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AREG Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 68
GCID: GC04P075300

Amphiregulin

(Previous name: schwannoma-derived growth factor)
(Previous symbol: SDGF)
  See AREG-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
amphiregulin1 2
SDGF1 2 3
Schwannoma-Derived Growth Factor1 2
Colorectum Cell-Derived Growth Factor2 3
AR2 3
CRDGF2 3

External Ids:    HGNC: 6511   Entrez Gene: 3742   Ensembl: ENSG000001093217   OMIM: 1046405   UniProtKB: P155143   

Export aliases for AREG gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC04P075550 GC04P075711 GC04P075777 GC04P075675 GC04P071121


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for AREG Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor family. It is an autocrine growth
factor as well as a mitogen for astrocytes, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts. It is related to epidermal growth
factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). This protein interacts with the EGF/TGF-alpha
receptor to promote the growth of normal epithelial cells and inhibits the growth of certain aggressive carcinoma
cell lines. This encoded protein is associated with a psoriasis-like skin phenotype. (provided by RefSeq, Jul
2008)

GeneCards Summary for AREG Gene:
AREG (amphiregulin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with AREG include anemia of prematurity, and ovarian cystadenoma. An important paralog of this gene is AREGB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AREG_HUMAN, P15514
Function: Ligand of the EGF receptor/EGFR. Autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for a broad range of
target cells including astrocytes, Schwann cells and fibroblasts

summary for AREG Gene:
Androgen receptors (ARs) (also known as dihydrotestosterone receptors) are nuclear hormone receptors of the
NR3C class, which also includes mineralocorticoid, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors. They are
expressed in bone marrow, mammary gland, prostate, testicular and muscle tissues where they exist as dimers
coupled to Hsp90 and HMGB proteins, which are shed upon ligand binding. Activated androgen receptors bind to
nuclear response elements of the genome, with an inverted palindromic 15 nucleotide sequence, to regulate
gene transcription. Androgen receptors also effect gene expression through interaction with transcription
factors including AP-1, NF-kappaB and STAT. Target genes of androgen receptors include insulin-like growth
factor 1 (IGF-1) and genes involved in the development of primary and secondary male sexual characteristics,
maintenance of sexual function and possibly have a causative role in aggressive behavior. Furthermore,
androgen receptors have recently been shown to have actions that are independent of DNA interactions.
Congential mutations in androgen receptors are associated with androgen insensitivity syndromes, virility
and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Perturbations in androgen receptor expression is also a common
feature of prostate cancer. The human gene encoding the androgen receptor has been localized to Xq11-12.

Gene Wiki entry for AREG (Amphiregulin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000004.11  NC_018915.2  NT_016354.20  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the AREG gene promoter:
         AML1a   AP-1   POU2F1a   ATF-2   STAT3   c-Jun   C/EBPalpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidAREG promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for AREG

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat AREG


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 4q13.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  4q13.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 4q13.3

AREG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
AREG gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 4         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC04P075300:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
75,310,851 bp from pter      End:
75,320,726 bp from pter
Size:
9,876 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AREG_HUMAN, P15514 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Amphiregulin precursor  
Size: 252 amino acids; 27895 Da
Subunit: The immature precursor interacts with CNIH
Miscellaneous: AR is a protein containing cysteines in disulfide linkage(s) that are essential for its biological
activity. AR may contain oligosaccharides and/or lipid moieties that are not obligatory for the biological
activity
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for AREG:
2RNL (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q5U026

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for AREG: NX_P15514

Explore proteomics data for AREG at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn30, Ser41, Thr52, Ser53, Asn113, Asn119, Thr169
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See AREG Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_001648.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000379097   ENSP00000421414   ENSP00000264487  

    AREG Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for AREG
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
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    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for AREG
    Novus Biologicals AREG Proteins
    Novus Biologicals AREG Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for AREG
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for AREG
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for AREG

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for AREG 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for AREG (15 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for AREG

    AREG Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of AREG
    R&D Systems Antibodies for AREG (Amphiregulin)
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    Novus Biologicals AREG Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for AREG
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    ThermoFisher Antibody for AREG
    antibodies-online antibodies for AREG (49 products) 

    AREG Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    R&D Systems ELISAs for AREG (Amphiregulin)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for AREG
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for AREG
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for AREG
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for AREG 
    antibodies-online kits for AREG (44 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR000742 EG-like_dom
     IPR015497 EGF_rcpt_ligand
     IPR013032 EGF-like_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P15514

