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APLN Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 52
GCID: GC0XM128779

Apelin

(Previous names: apelin, AGTRL1 ligand)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
apelin1 2
APEL2 3
APJ Endogenous Ligand2 3
Apelin, AGTRL1 Ligand1
XNPEP22
AGTRL1 Ligand2

External Ids:    HGNC: 166651   Entrez Gene: 88622   Ensembl: ENSG000001713887   OMIM: 3002975   UniProtKB: Q9ULZ13   

Export aliases for APLN gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XM126724 GC0XM127485 GC0XM128504 GC0XM128607 GC0XM118183


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for APLN Gene:
This gene encodes a peptide that functions as an endogenous ligand for the G protein coupled receptor APJ. The
encoded protein is synthesized as a prepropeptide that is processed into biologically active C-terminal
fragments. The peptide fragments activate different tissue specific signaling pathways that regulate diverse
biological functions including fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular function and insulin secretion. This protein
also functions as a coreceptor for the human immunodeficiency virus 1.(provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010)

GeneCards Summary for APLN Gene:
APLN (apelin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with APLN include syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, and telangiectasis. GO annotations related to this gene include apelin receptor binding and receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: APEL_HUMAN, Q9ULZ1
Function: Endogenous ligand for APJ, an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection. Inhibits HIV-1 entry
in cells coexpressing CD4 and APJ. Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other
synthetic apelin derivatives. The oral intake in the colostrum and the milk could have a role in the modulation
of the immune responses in neonates. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by
influencing AVP release and drinking behavior

summary for APLN Gene:
Apelin-36, apelin-13 and [Pyr1]-apelin-13 are the predominant endogenous ligands for the apelin receptor
(APJ receptor), a G-protein-coupled receptor with considerable sequence homology to the angiotensin (AT1)
receptor. The APJ receptor and apelin peptides act as mediators of cardiovascular function, fluid
homeostasis and adipocyte endocrine secretion.

Gene Wiki entry for APLN (Apelin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000023.11  NC_018934.2  NT_011786.17  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the APLN gene promoter:
         GR   c-Fos   oct-B3   oct-B2   AP-1   ATF-2   c-Jun   GR-alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidAPLN promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for APLN

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat APLN


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xq25   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xq26.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xq25

APLN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
APLN gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XM128779:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
128,779,236 bp from pter      End:
128,788,933 bp from pter
Size:
9,698 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: APEL_HUMAN, Q9ULZ1 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Apelin precursor  
Size: 77 amino acids; 8569 Da
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAI95697.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction;
Secondary accessions: Q4VY08 Q8WU89

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for APLN: NX_Q9ULZ1

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Several active peptides may be produced by proteolytic processing of the peptide precursor1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • REFSEQ proteins: NP_059109.3  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000391800   ENSP00000390834   ENSP00000305464  
    Reactome Protein details: Q9ULZ1

    APLN Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals APLN Proteins
    Novus Biologicals APLN Lysates
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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for APLN

    APLN Antibody Products:

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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for APLN

    APLN Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for APLN


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR026155 Apelin

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9ULZ1

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9ULZ1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: APEL_HUMAN, Q9ULZ1
    Similarity: Belongs to the apelin family


    APLN for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: APEL_HUMAN, Q9ULZ1
    Function: Endogenous ligand for APJ, an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection. Inhibits HIV-1 entry
    in cells coexpressing CD4 and APJ. Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other
    synthetic apelin derivatives. The oral intake in the colostrum and the milk could have a role in the modulation
    of the immune responses in neonates. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by
    influencing AVP release and drinking behavior

         Summary: 

    APLN as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:
                fully expand
    Heart: Beating embryoid bodies (Mm), BMP4-induced embryoid bodies (Mm)      fully expand to see all 4 cells

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005102receptor binding TAS10525157
    GO:0005179hormone activity IEA--
    GO:0031704apelin receptor binding IEA--
         
    APLN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         7 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Apln):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  embryogenesis  growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism 
     muscle  vision/eye 

    APLN for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for APLN: Aplntm1Ntak Aplntm1Pngr

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for APLN
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for APLN
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for APLN

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target APLN:
    hsa-mir-30c-5p (MIRT047924), hsa-mir-30b-5p (MIRT046134)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat APLN using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate APLN (see all 59):
    hsa-miR-124* hsa-miR-142-5p hsa-miR-345 hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-503 hsa-miR-1304 hsa-miR-424 hsa-miR-124
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidAPLN 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for APLN
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat APLN

