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Aliases for ARHGEF2 Gene

Aliases for ARHGEF2 Gene

  • Rho/Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 2 2 3 5
  • Rho/Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) 2 2 3
  • Proliferating Cell Nucleolar Antigen P40 3 4
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor H1 3 4
  • Microtubule-Regulated Rho-GEF 3 4
  • GEF-H1 3 4
  • LFP40 3 4
  • KIAA0651 4
  • GEFH1 3
  • GEF 3
  • P40 3

External Ids for ARHGEF2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ARHGEF2 Gene

  • GC01M153779
  • GC01M151676
  • GC01M152694
  • GC01M153133
  • GC01M152729
  • GC01M154183
  • GC01M155916
  • GC01M127277

Summaries for ARHGEF2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ARHGEF2 Gene

  • Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein may form complex with G proteins and stimulate rho-dependent signals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

GeneCards Summary for ARHGEF2 Gene

ARHGEF2 (Rho/Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by Rho GTPases. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor binding and Rho guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is ARHGEF12.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ARHGEF2 Gene

  • Activates Rho-GTPases by promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP. May be involved in epithelial barrier permeability, cell motility and polarization, dendritic spine morphology, antigen presentation, leukemic cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, innate immune response, and cancer. Binds Rac-GTPases, but does not seem to promote nucleotide exchange activity toward Rac-GTPases, which was uniquely reported in PubMed:9857026. May stimulate instead the cortical activity of Rac. Inactive toward CDC42, TC10, or Ras-GTPases. Forms an intracellular sensing system along with NOD1 for the detection of microbial effectors during cell invasion by pathogens. Required for RHOA and RIP2 dependent NF-kappaB signaling pathways activation upon S.flexneri cell invasion. Involved not only in sensing peptidoglycan (PGN)-derived muropeptides through NOD1 that is independent of its GEF activity, but also in the activation of NF-kappaB by Shigella effector proteins (IpgB2 and OspB) which requires its GEF activity and the activation of RhoA. Involved in innate immune signaling transduction pathway promoting cytokine IL6/interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha secretion in macrophage upon stimulation by bacterial peptidoglycans; acts as a signaling intermediate between NOD2 receptor and RIPK2 kinase. Contributes to the tyrosine phosphorylation of RIPK2 through Src tyrosine kinase leading to NF-kappaB activation by NOD2.

Gene Wiki entry for ARHGEF2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ARHGEF2 Gene

Genomics for ARHGEF2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ARHGEF2 Gene

Genomic Location for ARHGEF2 Gene

Chromosome:
1
Start:
155,946,640 bp from pter
End:
156,007,070 bp from pter
Size:
60,431 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for ARHGEF2 Gene

Genes around ARHGEF2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ARHGEF2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ARHGEF2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ARHGEF2 Gene

Proteins for ARHGEF2 Gene

  • Protein details for ARHGEF2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q92974-ARHG2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q92974
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DVA6
    • O75142
    • Q15079
    • Q5VY92
    • Q8TDA3
    • Q8WUG4
    • Q9H023

    Protein attributes for ARHGEF2 Gene

    Size:
    986 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    111543 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Found in a complex composed at least of ARHGEF2, NOD2 and RIPK2. Interacts with RIPK2; the interaction mediates tyrosine phosphorylation of RIPK2 by Src kinase CSK. Interacts with RIPK1 and RIPK3. Interacts with YWHAZ/14-3-3 zeta; when phosphorylated at Ser-886. Interacts with the kinases PAK4, AURKA and MAPK1. Interacts with RHOA and RAC1. Interacts with NOD1. Interacts (via the N-terminal zinc finger) with CAPN6 (via domain II) (By similarity).
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAC97383.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Sequence differs at a large extent from the sequence shown in the paper.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAH20567.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAA31626.3; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA33634.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=887, 984; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for ARHGEF2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for ARHGEF2 Gene

Proteomics data for ARHGEF2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ARHGEF2 Gene

  • Phosphorylation of Ser-886 by PAK1 induces binding to protein YWHAZ, promoting its relocation to microtubules and the inhibition of its activity. Phosphorylated by AURKA and CDK1 during mitosis, which negatively regulates its activity. Phosphorylation by MAPK1 or MAPK3 increases nucleotide exchange activity. Phosphorylation by PAK4 releases GEF-H1 from the microtubules. Phosphorylated on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues in a RIPK2-dependent manner.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 148 and Lys 438
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for ARHGEF2 (ARHGEF2)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ARHGEF2 Gene