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P15514

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB006210 Type I EGF

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AREG_HUMAN, P15514
    Similarity: Belongs to the amphiregulin family
    Similarity: Contains 1 EGF-like domain


    Find genes that share domains with AREG           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: AREG_HUMAN, P15514
    Function: Ligand of the EGF receptor/EGFR. Autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for a broad range of
    target cells including astrocytes, Schwann cells and fibroblasts
    Induction: By phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for AREG:
    amphiregulin,27.9kDa,bifunctional protein possessing an epithelial cell growth regulator (EGF family) and a
    tumor-inhibitory activity

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005125cytokine activity ----
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
    GO:0008083growth factor activity ----
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with AREG           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for AREG:
     Increased cell death in HCC-19 

         8 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Areg):
     cardiovascular system  digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  immune system 
     integument  reproductive system  vision/eye 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with AREG           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Aregtm1Dle for AREG

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for AREG

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target AREG:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT018541)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat AREG using miScript Target Protectors
    7 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate AREG:
    hsa-miR-548t hsa-miR-34c-5p hsa-miR-34a hsa-miR-449b hsa-miR-561 hsa-miR-944 hsa-miR-449a
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidAREG 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for AREG
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat AREG

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for AREG

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for AREG (see all 5)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for AREG
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: AREG (NM_001657)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for AREG
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for AREG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat AREG

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for AREG
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for AREG 
    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for AREG

    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-13758) for AREG 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    AREG_HUMAN, P15514: Membrane; Single-pass membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular4
    nucleus2
    plasma membrane2
    cytoskeleton1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005615extracellular space ----
    GO:0009986cell surface ----
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with AREG           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for AREG About   (see all 18)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1ErbB signaling pathway
    ErbB signaling pathway0.52
    EGFR Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics0.49
    ErbB signaling pathway0.52
    ErbB receptor signaling network0.00
    2Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis0.85
    Rac1 Pathway0.65
    Cellular Apoptosis Pathway0.85
    Glioma Invasiveness0.64
    Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts0.84
    Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases0.62
    p53 Mediated Apoptosis0.84
    ERK5 Signaling0.61
    3GPCR Pathway
    Ras Pathway0.73
    Breast Cancer Regulation by Stathmin10.58
    Paxillin Interactions0.73
    NFAT in Immune Response0.58
    GPCR Pathway0.62
    Estrogen Pathway0.55
    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma0.59
    4ERK Signaling
    Rho Family GTPases0.61
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer0.51
    ERK Signaling0.61
    ILK Signaling0.49
    MAPK Signaling0.58
    5Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
    Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency0.61
    14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling0.59
    GSK3 Signaling0.61
    eNOS Signaling0.48


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with AREG           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for AREG (see all 55)
        Nuclear Receptor Activation by Vitamin-A
    Paxillin Interactions
    Telomerase Components in Cell Signaling
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer

    2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for AREG
        Development ERBB-family signaling
    Development EGFR signaling pathway

    3 BioSystems Pathways for AREG
        ErbB signaling pathway
    FSH signaling pathway
    ErbB receptor signaling network

    1 Sino Biological Pathway for AREG
        EGFR Signaling Pathway

    1 PharmGKB Pathway for AREG
        EGFR Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    2 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for AREG):
        ErbB signaling pathway
    Hippo signaling pathway

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including AREG: 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Common Cytokines in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat
              Allergy & Asthma in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for AREG

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see more details)

    Selected Interacting proteins for AREG (P155141, 2, 3 ENSP000002644874) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 8)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    S100A4P264471, 2, 3EBI-953674,EBI-717058 MINT-7256618 MINT-7256636 MINT-7256485 MINT-7256567 I2D: score=1 
    S100A2P290342, 3MINT-7256654 I2D: score=1 
    S100A5P337632, 3MINT-7256693 I2D: score=1 
    UBQLN4Q9NRR52, 3, ENSP000003572924MINT-2856981 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000357292
    CCND3P302813, ENSP000003620824I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000362082
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007173epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway ----
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ----
    GO:0007267cell-cell signaling ----
    GO:0008283cell proliferation ----
    GO:0045740positive regulation of DNA replication ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with AREG           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for AREG available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    TestosteroneEndogenous androgen receptor agonist[58-22-0]
    FlutamideNon-steroidal androgen receptor antagonist[13311-84-7]
    NilutamideAndrogen receptor antagonist. Orally active[63612-50-0]
    BicalutamideNon-steroidal androgen receptor antagonist[90357-06-5]
    Cl-4AS-1Steroidal androgen receptor agonist[188589-66-4]

