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APOL4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 50
GCID: GC22M036585

Apolipoprotein L, 4

  See APOL4-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Apolipoprotein L, 41 2
Apolipoprotein L-IV2 3
APOL-IV2
APOLIV2
Apolipoprotein L42
ApoL-IV3

External Ids:    HGNC: 148671   Entrez Gene: 808322   Ensembl: ENSG000001003367   OMIM: 6072545   UniProtKB: Q9BPW43   

Export aliases for APOL4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC22M033228 GC22M034856 GC22M034909 GC22M019554


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for APOL4 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L family and may play a role in lipid exchange
and transport throughout the body, as well as in reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral cells to the
liver. Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. Only one of the
isoforms appears to be a secreted protein. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for APOL4 Gene:
APOL4 (apolipoprotein L, 4) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with APOL4 include schizophrenia. GO annotations related to this gene include lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is APOL6.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: APOL4_HUMAN, Q9BPW4
Function: May play a role in lipid exchange and transport throughout the body. May participate in reverse
cholesterol transport from peripheral cells to the liver (By similarity)




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000022.10  NC_018933.2  NT_011520.13  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the APOL4 gene promoter:
         IRF-2   ISGF-3   IRF-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): APOL4 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for APOL4

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat APOL4


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 22q11.2-q13.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  22q12.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 22q11.2-q13.2

APOL4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
APOL4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 22         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC22M036585:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
36,585,172 bp from pter      End:
36,600,886 bp from pter
Size:
15,715 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: APOL4_HUMAN, Q9BPW4 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Apolipoprotein L4 precursor  
Size: 351 amino acids; 39164 Da
Secondary accessions: Q9BQ37 Q9BXQ8
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  Q9BPW4-1   Q9BPW4-2   Q9BPW4-3   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for APOL4: NX_Q9BPW4

Explore proteomics data for APOL4 at MOPED


See APOL4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
NP_085146.2  NP_663693.1  

ENSEMBL proteins: 
 ENSP00000385119   ENSP00000384011   ENSP00000404366   ENSP00000432133   ENSP00000409085  
 ENSP00000395548   ENSP00000388936   ENSP00000380445   ENSP00000393096   ENSP00000338260  
 ENSP00000333229   ENSP00000331089  

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(According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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HGNC Gene Families:
APOLIPO: Apolipoproteins

1 InterPro protein domain:
 IPR008405 ApoL

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9BPW4

ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9BPW4

1 Blocks protein domain: IPB008405 Apolipoprotein L

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: APOL4_HUMAN, Q9BPW4
Similarity: Belongs to the apolipoprotein L family


Find genes that share domains with APOL4           About GenesLikeMe


(According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Molecular Function:

     UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: APOL4_HUMAN, Q9BPW4
Function: May play a role in lipid exchange and transport throughout the body. May participate in reverse
cholesterol transport from peripheral cells to the liver (By similarity)

     Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0003674molecular_function ND--
GO:0008289lipid binding IEA--
     
Find genes that share ontologies with APOL4           About GenesLikeMe


Phenotypes:
     1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for APOL4:
 Decreased nuclei size in G2M 

Animal Models:
   inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for APOL4
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   genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for APOL4

miRNA
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Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat APOL4

Gene Editing
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GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): APOL4 (NM_145660)
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Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat APOL4

Cell Line
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In Situ Assay
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(According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
APOL4_HUMAN, Q9BPW4: Secreted (Potential)
Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

CompartmentConfidence
extracellular3
endoplasmic reticulum2
mitochondrion1
peroxisome1
plasma membrane1

Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0005575cellular_component ND--
GO:0005576extracellular region ----
GO:0005615extracellular space ISS--

Find genes that share ontologies with APOL4           About GenesLikeMe


(SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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SuperPaths for APOL4 About    
See pathways by source

SuperPathContained pathways About
1Cholesterol and Sphingolipids transport Recycling to plasma membrane in lung normal and CF
Cholesterol and Sphingolipids transport Recycling to plasma membrane in lung normal and CF

Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
Show all pathways


1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for APOL4
    Cholesterol and Sphingolipids transport / Recycling to plasma membrane in lung (normal and CF)


    Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for APOL4
Interactions:

    Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for APOL4

Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0006629lipid metabolic process NAS11944986
GO:0006869lipid transport IEA--
GO:0042157lipoprotein metabolic process IEA--

Find genes that share ontologies with APOL4           About GenesLikeMe



(Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
   Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
  Browse compounds at ApexBio 

Browse Tocris compounds for APOL4



(Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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REFSEQ mRNAs for APOL4 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
NM_030643.4  NM_145660.2  

Unigene Cluster for APOL4:

Apolipoprotein L, 4
Hs.115099  [show with all ESTs]
Unigene Representative Sequence: AY014914
15 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
ENST00000479929 ENST00000404685(uc003aox.3) ENST00000405511(uc003aow.3 uc010gww.3)
ENST00000429038 ENST00000524531 ENST00000493203 ENST00000457630 ENST00000419360
ENST00000449084 ENST00000397275(uc003aoy.3) ENST00000436763 ENST00000480236
ENST00000352371 ENST00000332987 ENST00000328429
miRNA
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SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidAPOL4 3' UTR sequence
Inhib. RNA
Products:
     
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Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat APOL4
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GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): APOL4 (NM_145660)
DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for APOL4
Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat APOL4
Primer
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OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for APOL4
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Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse / rat APOL4
  QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat APOL4
  QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat APOL4

Additional mRNA sequence: 

AF305226.1 AK225696.1 AK290466.1 AK290777.1 AK311506.1 AK312716.1 AK313637.1 AY014914.1 
AY014915.1 BC004150.2 BC006276.2 BC010131.2 BC017313.2 CR456380.1 

5 DOTS entries:

DT.75177220  DT.100777137  DT.92414720  DT.120643123  DT.99939503 

Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 77):

BC017313 AA974092 BC010131 CR607178 BC006276 NM_145660 NM_030643 AF305226 
BE900719 BE900392 AW151446 BU584151 AI168715 BE900268 AI669093 AA025373 
AL601336 AY014915 BG941675 BX430523 AA774194 AI810804 BE902918 CB529457 

GeneLoc Exon Structure

Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for APOL4 (see all 6)    About this scheme

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b · 8c
SP1:                                            -                                                         
SP2:                                            -     -           -                                       
SP3:                                -     -     -     -           -                 -                     
SP4:                                            -     -           -                 -                     
SP5:                                            -     -           -                                       


ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for APOL4

(RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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APOL4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
CGAP TAG: --
APOL4 Expression
About this image

APOL4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

APOL4 Protein Expression

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.115099

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: APOL4_HUMAN, Q9BPW4
Tissue specificity: Widely expressed; the highest levels are in spinal cord, placenta, adrenal gland; also
detected in spleen, bone marrow, uterus, trachea, mammary gland and testis; levels are low in brain, heart and
pancreas

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In Situ
Assay Products:
 

 
Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for APOL4

(Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for APOL4 gene from Selected species (see all 7)    About this table
Organism Taxonomic
classification
Gene Description Human
Similarity
Orthology
Type
Details
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Apol7b5 apolipoprotein L 7b   --   15 (36.40 cM) 77422210 
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia --
--
Uncharacterized protein
42(a)
26(a)
many ↔ many
many ↔ many
5(21779188-21779424)
5(21745647-21750643)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii APOL46
apolipoprotein L, 4
11(a)
1 → many
3(29825427-29839518) ENSDARG00000073718


ENSEMBL Gene Tree for APOL4 (if available)
TreeFam Gene Tree for APOL4 (if available)

(Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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Paralogs for APOL4 gene
APOL62  APOL22  APOL52  APOL12  APOL32  
3 SIMAP similar genes for APOL4 using alignment to 11 protein entries:     APOL4_HUMAN (see all proteins):
APOL3    APOL2    APOL1

Find genes that share paralogs with APOL4           About GenesLikeMe



(SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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Selected SNPs for APOL4 (see all 595)    About this table                                 

Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
SNP IDValidClinical
significance
Chr 22 posSequence#AA
Chg
TypeMore#Allele
freq
PopTotal
sample
More
----------
rs628113621,2
C--19565654(+) AGCAT-/GTCACC 2 -- int10--------
rs1819781571,2
--20506124(+) TCAGGC/TACCCA 2 -- ds50010--------
rs1326971,2
C,F,A,H--20506154(+) TATCAG/ACACAC 2 -- ds500125Minor allele frequency- A:0.12NS EA NA WA CSA 2330
rs121591751,2
C,H--20506199(+) CAAGTC/TTCTAG 2 -- ds50014Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NS EA 420
rs1159935991,2
C,F--20506316(+) CAGGCT/CGGTTC 2 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- C:0.01WA 118
rs81360641,2
C,F,H--20506387(+) TTTTCT/GTCACA 2 -- ds500115Minor allele frequency- G:0.04NS EA NA WA 2212
rs57502361,2
C,F,A--20506603(+) TGACTC/TAAACA 2 -- ds50018Minor allele frequency- T:0.30NA WA CSA EA 367
rs1383506331,2
C--20506673(+) CAGCTC/TGAGAG 2 -- ut310--------
rs127811,2
C,F,A,H--20506683(+) GATCCG/AGCCTC 2 -- ut3195Minor allele frequency- A:0.25MN NS EA NA PA EU CA WA CSA 4819
rs412832071,2
C--20506812(+) GACACC/TTGGTC 2 -- ut310--------

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for APOL4 (36585172 - 36600886 bp)

Structural Variations
     Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for APOL4:    About this table    
Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
nsv915006CNV Loss21882294
esv7844OTHER Inversion19470904

Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing APOL4
DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for APOL4

(in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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OMIM gene information: 607254   
OMIM disorders: 181500  
1 disease for APOL4:    
About MalaCards
schizophrenia


Find genes that share disorders with APOL4           About GenesLikeMe

Genetic Association Database (GAD): APOL4
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: APOL4 (2 documents)

Export disorders for APOL4 gene to outside databases

(in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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PubMed articles for APOL4 gene integrated from 10 sources:
(articles sorted by number of sources associating them with APOL4)
    Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
world of online information

  1. The human apolipoprotein L gene cluster: identification, classification, and sites of distribution. (PubMed id 11374903)1, 2, 3 Page N.M.... Lowry P.J. (Genomics 2001)
  2. Apolipoprotein L gene family: tissue-specific expression, splicing, promoter regions; discovery of a new gene. (PubMed id 11290834)1, 2, 9 Duchateau P.N.... Kane J.P. (J. Lipid Res. 2001)
  3. Association of SNPs and haplotypes in APOL1, 2 and 4 with schizophrenia. (PubMed id 18632255)1, 4 Takahashi S....Tsuang M.T. (Schizophr. Res. 2008)
  4. Investigation of the apolipoprotein-L (APOL) gene family and schizophrenia using a novel DNA pooling strategy for public database SNPs. (PubMed id 15949655)1, 4 McGhee K.A....Corvin A. (Schizophr. Res. 2005)
  5. Candidate genes for non-diabetic ESRD in African Americans: a genome-wide association study using pooled DNA. (PubMed id 20532800)4 Bostrom M.A....Freedman B.I. (Hum. Genet. 2010)
  6. Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes. (PubMed id 16344560)1 Kimura K.... Sugano S. (Genome Res. 2006)
  7. A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome. (PubMed id 15461802)1 Collins J.E.... Dunham I. (Genome Biol. 2004)
  8. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
  9. The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution and is expressed in human vascular tissue. (PubMed id 11944986)1 Monajemi H.... Horrevoets A.J.G. (Genomics 2002)
  10. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. (PubMed id 8125298)1 Maruyama K. and Sugano S. (Gene 1994)

(in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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 ANDOR
Aliases
Free Text  

  Query String
PubMed
OMIM
NCBI Bookshelf
  (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

(According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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Entrez Gene: 80832 HGNC: 14867 AceView: APOL4 Ensembl:ENSG00000100336 euGenes: HUgn80832
ECgene: APOL4 H-InvDB: APOL4

(According to HUGE)
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  --

(According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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NameDescription
PharmGKB entry for APOL4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

(Patent information from GeneIP,
Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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Patent Information for APOL4 gene:
Search GeneIP for patents involving APOL4

GeneCards and IP:
Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



(Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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