Domains & Families for ARHGEF2 Gene

Protein Domains for ARHGEF2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q92974

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ARHG2_HUMAN :
  • The DH (DBL-homology) domain interacts with and promotes loading of GTP on RhoA. Promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of RIPK2.
  • Contains 1 phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger.
Domain:
  • The DH (DBL-homology) domain interacts with and promotes loading of GTP on RhoA. Promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of RIPK2.
  • The PH (pleckstrin-homology) domain is involved in microtubule binding and targeting to tight junctions.
  • Contains 1 DH (DBL-homology) domain.
  • Contains 1 PH domain.
Similarity:
  • Contains 1 phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ARHGEF2: view

Function for ARHGEF2 Gene

Molecular function for ARHGEF2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Activates Rho-GTPases by promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP. May be involved in epithelial barrier permeability, cell motility and polarization, dendritic spine morphology, antigen presentation, leukemic cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, innate immune response, and cancer. Binds Rac-GTPases, but does not seem to promote nucleotide exchange activity toward Rac-GTPases, which was uniquely reported in PubMed:9857026. May stimulate instead the cortical activity of Rac. Inactive toward CDC42, TC10, or Ras-GTPases. Forms an intracellular sensing system along with NOD1 for the detection of microbial effectors during cell invasion by pathogens. Required for RHOA and RIP2 dependent NF-kappaB signaling pathways activation upon S.flexneri cell invasion. Involved not only in sensing peptidoglycan (PGN)-derived muropeptides through NOD1 that is independent of its GEF activity, but also in the activation of NF-kappaB by Shigella effector proteins (IpgB2 and OspB) which requires its GEF activity and the activation of RhoA. Involved in innate immune signaling transduction pathway promoting cytokine IL6/interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha secretion in macrophage upon stimulation by bacterial peptidoglycans; acts as a signaling intermediate between NOD2 receptor and RIPK2 kinase. Contributes to the tyrosine phosphorylation of RIPK2 through Src tyrosine kinase leading to NF-kappaB activation by NOD2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated by bacterial peptidoglycans stimulation, such as muramyl dipeptide and in biopsies from inflamed mucosal areas of Crohns disease patients.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ARHGEF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008017 microtubule binding IDA 9857026
GO:0008134 transcription factor binding ISS --
GO:0030676 Rac guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity IDA 9857026
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARHGEF2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ARHGEF2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ARHGEF2

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ARHGEF2 Gene

Localization for ARHGEF2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ARHGEF2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell junction, tight junction. Golgi apparatus. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Cell projection, ruffle membrane. Cytoplasmic vesicle. Note=Localizes to the tips of cortical microtubules of the mitotic spindle during cell division, and is further released upon microtubule depolymerization. Recruited into membrane ruffles induced by S.flexneri at tight junctions of polarized epithelial cells. Colocalized with NOD2 and RIPK2 in vesicles and with the cytoskeleton.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for ARHGEF2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ARHGEF2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
golgi apparatus 5
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ARHGEF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005819 spindle IEA --
GO:0005923 bicellular tight junction IEA --
GO:0016023 cytoplasmic, membrane-bounded vesicle IEA --
GO:0032587 ruffle membrane IDA 19043560
GO:0097481 neuronal postsynaptic density IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARHGEF2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ARHGEF2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ARHGEF2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for ARHGEF2 Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ARHGEF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000902 cell morphogenesis IMP 11912491
GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport NAS 9857026
GO:0007026 negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization IMP 11912491
GO:0007264 small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS --
GO:0032755 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production IDA 21887730
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARHGEF2: view

