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AR Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 78
GCID: GC0XP066763

Androgen Receptor

(Previous names: dihydrotestosterone receptor, spinal and bulbar muscular...)
(Previous symbols: DHTR, SBMA)
  See AR-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Androgen Receptor1 2     SMAX12 5
DHTR1 2 3 5     TFM2 5
Dihydrotestosterone Receptor1 2 3     Kennedy Disease1
SBMA1 2 5     Spinal And Bulbar Muscular Atrophy1
Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 3 Group C Member 42 3     Testicular Feminization1
NR3C42 3     AIS2
HYSP12 5     HUMARA2
KD2 5     Androgen Nuclear Receptor Variant 22

External Ids:    HGNC: 6441   Entrez Gene: 3672   Ensembl: ENSG000001690837   OMIM: 3137005   UniProtKB: P102753   

Export aliases for AR gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XP062984 GC0XP064229 GC0XP064997 GC0XP065630 GC0XP066546 GC0XP066680 GC0XP060592


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for AR Gene:
The androgen receptor gene is more than 90 kb long and codes for a protein that has 3 major functional domains:
the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, and androgen-binding domain. The protein functions as a
steroid-hormone activated transcription factor. Upon binding the hormone ligand, the receptor dissociates from
accessory proteins, translocates into the nucleus, dimerizes, and then stimulates transcription of androgen
responsive genes. This gene contains 2 polymorphic trinucleotide repeat segments that encode polyglutamine and
polyglycine tracts in the N-terminal transactivation domain of its protein. Expansion of the polyglutamine tract
causes spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease). Mutations in this gene are also associated with complete
androgen insensitivity (CAIS). Two alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described.
(provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for AR Gene:
AR (androgen receptor) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with AR include prostate cancer, and androgen insensitivity syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include chromatin binding and sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is NR4A3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ANDR_HUMAN, P10275
Function: Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene
expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity
is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2.
Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3

summary for AR Gene:
Androgen receptors (ARs) (also known as dihydrotestosterone receptors) are nuclear hormone receptors of the
NR3C class, which also includes mineralocorticoid, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors. They are
expressed in bone marrow, mammary gland, prostate, testicular and muscle tissues where they exist as dimers
coupled to Hsp90 and HMGB proteins, which are shed upon ligand binding. Activated androgen receptors bind to
nuclear response elements of the genome, with an inverted palindromic 15 nucleotide sequence, to regulate
gene transcription. Androgen receptors also effect gene expression through interaction with transcription
factors including AP-1, NF-kappaB and STAT. Target genes of androgen receptors include insulin-like growth
factor 1 (IGF-1) and genes involved in the development of primary and secondary male sexual characteristics,
maintenance of sexual function and possibly have a causative role in aggressive behavior. Furthermore,
androgen receptors have recently been shown to have actions that are independent of DNA interactions.
Congential mutations in androgen receptors are associated with androgen insensitivity syndromes, virility
and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Perturbations in androgen receptor expression is also a common
feature of prostate cancer. The human gene encoding the androgen receptor has been localized to Xq11-12.

Gene Wiki entry for AR (Androgen receptor) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000023.10  NC_018934.2  NT_011651.18  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the AR gene promoter:
         GR   Sp1   GR-beta   GR-alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): AR promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for AR

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat AR


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xq12   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xq12   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xq12