    Gene Editing
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: APLN (NM_005161)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for APLN
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat APLN

    Cell Line
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for APLN 
    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for APLN


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    APEL_HUMAN, Q9ULZ1: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IEA--
    GO:0048471perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA--

    APLN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for APLN About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.44
    2Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    2 Reactome Pathways for APLN
        Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    G alpha (i) signalling events



    APLN for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for APLN
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for APLN

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for APLN (Q9ULZ13 ENSP000003054644) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 144)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    APLNRP354143, ENSP000002572544I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000257254
    MDFIQ997503, ENSP000002303214I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000230321
    ADCY2ENSP000003429524STRING: ENSP00000342952
    CCR5ENSP000002923034STRING: ENSP00000292303
    HEBP1ENSP000000149304STRING: ENSP00000014930
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 16):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002026regulation of the force of heart contraction IEA--
    GO:0006955immune response TAS10525157
    GO:0007165signal transduction IEA--
    GO:0007595lactation TAS10525157
    GO:0007631feeding behavior ----

    APLN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for APLN available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    [Pyr1]-Apelin-13Potent peptide agonist for APJ receptor[217082-60-5]
    Apelin-36 (rat, mouse) Endogenous APJ receptor agonist[230299-95-3]
    Apelin-36 (human)Endogenous APJ receptor agonist[252642-12-9]
    Apelin-17 (human, bovine) Endogenous APJ receptor agonist[217082-57-0]
    ML 221Apelin receptor (APJ) antagonist[877636-42-5]

    8 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for APLN gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    glucose 20.1 22 19756893 (5), 20346374 (3), 17177135 (3), 19643928 (2) (see all 9)
    ly294002 11.9 5 16563531 (1), 17136493 (1)
    matrigel 9.04 3 15530405 (1), 17129829 (1)
    nitric oxide 2.23 9 17628718 (2), 18772060 (2), 11384769 (1), 19344973 (1) (see all 5)
    cholesterol 0 2 17647139 (1), 16549903 (1)
    calcium 0 3 19100414 (1), 10871767 (1), 18082469 (1)
    phosphatidylinositol 0 1 15677759 (1)
    alanine 0 1 19100414 (1)



    APLN for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for APLN gene: 
    NM_017413.4  

    Unigene Cluster for APLN:

    Apelin
    Hs.303084  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_017413
    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000429967 ENST00000427399 ENST00000307484(uc004eus.3)
    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat APLN using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate APLN (see all 59):
    hsa-miR-124* hsa-miR-142-5p hsa-miR-345 hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-503 hsa-miR-1304 hsa-miR-424 hsa-miR-124
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidAPLN 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Clone
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: APLN (NM_005161)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for APLN
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat APLN
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for APLN
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat APLN
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat APLN
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat APLN

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB023493.1 AF086248.1 AK001855.1 AK312061.1 AY358657.1 BC021104.1 

    7 DOTS entries:

    DT.113501  DT.95157535  DT.121284804  DT.75148381  DT.100743542  DT.86852695  DT.91750146 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 81):

    AA367347 BC021104 BF939872 BM975075 BM741808 AB023493 AA676726 BQ024597 
    NM_017413 AF086248 W67638 W94900 BM992527 AW015212 AY358657 AI419647 
    AA680168 W91937 AL544890 AA372030 AI149981 BF593250 BG324670 BF525679 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    APLN expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTCAGGAGGG
    APLN Expression
    About this image


    APLN expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 3) fully expand
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Mature Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
             Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)
             Endothelial-like cells
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Granulosa Cells Primary Follicle
     
     Brain (Nervous System)
             Mature Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
    APLN Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3 --

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.303084

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: APEL_HUMAN, Q9ULZ1
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in the brain with highest levels in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and
    midbrain. Secreted by the mammary gland into the colostrum and the milk

        Custom PCR Arrays for APLN
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    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat APLN
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for APLN

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and mouse.