Drugs & Compounds for ARHGEF2 Gene

(14) Drugs for ARHGEF2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(13) Additional Compounds for ARHGEF2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Diglycerides Group A
  • 1,2-Dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol
  • DAG(14:0/14:0)
  • DAG(28:0)
  • DG(14:0/14:0)
  • DG(28:0)
Diglycerides Group B
  • 1-Palmitoleoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol
  • DAG(16:1/20:0)
  • DAG(16:1n7/20:0)
  • DAG(16:1w7/20:0)
  • DAG(36:1)
Diglycerides Group C
  • 1-Myristoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol
  • 1-Tetradecanoyl-3-octadecanoyl-sn-glycerol
  • DAG(14:0/0:0/18:0)
  • DAG(32:0)
  • DG(32:0)
Diglycerides Group D
  • 1,2-Didocosahexaenoyl-rac-glycerol
  • DAG(22:6/22:6)
  • DAG(22:6n3/22:6n3)
  • DAG(22:6w3/22:6w3)
  • DAG(44:12)
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ARHGEF2: view

Transcripts for ARHGEF2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ARHGEF2 Gene

Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ARHGEF2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4:
SP5:
SP6: - - - - -
SP7:

ExUns: 23 ^ 24a · 24b ^ 25a · 25b
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:

Relevant External Links for ARHGEF2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ARHGEF2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ARHGEF2

Expression for ARHGEF2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ARHGEF2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ARHGEF2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ARHGEF2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (16.3), Frontal cortex (7.7), Lymph node (7.7), and Brain (7.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ARHGEF2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ARHGEF2 Gene Hs.743352

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ARHGEF2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ARHGEF2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ARHGEF2 Gene

Orthologs for ARHGEF2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ARHGEF2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ARHGEF2 35
  • 99.49 (n)
  • 99.29 (a)
ARHGEF2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ARHGEF2 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
ARHGEF2 35
  • 90.93 (n)
  • 95.43 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ARHGEF2 35
  • 88.19 (n)
  • 93.2 (a)
ARHGEF2 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Arhgef2 16
Arhgef2 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
Arhgef2 35
  • 84.93 (n)
  • 88.82 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ARHGEF2 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Arhgef2 35
  • 85.2 (n)
  • 89.33 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ARHGEF2 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia arhgef2 35
  • 66.29 (n)
  • 63.32 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii arhgef2 35
  • 62.1 (n)
  • 62.23 (a)
arhgef1a 36
  • 45 (a)
OneToMany
arhgef2 36
  • 55 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG10188 36
  • 16 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for ARHGEF2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ARHGEF2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ARHGEF2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ARHGEF2 (if available)

Paralogs for ARHGEF2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ARHGEF2: view

Variants for ARHGEF2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ARHGEF2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs15296 -- 155,947,013(-) ACCTC(A/C)GCAAC utr-variant-3-prime
rs1010033 -- 155,948,089(+) ATGCC(A/T)CCCCA intron-variant
rs1135063 -- 155,947,417(-) CCCTC(A/T)ACCTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs1135064 -- 155,947,416(-) CCTCA(A/G/T)CCTCT utr-variant-3-prime
rs1801836 -- 155,946,882(-) AAAAT(A/T)CAGGG utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ARHGEF2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv33869 CNV Loss 17666407
nsv509513 CNV Insertion 20534489

Variation tolerance for ARHGEF2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 3.18% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.10; 38.30% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ARHGEF2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
ARHGEF2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ARHGEF2 Gene

Disorders for ARHGEF2 Gene

Relevant External Links for ARHGEF2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
ARHGEF2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
ARHGEF2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
ARHGEF2

No disorders were found for ARHGEF2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ARHGEF2 Gene

Publications for ARHGEF2 Gene

  1. Cloning and characterization of GEF-H1, a microtubule-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac and Rho GTPases. (PMID: 9857026) Ren Y. … Busch H. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. PAK4 mediates morphological changes through the regulation of GEF- H1. (PMID: 15827085) Callow M.G. … Smeal T. (J. Cell Sci. 2005) 3 23
  3. Trp(56) of rac1 specifies interaction with a subset of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. (PMID: 11595749) Gao Y. … Zheng Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 23
  4. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. X. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro. (PMID: 9734811) Ishikawa K. … Ohara O. (DNA Res. 1998) 2 3
  5. Temporal proteomics of NGF-TrkA signaling identifies an inhibitory role for the E3 ligase Cbl-b in neuroblastoma cell differentiation. (PMID: 25921289) Emdal K.B. … Olsen J.V. (Sci Signal 2015) 3

Products for ARHGEF2 Gene

Sources for ARHGEF2 Gene

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