AR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
AR gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XP066763:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
66,763,874 bp from pter      End:
66,950,461 bp from pter
Size:
186,588 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ANDR_HUMAN, P10275 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Androgen receptor  
Size: 919 amino acids; 98989 Da
Subunit: Binds DNA as a homodimer. Part of a ternary complex containing AR, EFCAB6/DJBP and PARK7. Interacts with
HIPK3 and NR0B2 in the presence of androgen. The ligand binding domain interacts with KAT7/HBO1 in the presence
of dihydrotestosterone. Interacts with EFCAB6/DJBP, PELP1, PQBP1, RANBP9, RBAK, SPDEF, SRA1, TGFB1I1, ZNF318 and
RREB1. Interacts with ZMIZ1/ZIMP10 and ZMIZ2/ZMIP7 which both enhance its transactivation activity. Interacts
with SLC30A9 and RAD54L2/ARIP4 (By similarity). Interacts via the ligand-binding domain with LXXLL and FXXLF
motifs from NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, NCOA4 and MAGEA11. The AR N-terminal poly-Gln region binds Ran resulting in
enhancement of AR-mediated transactivation. Ran-binding decreases as the poly-Gln length increases. Interacts
with HIP1 (via coiled coil domain). Interacts (via ligand-binding domain) with TRIM68. Interacts with TNK2.
Interacts with USP26. Interacts with RNF6. Interacts (regulated by RNF6 probably through polyubiquitination) with
RNF14; regulates AR transcriptional activity. Interacts with PRMT2 and TRIM24. Interacts with GNB2L1/RACK1.
Interacts with RANBP10; this interaction enhances dihydrotestosterone-induced AR transcriptional activity.
Interacts with PRPF6 in a hormone-independent way; this interaction enhances dihydrotestosterone-induced AR
transcriptional activity. Interacts with STK4/MST1. Interacts with ZIPK/DAPK3. Interacts with LPXN. Interacts
with MAK. Part of a complex containing AR, MAK and NCOA3
Miscellaneous: In the absence of ligand, steroid hormone receptors are thought to be weakly associated with
nuclear components; hormone binding greatly increases receptor affinity. The hormone-receptor complex appears to
recognize discrete DNA sequences upstream of transcriptional start sites
Miscellaneous: Transcriptional activity is enhanced by binding to RANBP9
Miscellaneous: The level of tyrosine phosphorylation may serve as a diagnostic tool to predict patient outcome in
response to hormone-ablation therapy. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation may be an effective intervention
target for hormone-refractory prostate cancer
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for AR (see all 54):
1E3G (3D)        1GS4 (3D)        1T5Z (3D)        1T63 (3D)        1T65 (3D)        1XJ7 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A2RUN2 B1AKD7 Q9UD95
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P10275-1   P10275-2   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for AR: NX_P10275

Explore proteomics data for AR at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Sumoylated on Lys-386 (major) and Lys-520. Ubiquitinated. Deubiquitinated by USP26. 'Lys-6' and 'Lys-27'-linked
    polyubiquitination by RNF6 modulates AR transcriptional activity and specificity1
  • Phosphorylated in prostate cancer cells in response to several growth factors including EGF. Phosphorylation is
    induced by c-Src kinase (CSK). Tyr-534 is one of the major phosphorylation sites and an increase in
    phosphorylation and Src kinase activity is associated with prostate cancer progression. Phosphorylation by TNK2
    enhances the DNA-binding and transcriptional activity and may be responsible for androgen-independent progression
    of prostate cancer. Phosphorylation at Ser-81 by CDK9 regulates AR promoter selectivity and cell growth.
    Phosphorylation by PAK6 leads to AR-mediated transcription inhibition1
  • Palmitoylated by ZDHHC7 and ZDHHC21. Palmitoylation is required for plasma membrane targeting and for rapid
    intracellular signaling via ERK and AKT kinases and cAMP generation1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys845, Lys847
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See AR Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000035.2  NP_001011645.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000363822   ENSP00000421155   ENSP00000425199   ENSP00000379358   ENSP00000379359  
    Reactome Protein details: P10275

    AR Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for AR
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for AR
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for AR
    Novus Biologicals AR Protein
    Novus Biologicals AR Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for AR

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for AR 

    AR Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of AR
    R&D Systems Antibodies for AR (Androgen R/NR3C4)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for AR 
    OriGene Antibodies for AR
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for AR
    Novus Biologicals AR Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for AR
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for AR
    ThermoFisher Antibody for AR
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for AR

    AR Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for AR
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for AR
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for AR
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for AR
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for AR
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for AR 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    NR: Nuclear hormone receptors

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: Androgen receptor
    3C. 3-Ketosteroid receptors

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR008946 Nucl_hormone_rcpt_ligand-bd
     IPR001103 Andrgn_rcpt
     IPR013088 Znf_NHR/GATA
     IPR000536 Nucl_hrmn_rcpt_lig-bd_core
     IPR001628 Znf_hrmn_rcpt

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P10275

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P10275

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001103 Androgen receptor signature

