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Aliases for AOC2 Gene

Aliases for AOC2 Gene

  • Amine Oxidase, Copper Containing 2 (Retina-Specific) 2 3
  • RAO 3 4 6
  • Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase 3 4
  • SSAO 3 4
  • Retina-Specific Copper Amine Oxidase 3
  • Amine Oxidase [Copper-Containing] 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 1.4.3 63
  • DAO2 3

External Ids for AOC2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AOC2 Gene

  • GC17M040628
  • GC17P043158
  • GC17P040905
  • GC17P041369
  • GC17P038250
  • GC17P040996
  • GC17P036761

Summaries for AOC2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AOC2 Gene

  • Copper amine oxidases catalyze the oxidative conversion of amines to aldehydes and ammonia in the presence of copper and quinone cofactor. This gene shows high sequence similarity to copper amine oxidases from various species ranging from bacteria to mammals. The protein contains several conserved motifs including the active site of amine oxidases and the histidine residues that likely bind copper. It may be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina, possibly by degrading the biogenic amines dopamine, histamine, and putrescine. This gene may be a candidate gene for hereditary ocular diseases. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for AOC2 Gene

AOC2 (Amine Oxidase, Copper Containing 2 (Retina-Specific)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AOC2 include dissecting aortic aneurysm. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and quinone binding. An important paralog of this gene is AOC1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AOC2 Gene

  • Has a monoamine oxidase activity with substrate specificity for 2-phenylethylamine and tryptamine. May play a role in adipogenesis. May be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AOC2 Gene

Genomics for AOC2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for AOC2 Gene

Genomic Location for AOC2 Gene

42,844,592 bp from pter
42,850,707 bp from pter
6,116 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for AOC2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for AOC2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AOC2 Gene

Proteins for AOC2 Gene

  • Protein details for AOC2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Retina-specific copper amine oxidase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A5PKW2
    • O00120
    • O75105
    • Q4TTW5
    • Q9UNY0

    Protein attributes for AOC2 Gene

    756 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    83673 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108; Note=Binds 2 calcium ions per subunit.;
    Name=Cu cation; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:23378; Note=Binds 1 copper ion per subunit.;
    Name=L-topaquinone; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:79027; Note=Contains 1 topaquinone per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms a heterodimer with AOC3, in vitro.

    Alternative splice isoforms for AOC2 Gene


neXtProt entry for AOC2 Gene

Proteomics data for AOC2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for AOC2 Gene

  • Topaquinone (TPQ) is generated by copper-dependent autoxidation of a specific tyrosyl residue
  • Glycosylation at Asn133, Asn198, Asn226, Asn588, and Asn662
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for AOC2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Domains for AOC2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for AOC2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the copper/topaquinone oxidase family.
  • Belongs to the copper/topaquinone oxidase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AOC2: view

No data available for Gene Families for AOC2 Gene

Function for AOC2 Gene

Molecular function for AOC2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
amine oxidase,copper containing 2,retina specific,with two alternatively spliced isoforms
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=0.056 mM for tryptamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19588076}; KM=0.077 mM for 2-phenylethylamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19588076}; KM=0.167 mM for benzylamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19588076}; KM=0.178 mM for p-tyramine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19588076}; KM=1.7 mM for methylamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19588076};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RCH(2)NH(2) + H(2)O + O(2) = RCHO + NH(3) + H(2)O(2)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Has a monoamine oxidase activity with substrate specificity for 2-phenylethylamine and tryptamine. May play a role in adipogenesis. May be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated during in vitro adipocyte differentiation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for AOC2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AOC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005507 copper ion binding IEA --
GO:0008131 primary amine oxidase activity IEA --
GO:0009055 electron carrier activity TAS 9119395
GO:0048038 quinone binding IEA --
GO:0052593 tryptamine:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating) activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AOC2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for AOC2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target AOC2

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for AOC2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Phenotypes , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AOC2 Gene

Localization for AOC2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AOC2 Gene

