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Aliases for ARHGEF2 Gene

Aliases for ARHGEF2 Gene

  • Rho/Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) 2 2 3
  • Proliferating Cell Nucleolar Antigen P40 3 4
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor H1 3 4
  • Microtubule-Regulated Rho-GEF 3 4
  • KIAA0651 4 6
  • GEF-H1 3 4
  • GEFH1 3 6
  • LFP40 3 4
  • Rho/Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 2 3
  • Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 2 3
  • GEF 3
  • P40 3

External Ids for ARHGEF2 Gene

Summaries for ARHGEF2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ARHGEF2 Gene

  • Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein may form complex with G proteins and stimulate rho-dependent signals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

GeneCards Summary for ARHGEF2 Gene

ARHGEF2 (Rho/Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by FGFR and RhoGDI Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include phospholipid binding and microtubule binding. An important paralog of this gene is ARHGEF11.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ARHGEF2 Gene

  • Activates Rho-GTPases by promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP. May be involved in epithelial barrier permeability, cell motility and polarization, dendritic spine morphology, antigen presentation, leukemic cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, innate immune response, and cancer. Binds Rac-GTPases, but does not seem to promote nucleotide exchange activity toward Rac-GTPases, which was uniquely reported in PubMed:9857026. May stimulate instead the cortical activity of Rac. Inactive toward CDC42, TC10, or Ras-GTPases. Forms an intracellular sensing system along with NOD1 for the detection of microbial effectors during cell invasion by pathogens. Required for RHOA and RIP2 dependent NF-kappaB signaling pathways activation upon S.flexneri cell invasion. Involved not only in sensing peptidoglycan (PGN)-derived muropeptides through NOD1 that is independent of its GEF activity, but also in the activation of NF-kappaB by Shigella effector proteins (IpgB2 and OspB) which requires its GEF activity and the activation of RhoA. Involved in innate immune signaling transduction pathway promoting cytokine IL6/interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha secretion in macrophage upon stimulation by bacterial peptidoglycans; acts as a signaling intermediate between NOD2 receptor and RIPK2 kinase. Contributes to the tyrosine phosphorylation of RIPK2 through Src tyrosine kinase leading to NF-kappaB activation by NOD2.

Gene Wiki entry for ARHGEF2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ARHGEF2 Gene

Genomics for ARHGEF2 Gene

Genomic Location for ARHGEF2 Gene

Start:
155,946,640 bp from pter
End:
156,007,070 bp from pter
Size:
60,431 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for ARHGEF2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ARHGEF2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ARHGEF2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ARHGEF2 Gene

Proteins for ARHGEF2 Gene

  • Protein details for ARHGEF2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q92974-ARHG2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q92974
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DVA6
    • O75142
    • Q15079
    • Q5VY92
    • Q8TDA3
    • Q8WUG4
    • Q9H023

    Protein attributes for ARHGEF2 Gene

    Size:
    986 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    111543 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Found in a complex composed at least of ARHGEF2, NOD2 and RIPK2. Interacts with RIPK2; the interaction mediates tyrosine phosphorylation of RIPK2 by Src kinase CSK. Interacts with RIPK1 and RIPK3. Interacts with YWHAZ/14-3-3 zeta; when phosphorylated at Ser-886. Interacts with the kinases PAK4, AURKA and MAPK1. Interacts with RHOA and RAC1. Interacts with NOD1. Interacts (via the N-terminal zinc finger) with CAPN6 (via domain II) (By similarity).
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAC97383.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Sequence differs at a large extent from the sequence shown in the paper.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAH20567.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAA31626.3; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA33634.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=887, 984; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for ARHGEF2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for ARHGEF2 Gene

Proteomics data for ARHGEF2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ARHGEF2 Gene

  • Phosphorylation of Ser-886 by PAK1 induces binding to protein YWHAZ, promoting its relocation to microtubules and the inhibition of its activity. Phosphorylated by AURKA and CDK1 during mitosis, which negatively regulates its activity. Phosphorylation by MAPK1 or MAPK3 increases nucleotide exchange activity. Phosphorylation by PAK4 releases GEF-H1 from the microtubules. Phosphorylated on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues in a RIPK2-dependent manner.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys148 and Lys438