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ANDR_HUMAN, P10275
    Domain: Composed of three domains: a modulating N-terminal domain, a DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal
    ligand-binding domain. In the presence of bound steroid the ligand-binding domain interacts with the N-terminal
    modulating domain, and thereby activates AR transcription factor activity. Agonist binding is required for
    dimerization and binding to target DNA. The transcription factor activity of the complex formed by
    ligand-activated AR and DNA is modulated by interactions with coactivator and corepressor proteins. Interaction
    with RANBP9 is mediated by both the N-terminal domain and the DNA-binding domain. Interaction with EFCAB6/DJBP is
    mediated by the DNA-binding domain
    Similarity: Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR3 subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain


    Find genes that share domains with AR           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ANDR_HUMAN, P10275
    Function: Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene
    expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity
    is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2.
    Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3
    Enzyme regulation: AIM-100 (4-amino-5,6-biaryl-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine) suppresses TNK2-mediated phosphorylation at
    Tyr-267. Inhibits the binding of the Tyr-267 phosphorylated form to androgen-responsive enhancers (AREs) and its
    transcriptional activity

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for AR:
    androgen receptor,steroid/thyroid hormone,receptor superfamily

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 21):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001085RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding IPI16120611
    GO:0003677DNA binding NAS10075738
    GO:0003682chromatin binding IDA--
    GO:0003700sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity IDA11477070
    GO:0003707steroid hormone receptor activity ----
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with AR           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for AR:
     Synthetic lethal with Ras 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 20 alleles(MGI details for Ar) (see all 21):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary 
     embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  integument  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  muscle 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with AR           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for AR: Artm1.1Chc Artm1.1Verh Artm1Ska Artm1.1Jdz Artm1.1Reb

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for AR
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for AR

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for AR
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for AR

    Transcription Factor Targeting: 
    Targeting motifs: HOMER Transcription Factor Regulatory Elements motif viewer 
                                          Consensus sequence:  AGAACAGNCTGTTCTT 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target AR:
    hsa-mir-124-3p (MIRT006451), hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT052016), hsa-mir-185-5p (MIRT035517), hsa-mir-488-5p (MIRT003789)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat AR using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate AR (see all 22):
    hsa-miR-644 hsa-miR-3678-3p hsa-miR-509-5p hsa-miR-301a hsa-miR-3125 hsa-miR-3916 hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-298
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidAR 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for AR
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat AR

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for AR

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for AR (see all 13)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for AR
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: AR (NM_001605)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for AR
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for AR
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat AR
    Addgene plasmids for AR 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for AR
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for AR 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for AR

    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-10616 VA4-11155 VA6-13787) for AR 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ANDR_HUMAN, P10275: Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Note=Predominantly cytoplasmic in unligated form but translocates to the
    nucleus upon ligand-binding. Can also translocate to the nucleus in unligated form in the presence of GNB2L1
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol3
    cytoskeleton2
    extracellular2
    mitochondrion2
    plasma membrane2
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000790nuclear chromatin IDA17277772
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA15572661
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA15572661
    GO:0005886plasma membrane ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with AR           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for AR About   (see all 26)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway
    Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway0.67
    Nuclear Receptors0.67
    2Transcription Androgen Receptor nuclear signaling
    Transcription Androgen Receptor nuclear signaling0.49
    Translation Non genomic rapid action of Androgen Receptor0.49
    3Gene Expression
    Generic Transcription Pathway0.40
    Gene Expression0.40
    4Akt Signaling
    Akt Signaling0.60
    5Androgen Signaling
    Androgen Signaling0.52


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with AR           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 R&D Systems Pathway for AR
        TGF-beta Signaling Pathways

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for AR
        Androgen Signaling
    Akt Signaling

    4 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for AR
        Transcription Androgen Receptor nuclear signaling
    Signal transduction PKA signaling
    Transcription Role of VDR in regulation of genes involved in osteoporosis
    Translation Non-genomic (rapid) action of Androgen Receptor

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for AR (see all 16)
        Nuclear Receptors
    SIDS Susceptibility Pathways
    Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway
    TGF-beta Receptor Signaling Pathway
    Androgen receptor signaling pathway


    1 Reactome Pathway for AR
        Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway


    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for AR):
        Oocyte meiosis
    Pathways in cancer
    Prostate cancer

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including AR (see all 7): 
              Breast Cancer in human mouse rat
              TGFB Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              Transcription Factors in human mouse rat
              Prostate Cancer in human mouse rat
              Nuclear Receptors & Coregulators in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for AR

