Aliases for AR Gene
External Ids for AR Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for AR Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AR Gene
The androgen receptor gene is more than 90 kb long and codes for a protein that has 3 major functional domains: the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, and androgen-binding domain. The protein functions as a steroid-hormone activated transcription factor. Upon binding the hormone ligand, the receptor dissociates from accessory proteins, translocates into the nucleus, dimerizes, and then stimulates transcription of androgen responsive genes. This gene contains 2 polymorphic trinucleotide repeat segments that encode polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the N-terminal transactivation domain of its protein. Expansion of the polyglutamine tract from the normal 9-34 repeats to the pathogenic 38-62 repeats causes spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease). Mutations in this gene are also associated with complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS). Two alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]
GeneCards Summary for AR Gene
AR (Androgen Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AR include Androgen Insensitivity, Partial, With Or Without Breast Cancer and Androgen Insensitivity. Among its related pathways are Regulation of nuclear SMAD2/3 signaling and Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding and chromatin binding. An important paralog of this gene is PGR.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AR Gene
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Isoform 3 and isoform 4 lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain and may therefore constitutively activate the transcription of a specific set of genes independently of steroid hormones.
Androgen receptors (ARs) (dihydrotestosterone receptors) are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR3C class, which includes mineralocorticoid, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors. ARs are expressed in bone marrow, mammary gland and prostate tissues.