    Orthologs for APLN gene from Selected species (see all 5)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Apln1 , 5 apelin1, 5 82.25(n)1
    83.12(a)1
      X (25.48 cM)5
    308781  NM_013912.31  NP_038940.11 
     480251465 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for APLN (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for APLN (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section

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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

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    Selected SNPs for APLN (see all 157)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr X posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1915203991,2
    --128734357(+) GAGCCA/GCCGCT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1815159131,2
    --128734466(+) TTTCTC/TTCCTA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1862411481,2
    --128734505(+) TTTGTC/TTGAAG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1402718981,2
    --128734694(+) ACCCAA/GTGTTC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs557709201,2
    C,F--128734738(+) ACAAAT/CGTGAA 1 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- C:0.00WA NA 5
    rs1910910121,2
    --128734739(+) CAAACA/GTGAAG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1820697711,2
    --128734815(+) CATCAA/GGCAAC 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1877629361,2
    --128734864(+) TTATCA/TAATGT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1910669741,2
    --128734865(+) TATCAA/CATGTA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs2010085141,2
    C--128735034(+) TGCTT-/AAAAAA 1 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for APLN (128779236 - 128788933 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for APLN:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv508800CNV Insertion20534489
    nsv528290CNV Gain19592680
    dgv2475e1CNV Complex17122850

    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): APLN

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing APLN
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for APLN

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 300297    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for APLN (see all 49):    
    About MalaCards
    syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone    telangiectasis    gestational diabetes    fatty liver disease
    obesity, association with    sleep apnea    morbid obesity    septic shock
    proliferative diabetic retinopathy    coronary artery disease    diabetic retinopathy    aortic valve stenosis
    retinopathy of prematurity    oral squamous cell carcinoma    eclampsia    obesity
    insulin resistance    hypoxia    dilated cardiomyopathy    atherosclerosis


    APLN for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for APLN gene (see all 18)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    heart failure 50.8 31 20385929 (3), 19785937 (3), 18583184 (3), 17223209 (2) (see all 16)
    insulin resistance 49.6 14 20233941 (2), 17177135 (2), 16723381 (2), 20403579 (1) (see all 10)
    obesity 44.5 27 16723381 (4), 19756893 (3), 20233941 (2), 16733497 (2) (see all 13)
    cardiovascular diseases 35.3 9 19829178 (2), 17266543 (2), 12681234 (1), 17970534 (1) (see all 7)
    atherosclerosis 31 4 12193079 (1), 19940327 (1), 20178040 (1)
    immunodeficiency 30.5 4 12939143 (1), 10475064 (1), 11090199 (1)
    inflammation 29.1 13 19100414 (2), 19304942 (2), 19278844 (1), 18816630 (1) (see all 10)
    hyperinsulinemia 23.4 4 20233941 (1), 20045153 (1), 17647139 (1), 16733497 (1)
    cardiomyopathy 20.4 4 17204831 (2), 16549903 (1)
    coronary artery disease 18.9 4 20403579 (2), 19100414 (1), 16549903 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): APLN
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: APLN (8 documents)

    Export disorders for APLN gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for APLN gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 233):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with APLN)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, is abundantly secreted in the colostrum. (PubMed id 10525157)1, 2, 3 Habata Y.... Fujino M. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1999)
    2. Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor. (PubMed id 9792798)1, 2, 3 Tatemoto K....Fujino M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1998)
    3. Family-based analysis of apelin and AGTRL1 gene polymorphisms with hypertension in Han Chinese. (PubMed id 19307984)1, 4, 9 Li W.W....Zhu D.L. (J. Hypertens. 2009)
    4. Association of apelin genetic variants with type 2 diabetes and related clinical features in Chinese Hans. (PubMed id 19567136)1, 4, 9 Zhang R....Jia W.P. (Chin. Med. J. 2009)
    5. Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan seven-transmembrane receptor APJ, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry. (PubMed id 11090199)1, 2, 9 Cayabyab M.... Sodroski J. (J. Virol. 2000)
    6. Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor. (PubMed id 10617103)1, 2, 9 Lee D.K.... O'Dowd B.F. (J. Neurochem. 2000)
    7. The 212A variant of the APJ receptor gene for the endogenous inotrope apelin is associated with slower heart failure progression in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. (PubMed id 17826642)1, 4, 9 Sarzani R....Rappelli A. (J. Card. Fail. 2007)
    8. Validation of genetic association in apelin-AGTRL1 system with hypertension in a larger Han Chinese population. (PubMed id 20485192)1, 4 Niu W....Zhu D. (J. Hypertens. 2010)
    9. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    10. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. (PubMed id 15772651)1, 2 Ross M.T.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2005)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    Aliases
    Disorders
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      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 8862 HGNC: 16665 AceView: APLN Ensembl:ENSG00000171388 euGenes: HUgn8862
    ECgene: APLN H-InvDB: APLN

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for APLN Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for APLN gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving APLN

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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