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for AREG gene (see all 51)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    ag 1478 75.1 8 16543407 (2), 16737974 (1), 14701705 (1), 15705969 (1)
    gefitinib 72.8 40 19826406 (8), 18980991 (4), 19826407 (4), 16230376 (4) (see all 15)
    pd153035 72.7 1 17533397 (1)
    8-chloro-camp 63.3 1 9815703 (1)
    cetuximab 61.1 11 17664471 (3), 18980991 (2), 19738126 (2), 19663767 (1) (see all 5)
    tyrosine 59.3 49 7679104 (3), 8360173 (2), 9110152 (1), 10579352 (1) (see all 32)
    heparin 51.8 74 12236483 (5), 8138579 (5), 1522124 (4), 11218236 (3) (see all 33)
    sodium chlorate 49.8 2 9542658 (1), 8138579 (1)
    erlotinib 43 2 18980991 (2)
    phorbol-12-myristate 39.3 1 17595323 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with AREG           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for AREG gene: 
    NM_001657.2  

    Unigene Cluster for AREG:

    Amphiregulin
    Hs.270833  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BC009799
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000395748 ENST00000502307 ENST00000511560 ENST00000264487
    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat AREG using miScript Target Protectors
    7 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate AREG:
    hsa-miR-548t hsa-miR-34c-5p hsa-miR-34a hsa-miR-449b hsa-miR-561 hsa-miR-944 hsa-miR-449a
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidAREG 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat AREG
    Clone
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: AREG (NM_001657)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for AREG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat AREG
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for AREG
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for AREG
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat AREG
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat AREG
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat AREG
    Flow Cytometry
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    BC009799.1 BC146953.1 BC146967.1 BT019866.1 M30704.1 

    11 DOTS entries:

    DT.209869  DT.121246074  DT.100826743  DT.100826741  DT.97829472  DT.121235551  DT.92414460  DT.70103291 
    DT.121235545  DT.121235549  DT.95267368 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 90):

    CB160040 CB242548 BX282107 CR606995 AL546917 BM846005 AI340146 CB131869 
    AW028834 BF175199 CA455033 BC009799 M30704 BM764135 CR617114 BM839778 
    BE122791 CB127573 T29526 CR608053 BM839991 BM762744 NM_001657 CB134173 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    AREG expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTATAGCATA
    AREG Expression
    About this image


    AREG expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Intermediate Keratinocytes Embryonic Epidermis
     
     Epidermis (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Intermediate Keratinocytes Embryonic Epidermis
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (family)
     
     NULL (Uncategorized)
             CD31, CD144 positive cells
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)
             Basal Cells Respiratory Bronchioles
    AREG Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    AREG Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.270833
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including AREG: 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Common Cytokines in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat
              Allergy & Asthma in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for AREG
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for AREG
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat AREG
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat AREG
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat AREG
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for AREG

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for AREG gene from Selected species (see all 11)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Areg1 , 5 amphiregulin1, 5 78.1(n)1
    72.38(a)1
      5 (44.78 cM)5
    118391  NM_009704.31  NP_033834.11 
     911396155 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves AREGB1 amphiregulin B 59.15(n)
    51.22(a)
      428752  NM_001031537.1  NP_001026708.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Uncharacterized protein
    39(a)
    1 → many
    6(60320563-60341068)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia LOC1001452511 uncharacterized LOC100145251 54.9(n)
    42.65(a)
      100145251  NM_001126733.1  NP_001120205.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii AREG6
    amphiregulin
    22(a)
    1 → many
    5(6751965-6761733) ENSDARG00000076853


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for AREG (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for AREG (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for AREG gene
    AREGB2  HBEGF2  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for AREG using alignment to 2 protein entries:     AREG_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    AREGB    EGF

    Find genes that share paralogs with AREG           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for AREG (see all 39)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 4 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs562936801,2
    C--75309469(+) ATTATC/TATTAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs283649761,2
    F--75311770(+) AAAATATGAA   
       CAC
    /-
    ATCTT
    1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.35NS 120
    rs283649771,2
    C--75311920(+) GGAATG/CTGAAG 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- C:0.01NS NA 164
    rs1443073861,2
    C--75312232(+) CTTCCC/TTTATT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1472269851,2
    C,F--75312431(+) CGACTA/GTGACT 2 Y C mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 3078
    rs1845828921,2
    --75312593(+) TTTCTA/GGTGGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs2021539981,2
    C--75312686(+) TGATCA/GTAAAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs2000752681,2
    C--75312780(+) AAGCCA/GAAAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs558384521,2
    C--75313974(-) TATGCG/AATTTT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA 2
    rs287437691,2
    F--75315420(+) TGAGCC/TGTGAT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.03NS 134

