response element modulator protein and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) isoforms in the human myometrium during pregnancy and labor: identification of a novel ATF2 species with potent transactivation properties. (PubMed id 11932306)1, 2, 9 Bailey J....Europe-Finner G.N. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2002)
    5. Regulation of TIP60 by ATF2 modulates ATM activation. (PubMed id 18397884)1, 2, 9 Bhoumik A....Ronai Z.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2008)
    6. A cDNA for a human cyclic AMP response element-binding protein which is distinct from CREB and expressed preferentially in brain. (PubMed id 2320002)1, 2, 9 Kara C.J.... Glimcher L.H. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1990)
    7. Phosphorylation of Activation Transcription Factor-2 at Serine 121 by Protein Kinase C Controls c-Jun-mediated Activation of Transcription. (PubMed id 19176525)1, 2, 9 Yamasaki T....Yokoyama K.K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)
    8. ATF-2 has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity which is modulated by phosphorylation. (PubMed id 10821277)1, 2, 9 Kawasaki H....Yokoyama K.K. (Nature 2000)
    9. Characterization of functional domains of an embryonic stem cell coactivator UTF1 which are conserved and essential for potentiation of ATF-2 activity. (PubMed id 9748258)1, 2, 9 Fukushima A....Muramatsu M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998)
    10. Assignment of the gene for cyclic AMP-response element binding protein 2 (CREB2) to human chromosome 2q24.1-q32. (PubMed id 1838349)1, 3, 9 Diep A....Lusis A.J. (Genomics 1991)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 1386 HGNC: 784 AceView: ATF2 Ensembl:ENSG00000115966 euGenes: HUgn1386
    ECgene: ATF2 Kegg: 1386 H-InvDB: ATF2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for ATF2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for ATF2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for ATF2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving ATF2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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