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Aliases for APLN Gene

Aliases for APLN Gene

  • Apelin 2 3 5
  • APJ Endogenous Ligand 3 4
  • APEL 3 4
  • Apelin, AGTRL1 Ligand 2
  • AGTRL1 Ligand 3
  • XNPEP2 3

External Ids for APLN Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for APLN Gene

  • GC0XM126724
  • GC0XM127485
  • GC0XM128504
  • GC0XM128607
  • GC0XM128779
  • GC0XM118183

Summaries for APLN Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for APLN Gene

  • This gene encodes a peptide that functions as an endogenous ligand for the G-protein coupled apelin receptor. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed into biologically active C-terminal peptide fragments. These peptide fragments activate different tissue specific signaling pathways that regulate diverse biological functions including fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular function and insulin secretion. This protein also functions as a coreceptor for the human immunodeficiency virus 1. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]

GeneCards Summary for APLN Gene

APLN (Apelin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with APLN include syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone and severe pre-eclampsia. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. GO annotations related to this gene include receptor binding and G-protein coupled receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for APLN Gene

  • Endogenous ligand for APJ, an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection. Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APJ. Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives. The oral intake in the colostrum and the milk could have a role in the modulation of the immune responses in neonates. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing AVP release and drinking behavior.

Tocris Summary for APLN Gene

  • Apelin-36, apelin-13 and [Pyr1]-apelin-13 are the predominant endogenous ligands for the apelin receptor (APJ) receptor. The APJ receptor and apelin peptides act as mediators of cardiovascular function, fluid homeostasis and adipocyte endocrine secretion.

Gene Wiki entry for APLN Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for APLN Gene

Genomics for APLN Gene

Regulatory Elements for APLN Gene

Promoters for APLN Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around APLN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for APLN Gene

Chromosome:
X
Start:
129,645,259 bp from pter
End:
129,654,956 bp from pter
Size:
9,698 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for APLN Gene

Genes around APLN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
APLN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for APLN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for APLN Gene

Proteins for APLN Gene

  • Protein details for APLN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9ULZ1-APEL_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Apelin
    Protein Accession:
    Q9ULZ1
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q4VY08
    • Q8WU89

    Protein attributes for APLN Gene

    Size:
    77 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    8569 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=CAI95697.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for APLN Gene

Proteomics data for APLN Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for APLN Gene

  • Several active peptides may be produced by proteolytic processing of the peptide precursor.

Other Protein References for APLN Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for APLN Gene

Domains & Families for APLN Gene

Gene Families for APLN Gene

Protein Domains for APLN Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9ULZ1

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

APEL_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the apelin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the apelin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with APLN: view

Function for APLN Gene

Molecular function for APLN Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Endogenous ligand for APJ, an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection. Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APJ. Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives. The oral intake in the colostrum and the milk could have a role in the modulation of the immune responses in neonates. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing AVP release and drinking behavior.

LifeMap Function Summary for APLN Gene

APLN as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for APLN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 receptor binding TAS 9792798
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APLN: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with APLN: view

Animal Models for APLN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for APLN:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for APLN

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for APLN Gene

Localization for APLN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for APLN Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for APLN Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for APLN gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 2
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for APLN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APLN: view

Pathways & Interactions for APLN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with APLN: view

Interacting Proteins for APLN Gene

Selected Interacting proteins: Q9ULZ1-APEL_HUMAN for APLN Gene via I2D

Symbol External ID(s) Details
APLNR
MDFI

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for APLN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006955 immune response TAS 10525157
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007631 feeding behavior IEA --
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation IEA --
GO:0042327 positive regulation of phosphorylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APLN: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for APLN Gene

Drugs & Compounds for APLN Gene

(5) Drugs for APLN Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(8) Additional Compounds for APLN Gene - From: Tocris and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
[Pyr1]-Apelin-13
217082-60-5
Apelin-17 (human, bovine)
217082-57-0
Apelin-36 (human)
252642-12-9
Apelin-36 (rat, mouse)
230299-95-3
ML 221
877636-42-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with APLN: view

Transcripts for APLN Gene

mRNA/cDNA for APLN Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(81) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for APLN Gene

Apelin:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for APLN Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for APLN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
APLN
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
APLN

Expression for APLN Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for APLN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for APLN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Spinal cord (cervical c-1) (x5.9) and Brain - Substantia nigra (x4.2).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for APLN Gene Hs.303084

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for APLN Gene

Q9ULZ1-APEL_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in the brain with highest levels in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain. Secreted by the mammary gland into the colostrum and the milk.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with APLN: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for APLN Gene

Orthologs for APLN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for APLN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia APLN 35
  • 84.85 (n)
  • 77.92 (a)
APLN 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia APLN 35
  • 87.01 (n)
  • 84.42 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Apln 35
  • 82.25 (n)
  • 83.12 (a)
Apln 16
Apln 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia APLN 36
  • 28 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Apln 35
  • 85.71 (n)
  • 81.82 (a)
Species with no ortholog for APLN:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for APLN Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for APLN (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for APLN (if available)

Paralogs for APLN Gene

No data available for Paralogs for APLN Gene

Variants for APLN Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for APLN Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs734975 -- 129,649,907(-) TTCAC(A/G)AGAGT intron-variant
rs2235312 -- 129,653,118(+) AGCCT(A/G)CCCAC intron-variant
rs2281069 -- 129,654,737(+) GGCGC(A/G)GAGCT utr-variant-5-prime
rs2142779 -- 129,656,755(+) CTCCC(A/G)GGTTC upstream-variant-2KB
rs3761580 -- 129,656,743(-) CGGAG(G/T)TTGCA upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for APLN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv2475e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv508800 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv528290 CNV Gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for APLN Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 5.93; 74.47% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for APLN Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
APLN
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
APLN

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for APLN Gene

Disorders for APLN Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for APLN Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
  • inappropriate adh syndrome
severe pre-eclampsia
  • antepartum severe pre-eclampsia
diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent
  • diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 2
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search APLN in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for APLN

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
APLN
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
APLN
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
APLN
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with APLN: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for APLN Gene

Publications for APLN Gene

  1. Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, is abundantly secreted in the colostrum. (PMID: 10525157) Habata Y. … Fujino M. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1999) 2 3 4 67
  2. Plasma apelin levels and apelin/APJ mRNA expression in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. (PMID: 19926159) Telejko B. … Gorska M. (Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2010) 3 23
  3. Plasma apelin levels in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (PMID: 20045153) Ercin C.N. … Acikel C. (Metab. Clin. Exp. 2010) 3 23
  4. Correlation between plasma levels of apelin and myocardial hypertrophy in rats and humans: possible target for treatment? (PMID: 20055692) FalcALo-Pires I. … Leite-Moreira A. (Expert Opin. Ther. Targets 2010) 3 23
  5. Plasma apelin and ADMA Levels in patients with essential hypertension. (PMID: 20504125) Sonmez A. … Kutlu M. (Clin. Exp. Hypertens. 2010) 3 23

Products for APLN Gene

Sources for APLN Gene

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