Isoform 1: Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Note=Present on the surface of the cells.
Isoform 2: Cytoplasm. Note=Either not translocated to the plasma membrane or below detection level.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for AOC2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AOC2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
lysosome 2
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
golgi apparatus 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AOC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AOC2: view

Pathways for AOC2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AOC2: view

Pathways by source for AOC2 Gene

Interacting Proteins for AOC2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AOC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006584 catecholamine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0007601 visual perception TAS 9119395
GO:0009308 amine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AOC2: view

Drugs for AOC2 Gene

(27) HMDB Compounds for AOC2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • 1,3-Diamino-N-propane
  • (1-Aminoethyl)benzene
  • 3,4-Dihydroxy-Benzeneacetaldehyde
  • 3-Aminopropanal

(1) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for AOC2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
amine 52 3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AOC2: view

Transcripts for AOC2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for AOC2 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(20) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for AOC2 Gene

Amine oxidase, copper containing 2 (retina-specific):
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for AOC2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AOC2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4
SP1: -

Relevant External Links for AOC2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for AOC2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for AOC2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AOC2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (4.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for AOC2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipocyte (46.4) and Serum (21.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for AOC2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AOC2 Gene Hs.143102

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AOC2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in many tissues with much higher expression in retina. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are expressed in adipose tissue, whereas isoform 1 only seems to be present in thymus, and isoform 2 only in testis.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with AOC2: view

Expression partners for AOC2 Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for AOC2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for AOC2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AOC2 35
  • 88.9 (n)
  • 88.59 (a)
AOC2 36
  • 88 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AOC2 35
  • 89.74 (n)
  • 88.99 (a)
AOC2 36
  • 89 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Aoc2 35
  • 83.16 (n)
  • 80.95 (a)
Aoc2 16
Aoc2 36
  • 81 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AOC2 35
  • 99.51 (n)
  • 99.6 (a)
AOC2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AOC2 36
  • 33 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 46 (a)
-- 36
  • 50 (a)
-- 36
  • 60 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii aoc2 36
  • 42 (a)
Species with no ortholog for AOC2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for AOC2 Gene

Gene Tree for AOC2 (if available)
Gene Tree for AOC2 (if available)

Paralogs for AOC2 Gene

Paralogs for AOC2 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for AOC2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AOC2: view

Variants for AOC2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AOC2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs186536 -- 42,847,834(-) caccg(G/T)gctcc intron-variant
rs3744235 -- 42,846,545(+) GCCCA(A/G)TGGGG intron-variant
rs3744236 -- 42,846,651(+) AGTCT(A/T)CAGGG intron-variant
rs3744237 -- 42,846,652(+) GTCTT(A/C)AGGGT intron-variant
rs4493115 -- 42,844,268(-) CCTCA(G/T)ATGCC upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AOC2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv33998 OTHER Inversion 15654335
nsv483009 CNV Gain 15286789

Relevant External Links for AOC2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AOC2 Gene

Disorders for AOC2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for AOC2 Gene in MalaCards »

(1) Disease for AOC2 Gene

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for AOC2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AOC2: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Novoseek inferred disease relationships , Genatlas and External Links for AOC2 Gene

Publications for AOC2 Gene

  1. Human retina-specific amine oxidase: genomic structure of the gene (AOC2), alternatively spliced variant, and mRNA expression in retina. (PMID: 9722954) Imamura Y. … Shimizu N. (Genomics 1998) 2 3 4 23
  2. Human retina-specific amine oxidase (RAO): cDNA cloning, tissue expression, and chromosomal mapping. (PMID: 9119395) Imamura Y. … Shimizu N. (Genomics 1997) 2 3 4 23
  3. The unique substrate specificity of human AOC2, a semicarbazide- sensitive amine oxidase. (PMID: 19588076) Kaitaniemi S. … Elima K. (Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2009) 3 4
  4. Characterization of AOC2 gene encoding a copper-binding amine oxidase expressed specifically in retina. (PMID: 14585497) Zhang Q. … Iwata T. (Gene 2003) 3 23
  5. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PMID: 12477932) Strausberg R.L. … Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002) 3

Products for AOC2 Gene

Sources for AOC2 Gene

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