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for AREG (75310851 - 75320726 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for AREG:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2664200CNV Deletion23128226
    dgv94n16CNV Insertion17901297
    nsv525980CNV Gain19592680

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing AREG
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for AREG

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 104640    OMIM disorders: --

    7 diseases for AREG:    
    About MalaCards
    anemia of prematurity    ovarian cystadenoma    psoriasis    colon adenocarcinoma
    prostate cancer    pancreatic cancer    colon cancer

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for AREG:
    Breast cancer     Colorectal cancer

    Find genes that share disorders with AREG           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for AREG gene (see all 72)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    breast cancer 50 60 8101763 (3), 17670913 (3), 18437539 (3), 17942395 (3) (see all 33)
    ovarian cystadenoma 49.6 2 7814196 (1)
    nsclc 49.3 52 16230376 (4), 19826406 (4), 15033751 (3), 18980991 (2) (see all 14)
    tumors 48.6 121 8407551 (4), 8621257 (3), 10597254 (3), 1596904 (3) (see all 59)
    colon carcinoma 44.4 14 1639855 (2), 9260917 (2), 1591731 (2), 9466051 (2) (see all 7)
    breast carcinoma 40.4 17 9935161 (2), 7749138 (2), 9285119 (2), 7579500 (2) (see all 9)
    cancer 34.4 22 18023415 (2), 8033121 (1), 9563874 (1), 15474502 (1) (see all 15)
    carcinoma 33.8 45 8523820 (4), 1306686 (3), 11523048 (3), 1953719 (3) (see all 19)
    colon cancer 33.2 14 14742435 (3), 7558427 (1), 8523820 (1), 10024674 (1) (see all 9)
    colorectal cancer 30 14 18413824 (6), 19738126 (2), 9563874 (1), 16685431 (1) (see all 6)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): AREG
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: AREG (4 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): AREG

    Export disorders for AREG gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for AREG gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 497):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with AREG)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Colorectum cell-derived growth factor (CRDGF) is homologous to amphiregulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor family. (PubMed id 1333777)1, 2, 9 Culouscou J.-M....Shoyab M. (Growth Factors 1992)
    2. A heparin sulfate-regulated human keratinocyte autocrine factor is similar or identical to amphiregulin. (PubMed id 2017164)1, 2, 9 Cook P.W.... Shipley G.D. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1991)
    3. The amphiregulin gene encodes a novel epidermal growth factor-related protein with tumor-inhibitory activity. (PubMed id 2325643)1, 2, 9 Plowman G.D.... Shoyab M. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1990)
    4. Clarification of the C-terminal proteolytic processing site of human Amphiregulin. (PubMed id 22967896)1, 2 Levano K.S. and Kenny P.A. (FEBS Lett. 2012)
    5. Evaluation of candidate stromal epithelial cross-talk genes identifies association between risk of serous ovarian cancer and TERT, a cancer susceptibility &quot;hot-spot&quot;. (PubMed id 20628624)1, 4 Johnatty S.E.... . (PLoS Genet. 2010)
    6. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    7. Structure and function of human amphiregulin: a member of the epidermal growth factor family. (PubMed id 2466334)1, 2 Shoyab M.... Todaro G.J. (Science 1989)
    8. Amphiregulin: a bifunctional growth-modulating glycoprotein produced by the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. (PubMed id 3413110)1, 2 Shoyab M.... Todaro G.J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1988)
    9. Autocrine and juxtacrine effects of amphiregulin on the proliferative, invasive, and migratory properties of normal and neoplastic human mammary epithelial cells. (PubMed id 17035230)1, 9 Willmarth N.E. and Ethier S.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 2006)
    10. Human airway trypsin-like protease induces amphiregulin release through a mechanism involving protease-activated receptor-2-mediated ERK activation and TNF alpha-converting enzyme activity in airway epithelial cells. (PubMed id 16336275)1, 9 Chokki M....Kamimura T. (FEBS J. 2005)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 374 HGNC: 651 AceView: AREG Ensembl:ENSG00000109321 euGenes: HUgn374
    ECgene: AREG Kegg: 374 H-InvDB: AREG

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for AREG Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for AREG Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/areg/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for AREG gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving AREG

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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