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for AR (P102751, 2, 3 ENSP000003638224) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 329)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    HSPA1AP081073, ENSP000003648024I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000364802
    ENSG00000212866P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000215328P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000224501P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000231555P081073I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 55):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001701in utero embryonic development ----
    GO:0003073regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure ----
    GO:0006351transcription, DNA-templated IDA15572661
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ----
    GO:0006357regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with AR           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for AR
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for AR available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    TestosteroneEndogenous androgen receptor agonist[58-22-0]
    FlutamideNon-steroidal androgen receptor antagonist[13311-84-7]
    NilutamideAndrogen receptor antagonist. Orally active[63612-50-0]
    BicalutamideNon-steroidal androgen receptor antagonist[90357-06-5]
    Cl-4AS-1Steroidal androgen receptor agonist[188589-66-4]

    6 HMDB Compounds for AR    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Androsterone(3R,5S,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S)-3-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-tetradecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one (see all 28)53-41-87591265
    Androstenedione(4)-Androsten-3,17-dione (see all 14)63-05-8--
    Dihydrotestosterone17-Hydroxy-androstan-3-one (see all 31)521-18-6--
    FinasterideFinasterida (see all 8)98319-26-7--
    Nandrolone(17-beta)-17-Hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one (see all 23)434-22-0--
    Testosterone(+)-testosterone (see all 86)58-22-0--

    Selected DrugBank Compounds for AR (see all 41)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Nilutamide-- 63612-50-0targetantagonist6374639 20541672 3320565 12496872 3071951 11752352 12497018 16986000 12497048
    Flutamide-- 13311-84-7targetantagonist10752671 10822172 11752352 10879806 11162924 12231070 10500149
    Bicalutamide-- 90357-06-5targetantagonist11752352 10754148 11931851 10500149 12517791 10076535
    Calusterone17-beta-Hydroxy-7-beta,17-alpha-dimethylandrost-4-ene-3-one (see all 11)17021-26-0target--17016423 17322500 11511858 152592 17084172 17086931
    FluoxymesteroneAndrofluorene (see all 8)76-43-7targetagonist17023534 10077001 11752352 6439037 8119180 2521824
    Methyltestosterone17-methyltestosterone (see all 3)58-18-4targetagonist17202804 11752352 17322500 17128417 17084172 17086931
    Nandrolone phenpropionate19NTPP (see all 11)434-22-0targetagonist14619588 14761877 12760377 11752352 14663936 17405825
    TestosteroneTES (see all 9)58-22-0targetagonist17202804 11752352 17322500 17128417 17084172 17086931
    Testosterone Propionate-- 57-85-2targetagonist17202804 17322500 17128417 12604714 17084172 17086931
    Cyproterone-- 2098-66-0targetantagonist15483189 17139284 19463689 17016423 15579329

    8 IUPHAR Ligands for AR (Androgen receptor)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    dihydrotestosterone
    AgonistAgonist9.32911578
    mibolerone
    AgonistAgonist8.9610852459
    nilutamide
    AntagonistAntagonist7.07 - 7.129111629
    hydroxyflutamide
    AntagonistAntagonist6.610076535
    methyltrienolone
    AgonistAgonist510076535
    [3H]dihydrotestosterone
    AgonistAgonist5--
    [3H]mibolerone
    AgonistAgonist5--
    [3H]R1881
    AgonistAgonist5--

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for AR gene (see all 132)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    testosterone 96.6 5022 10551783 (11), 11181525 (8), 8961268 (8), 9383273 (7) (see all 99)
    dihydrotestosterone 92.4 526 8883929 (5), 16434977 (4), 1425449 (4), 18695894 (4) (see all 99)
    bicalutamide 92.4 197 17804755 (5), 15754350 (4), 10828827 (4), 12517791 (3) (see all 96)
    hydroxyflutamide 92.3 102 12941811 (3), 16129672 (3), 12414626 (2), 15166229 (2) (see all 58)
    r1881 85.8 30 18591159 (3), 7784269 (3), 1526623 (2), 2214782 (1) (see all 19)
    flutamide 80 96 10363963 (4), 17559882 (3), 17984247 (3), 16281084 (2) (see all 61)
    steroid 79.3 238 12923188 (3), 2177837 (3), 8067700 (2), 8043498 (2) (see all 99)
    mibolerone 78.8 15 2214782 (1), 2127955 (1), 8446106 (1), 1722054 (1) (see all 11)
    estrogen 77.6 393 9593644 (4), 16123086 (3), 1654243 (3), 18030175 (3) (see all 99)
    cyproteroneacetate 76.3 79 15256534 (4), 14744261 (3), 12573824 (2), 8146066 (2) (see all 32)