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ARHGEF2 Gene

Domains for ARHGEF2 Gene

Gene Families for ARHGEF2 Gene

HGNC:
  • PLEKH :Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain containing
  • ARHGEF :Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors

Protein Domains for ARHGEF2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ARHG2_HUMAN
Domain:
  • The DH (DBL-homology) domain interacts with and promotes loading of GTP on RhoA. Promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of RIPK2:
    • Q92974
  • The PH (pleckstrin-homology) domain is involved in microtubule binding and targeting to tight junctions:
    • Q92974
  • Contains 1 DH (DBL-homology) domain.:
    • Q92974
  • Contains 1 PH domain.:
    • Q92974
Similarity:
  • Contains 1 phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger.:
    • Q92974
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ARHGEF2: view

Function for ARHGEF2 Gene

Molecular function for ARHGEF2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Activates Rho-GTPases by promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP. May be involved in epithelial barrier permeability, cell motility and polarization, dendritic spine morphology, antigen presentation, leukemic cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, innate immune response, and cancer. Binds Rac-GTPases, but does not seem to promote nucleotide exchange activity toward Rac-GTPases, which was uniquely reported in PubMed:9857026. May stimulate instead the cortical activity of Rac. Inactive toward CDC42, TC10, or Ras-GTPases. Forms an intracellular sensing system along with NOD1 for the detection of microbial effectors during cell invasion by pathogens. Required for RHOA and RIP2 dependent NF-kappaB signaling pathways activation upon S.flexneri cell invasion. Involved not only in sensing peptidoglycan (PGN)-derived muropeptides through NOD1 that is independent of its GEF activity, but also in the activation of NF-kappaB by Shigella effector proteins (IpgB2 and OspB) which requires its GEF activity and the activation of RhoA. Involved in innate immune signaling transduction pathway promoting cytokine IL6/interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha secretion in macrophage upon stimulation by bacterial peptidoglycans; acts as a signaling intermediate between NOD2 receptor and RIPK2 kinase. Contributes to the tyrosine phosphorylation of RIPK2 through Src tyrosine kinase leading to NF-kappaB activation by NOD2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Up-regulated by bacterial peptidoglycans stimulation, such as muramyl dipeptide and in biopsies from inflamed mucosal areas of Crohns disease patients.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ARHGEF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005089 Rho guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity IDA 9857026
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 14970201
GO:0008017 microtubule binding IDA 9857026
GO:0008134 transcription factor binding ISS --
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding NAS 11912491
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARHGEF2: view

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for ARHGEF2 Gene

Localization for ARHGEF2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ARHGEF2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell junction, tight junction. Golgi apparatus. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Cell projection, ruffle membrane. Cytoplasmic vesicle. Note=Localizes to the tips of cortical microtubules of the mitotic spindle during cell division, and is further released upon microtubule depolymerization. Recruited into membrane ruffles induced by S.flexneri at tight junctions of polarized epithelial cells. Colocalized with NOD2 and RIPK2 in vesicles and with the cytoskeleton.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for ARHGEF2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ARHGEF2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
golgi apparatus 5
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 4
nucleus 3

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ARHGEF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 21887730
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA --
GO:0005819 spindle IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton IDA 21887730
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARHGEF2: view

Pathways for ARHGEF2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ARHGEF2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ARHGEF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000132 establishment of mitotic spindle orientation IEA --
GO:0000902 cell morphogenesis IMP 11912491
GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport NAS 9857026
GO:0007015 actin filament organization IMP 9857026
GO:0007026 negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization IMP 11912491
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARHGEF2: view

Compounds for ARHGEF2 Gene

(844) HMDB Compounds for ARHGEF2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
DG(14:0/14:0/0:0)
  • DAG(14:0/14:0)
Not Available
DG(14:0/14:1(9Z)/0:0)
  • DAG(14:0/14:1)
Not Available
DG(14:0/15:0/0:0)
  • Diacylglycerol(29:0)
Not Available
DG(14:0/16:0/0:0)
  • DAG(30:0)
Not Available
DG(14:0/16:1(9Z)/0:0)
  • DG(30:1)
Not Available