    Find genes that share compounds with AR           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for AR gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000044.3  NM_001011645.2  

    Unigene Cluster for AR:

    Androgen receptor
    Hs.76704  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000044
    6 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000374690(uc004dwu.2 uc022byk.1 uc004dwv.2) ENST00000513847(uc011mpd.2)
    ENST00000504326(uc011mpf.1 uc022byj.1) ENST00000514029(uc011mpe.1)
    ENST00000396043 ENST00000396044
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate AR (see all 22):
    hsa-miR-644 hsa-miR-3678-3p hsa-miR-509-5p hsa-miR-301a hsa-miR-3125 hsa-miR-3916 hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-298
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidAR 3' UTR sequence
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: AR (NM_001605)
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat AR
    Addgene plasmids for AR 
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    Flow Cytometry
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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-10616 VA4-11155 VA6-13787) for AR 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF162704.1 AF321914.1 AF321915.1 AF321916.1 AF321917.1 BC132975.1 FJ235916.1 FJ235917.1 
    FJ235918.1 FJ235919.1 FJ235920.1 GU208210.1 HM055487.1 HQ692823.1 L29496.1 M20132.1 
    M20260.1 M21748.1 M23263.1 M34233.1 M73069.1 

    9 DOTS entries:

    DT.113506  DT.113163  DT.95340817  DT.95340822  DT.97839012  DT.91712255  DT.75139451  DT.91665721 
    DT.121314197 

    22 AceView cDNA sequences:

    NM_000044 AI659563 AF321917 AW294182 AF321915 AL704463 AF321914 M20132 
    BE858867 AF321916 AA230070 L29496 M20260 M34233 M23263 AF162704 
    AA229063 CF140197 AW951855 BX106842 AF324243 T28396 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    AR expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCACCTTCAG
    AR Expression
    About this image


    AR expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)
             Oviduct
     
     Adipose (Muscoskeletal System)
             Visceral White Adipose
     
     Gonad
             Peritubular Myoid Cells Testis Cord
    AR Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    AR Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.76704

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ANDR_HUMAN, P10275
    Tissue specificity: Isoform 2 is mainly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including AR (see all 7): 
              Breast Cancer in human mouse rat
              TGFB Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              Transcription Factors in human mouse rat
              Prostate Cancer in human mouse rat
              Nuclear Receptors & Coregulators in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    In Situ
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for AR

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for AR gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ar1 , 5 androgen receptor1, 5 87.88(n)1
    89.13(a)1
      X (42.82 cM)5
    118351  NM_013476.31  NP_038504.11 
     981497215 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves AR1 androgen receptor 70.8(n)
    71.14(a)
      422165  NM_001040090.1  NP_001035179.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia AR6
    Androgen receptor; Uncharacterized protein
    91(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343465.1(293183-349405)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.4262 Xenopus laevis androgen receptor alpha isoform (X1 more 80.66(n)    U67129.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii ar6
    androgen receptor
    41(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(37179505-37297038) ENSDARG00000067976


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for AR (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for AR (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section

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    Paralogs for AR gene
    NR4A32  ESRRA2  NR3C22  NR4A12  PGR2  ESR22  NR3C12  NR4A22  
    ESRRB2  ESR12  ESRRG2  
    16 SIMAP similar genes for AR using alignment to 21 protein entries:     ANDR_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    NR3C4    AR8    NR3C2    ESRRA    ESR1    NR1I3
    HNF4alpha    HNF4G    NR3C1    NR5A1    RORA    THRB
    VDR    PGR    ESRRG    NR2C2

    Find genes that share paralogs with AR           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ANDR_HUMAN, P10275: The poly-Gln region of AR is highly polymorphic and the number of Gln varies in the population (from
    17 to 26). A smaller size of the poly-Gln region may be associated with the development of prostate cancer
    ANDR_HUMAN, P10275: The poly-Gly region of AR is polymorphic and ranges from 24 to 31 Gly. A poly-Gly region shorter or
    equal to 23 may be associated with the development of androgenetic alopecia


    Selected SNPs for AR (see all 2519)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr X posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0098594
    Prostate cancer4--see VAR_0098592 K R mis40--------
    VAR_0098294
    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)4--see VAR_0098292 G A mis40--------
    VAR_0098304
    Androgen insensitivity, partial (PAIS)4--see VAR_0098302 L V mis40--------
    VAR_0098374
    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)4--see VAR_0098372 L R mis40--------
    VAR_0097304
    Prostate cancer4--see VAR_0097302 T A mis40--------
    VAR_0097284
    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)4--see VAR_0097282 A D mis40--------
    VAR_0046874
    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)4--see VAR_0046872 I N mis40--------
    VAR_0098634
    Prostate cancer4--see VAR_0098632 Q R mis40--------
    VAR_0098274
    Androgen insensitivity, partial (PAIS)4--see VAR_0098272 M T mis40--------
    VAR_0047144
    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)4--see VAR_0047142 F S mis40--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for AR (66763874 - 66950461 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for AR:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2740196CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv818030CNV Gain17921354
    essv22087CNV CNV17122850
    dgv2450e1CNV Complex17122850
    esv1584074OTHER Inversion17803354

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): AR
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): AR

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    3 Copy Number PCR Panels containing AR:
    Oncogenes & Tumor Suppressor Genes 384HC
    WNT Signaling
    Prostate Cancer
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing AR
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for AR

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 313700   
    OMIM disorders: 300068  313200  312300  176807  300633  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ANDR_HUMAN, P10275
  • Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) [MIM:300068]: An X-linked recessive form of pseudohermaphroditism
    due end-organ resistance to androgen. Affected males have female external genitalia, female breast development,
    blind vagina, absent uterus and female adnexa, and abdominal or inguinal testes, despite a normal 46,XY
    karyotype. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy X-linked 1 (SMAX1) [MIM:313200]: An X-linked recessive form of spinal
    muscular atrophy. Spinal muscular atrophy refers to a group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by
    degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, leading to symmetrical muscle weakness and atrophy.
    SMAX1 occurs only in men. Age at onset is usually in the third to fifth decade of life, but earlier involvement
    has been reported. It is characterized by slowly progressive limb and bulbar muscle weakness with fasciculations,
    muscle atrophy, and gynecomastia. The disorder is clinically similar to classic forms of autosomal spinal
    muscular atrophy. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Caused by
    trinucleotide CAG repeat expansion. In SMAX1 patients the number of Gln ranges from 38 to 62. Longer expansions
    result in earlier onset and more severe clinical manifestations of the disease
  • Note=Defects in AR may play a role in metastatic prostate cancer. The mutated receptor stimulates
    prostate growth and metastases development despite of androgen ablation. This treatment can reduce primary and
    metastatic lesions probably by inducing apoptosis of tumor cells when they express the wild-type receptor
  • Androgen insensitivity, partial (PAIS) [MIM:312300]: A disorder that is characterized by hypospadias,
    hypogonadism, gynecomastia, genital ambiguity, normal XY karyotype, and a pedigree pattern consistent with
    X-linked recessive inheritance. Some patients present azoospermia or severe oligospermia without other clinical
    manifestations. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • Selected diseases for AR (see all 27):    
    About MalaCards
    prostate cancer    androgen insensitivity syndrome    complete androgen insensitivity syndrome    kennedy's disease
    x-linked spinal-bulbar muscle atrophy    spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy    spermatogenesis arrest    isolated micropenis
    hypospadias 1, x-linked    partial androgen insensitivity syndrome    gastric neuroendocrine neoplasm    muscular atrophy
    hypospadias 2, x-linked    gender identity disorder    germ cell cancer    vaginitis
    hypospadias    transsexualism    mammary paget's disease    withdrawal disorder

    20 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for AR:
    Prostate cancer     Androgen insensitivity syndrome     Hypospadias     Motor neuron disease
    Gynecomastia     Male infertility     Carcinoma     Pseudohermaphroditism
    Breast cancer     Cryptorchidism     Muscular atrophy     Infertility
    Hypogonadism     Prostatic hypertrophy     Alopecia     dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy
    Withdrawal disorder     Polycystic ovary syndrome     Hyperandrogenism     Huntington's disease