(22) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ARHGEF2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
gdp 85.5 36
gtp 80.3 36
guanine 64.5 17
guanosine 54.5 3
tyrosine 52.9 20
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ARHGEF2: view

Transcripts for ARHGEF2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ARHGEF2 Gene

Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ARHGEF2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4:
SP5:
SP6: - - - - -
SP7:

ExUns: 23 ^ 24a · 24b ^ 25a · 25b
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:

Relevant External Links for ARHGEF2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ARHGEF2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ARHGEF2

Expression for ARHGEF2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ARHGEF2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ARHGEF2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (4.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ARHGEF2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ARHGEF2 Gene Hs.743352

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with ARHGEF2: view

Orthologs for ARHGEF2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ARHGEF2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ARHGEF2 36
  • 99.49 (n)
  • 99.29 (a)
ARHGEF2 37
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ARHGEF2 36
  • 90.93 (n)
  • 95.43 (a)
ARHGEF2 37
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ARHGEF2 36
  • 88.19 (n)
  • 93.2 (a)
ARHGEF2 37
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Arhgef2 36
  • 84.93 (n)
  • 88.82 (a)
Arhgef2 16
Arhgef2 37
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ARHGEF2 37
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Arhgef2 36
  • 85.2 (n)
  • 89.33 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ARHGEF2 37
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia arhgef2 36
  • 66.29 (n)
  • 63.32 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii arhgef1a 37
  • 45 (a)
OneToMany
arhgef2 36
  • 62.1 (n)
  • 62.23 (a)
arhgef2 37
  • 55 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG10188 37
  • 16 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for ARHGEF2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ARHGEF2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ARHGEF2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ARHGEF2 (if available)

Paralogs for ARHGEF2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ARHGEF2: view

Variants for ARHGEF2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ARHGEF2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs15296 -- 155,947,013(-) ACCTC(A/C)GCAAC utr-variant-3-prime
rs928596 -- 155,978,084(-) CCGCT(C/T)GAAAG intron-variant, utr-variant-5-prime
rs1010033 -- 155,948,089(+) ATGCC(A/T)CCCCA intron-variant
rs1135063 -- 155,947,417(-) CCCTC(A/T)ACCTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs1135064 -- 155,947,416(-) CCTCA(A/T)CCTCT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ARHGEF2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv33869 CNV Loss 17666407
nsv509513 CNV Insertion 20534489

Relevant External Links for ARHGEF2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
ARHGEF2

Disorders for ARHGEF2 Gene

(12) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ARHGEF2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
spastic paralysis 66.3 1
motor neuron disease 46.7 1
primary lateral sclerosis 39.7 1
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 31.2 1
dysplasia 23.2 2

Relevant External Links for ARHGEF2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
ARHGEF2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
ARHGEF2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ARHGEF2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ARHGEF2 Gene

Publications for ARHGEF2 Gene

  1. Cloning and characterization of GEF-H1, a microtubule-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac and Rho GTPases. (PMID: 9857026) Ren Y. … Busch H. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 2 3 4 23
  2. PAK4 mediates morphological changes through the regulation of GEF- H1. (PMID: 15827085) Callow M.G. … Smeal T. (J. Cell Sci. 2005) 3 4 23
  3. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. X. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro. (PMID: 9734811) Ishikawa K. … Ohara O. (DNA Res. 1998) 2 3 4
  4. Nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1 mediates cross-talk between microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. (PMID: 11912491) Krendel M. … Bokoch G.M. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2002) 3 4
  5. p21-activated kinase 1 phosphorylates and regulates 14-3-3 binding to GEF-H1, a microtubule-localized Rho exchange factor. (PMID: 14970201) Zenke F.T. … Bokoch G.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4

Products for ARHGEF2 Gene

Sources for ARHGEF2 Gene

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