    Find genes that share disorders with AR           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for AR gene (see all 95)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    prostate cancer 93.3 2220 12970746 (8), 16598769 (6), 19628766 (6), 10910077 (6) (see all 99)
    androgen insensitivity syndrome 93.2 99 19178528 (2), 9039340 (2), 11549642 (2), 11282274 (1) (see all 84)
    androgen insensitivity syndrome partial 90.5 24 9177411 (3), 1472458 (2), 8325932 (1), 8834252 (1) (see all 17)
    androgen insensitivity syndrome complete 87.5 39 9177411 (2), 19023143 (2), 9610419 (1), 10092153 (1) (see all 36)
    kennedy disease 86.5 31 7852512 (3), 7489816 (2), 16981011 (2), 8065934 (1) (see all 26)
    spinobulbar muscular atrophy 78 11 9177411 (2), 9466993 (1), 9642623 (1), 11751688 (1) (see all 9)
    prostate carcinoma 74.3 99 15029260 (3), 7541709 (3), 7971517 (3), 9267828 (3) (see all 68)
    virilization 71.8 33 9360511 (3), 12242031 (3), 15713272 (2), 9039340 (2) (see all 22)
    recurrent prostate cancer 67.6 19 14532783 (4), 14662770 (3), 16619264 (2), 15833875 (1) (see all 9)
    benign prostatic hyperplasia 65.3 43 14654929 (2), 9816246 (2), 12845678 (1), 16483160 (1) (see all 33)

    GeneTests: AR
    GeneReviews: AR
    Genetic Association Database (GAD): AR
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: AR (1395 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): AR

    Export disorders for AR gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

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    PubMed articles for AR gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 3085):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with AR)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Mutations in the androgen receptor gene are associated with progression of human prostate cancer to androgen independence. (PubMed id 9816170)1, 2, 4, 9 Tilley W.D.... Bentel J.M. (Clin. Cancer Res. 1996)
    2. Structural basis for the glucocorticoid response in a mutant human androgen receptor (AR(ccr)) derived from an androgen-independent prostate cancer. (PubMed id 11906285)1, 2, 7 Matias P.M.... Donner P. (J. Med. Chem. 2002)
    3. Polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene is associated with male pattern baldness. (PubMed id 11231320)1, 2, 4 Ellis J.A.... Harrap S.B. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 2001)
    4. An androgen receptor mutation in the direct vicinity of the proposed C-terminal alpha-helix of the ligand binding domain containing the AF- 2 transcriptional activating function core is associated with complete androgen insensitivity. (PubMed id 10221770)1, 2, 4 Peters I....Spindler K.D. (Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 1999)
    5. Androgen receptor gene mutations are rarely associated with isolated penile hypospadias. (PubMed id 8683794)1, 2, 4 Sutherland R.W.... Lamb D.J. (J. Urol. 1996)
    6. Mutant androgen receptors in prostatic tumors distinguish between amino-acid-sequence requirements for transactivation and ligand binding. (PubMed id 7591265)1, 2, 6 Peterziel H.... Cato A.C.B. (Int. J. Cancer 1995)
    7. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome associated with a de novo mutation of the androgen receptor gene detected by single strand conformation polymorphism. (PubMed id 8096390)1, 2, 4 Lobaccaro J.-M.... Sultan C. (J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 1993)
    8. Cloning, structure and expression of a cDNA encoding the human androgen receptor. (PubMed id 3377788)1, 2, 3 Trapman J.... Brinkmann A.O. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1988)
    9. Molecular cloning of human and rat complementary DNA encoding androgen receptors. (PubMed id 3353726)1, 2, 3 Chang C.... Liao S. (Science 1988)
    10. Functional characterization of naturally occurring mutant androgen receptors from subjects with complete androgen insensitivity. (PubMed id 2082179)1, 2, 9 Brown T.R....Corfen J.L. (Mol. Endocrinol. 1990)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 367 HGNC: 644 AceView: AR Ensembl:ENSG00000169083 euGenes: HUgn367
    ECgene: AR Kegg: 367 H-InvDB: AR

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for AR Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for AR Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Androgen receptor gene mutations databasehttp://androgendb.mcgill.ca
    GeneReviewshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1116/?term=AR[genesymbol]
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Androgen_receptor

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for AR gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving AR

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for AR
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014 , 21 Aug 2014 , 8 Sep 2014

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