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Aliases for ANO2 Gene

Aliases for ANO2 Gene

  • Anoctamin 2 2 3
  • Anoctamin 2, Calcium Activated Chloride Channel 2 3 5
  • Transmembrane Protein 16B (Eight Membrane-Spanning Domains) 2 3
  • Transmembrane Protein 16B 2 4
  • C12orf3 3 4
  • TMEM16B 3 4
  • Chromosome 12 Open Reading Frame 3 2

External Ids for ANO2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ANO2 Gene

  • C12orf3
  • TMEM16B

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ANO2 Gene

  • GC12M005671

Summaries for ANO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ANO2 Gene

  • ANO2 belongs to a family of calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) (reviewed by Hartzell et al., 2009 [PubMed 19015192]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

GeneCards Summary for ANO2 Gene

ANO2 (Anoctamin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Ion channel transport and Olfactory Signaling Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and intracellular calcium activated chloride channel activity. An important paralog of this gene is ANO5.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ANO2 Gene

  • Calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) which may play a role in olfactory signal transduction. Odorant molecules bind to odor-sensing receptors (OSRs), leading to an increase in calcium entry that activates CaCC current which amplifies the depolarization of the OSR cells, ANO2 seems to be the underlying chloride channel involved in this process. May mediate light perception amplification in retina.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ANO2 Gene

Genomics for ANO2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ANO2 Gene

Enhancers for ANO2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around ANO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for ANO2 Gene

5,531,869 bp from pter
5,948,791 bp from pter
416,923 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ANO2 Gene

Genes around ANO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ANO2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ANO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ANO2 Gene

Proteins for ANO2 Gene

  • Protein details for ANO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • C4N787
    • Q9H847

    Protein attributes for ANO2 Gene

    1003 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    113969 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of a presynaptic protein complex recruited to specialized plasma membrane domains of photoreceptors. Interacts with DLG4 by its C-terminal region (By similarity).
    • The term anoctamin was coined because these channels are anion selective and have eight (OCT) transmembrane segments. There is some dissatisfaction in the field with the Ano nomenclature because it is not certain that all the members of this family are anion channels or have the 8-transmembrane topology.
    • Sequence=BAB14773.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for ANO2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ANO2 Gene

Proteomics data for ANO2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ANO2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 422, Asn 841, Asn 849, and Asn 856
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for ANO2 Gene

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ANO2 Gene

Domains & Families for ANO2 Gene

Gene Families for ANO2 Gene

Protein Domains for ANO2 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ANO2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the anoctamin family.
  • Belongs to the anoctamin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ANO2: view

Function for ANO2 Gene

Molecular function for ANO2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Channel activity is repressed by chloride inhibitors; strongly by niflumic acid (NFA), partially by flufenamic acid (FFA), and only slightly by meclofenamic acid (MFA), 5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanato-stilben-2,2-disulfonate (SITS), and 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) which may play a role in olfactory signal transduction. Odorant molecules bind to odor-sensing receptors (OSRs), leading to an increase in calcium entry that activates CaCC current which amplifies the depolarization of the OSR cells, ANO2 seems to be the underlying chloride channel involved in this process. May mediate light perception amplification in retina.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ANO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ANO2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ANO2: view

Animal Models for ANO2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ANO2:

miRNA for ANO2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ANO2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ANO2 Gene

Localization for ANO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ANO2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ANO2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ANO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 5
peroxisome 2

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ANO2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ANO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ANO2: view

Pathways by source for ANO2 Gene

Interacting Proteins for ANO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ANO2 Gene


No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ANO2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ANO2 Gene

(1) Drugs for ANO2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
calcium Nutra 0

(1) Additional Compounds for ANO2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Chloride ion
  • Bertholite
  • Chloor
  • Chlor
  • Chlore
  • Chloride
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ANO2: view

Transcripts for ANO2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ANO2 Gene

Anoctamin 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ANO2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18
SP3: - -

Relevant External Links for ANO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ANO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ANO2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ANO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (33.4), Adipocyte (15.8), and Retina (15.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for ANO2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ANO2 Gene Hs.148970

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ANO2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Retina, especially in the photoreceptor synaptic terminals.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ANO2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ANO2 Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for ANO2 Gene

Orthologs for ANO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ANO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ANO2 35
  • 87.82 (n)
  • 91.16 (a)
ANO2 36
  • 90 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ANO2 35
  • 90.4 (n)
  • 93.28 (a)
ANO2 36
  • 92 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ano2 35
  • 87.68 (n)
  • 92.01 (a)
Ano2 16
Ano2 36
  • 92 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ANO2 35
  • 99.1 (n)
  • 99 (a)
ANO2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100361584 35
  • 88.54 (n)
  • 94.93 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ANO2 36
  • 88 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ANO2 36
  • 72 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ANO2 35
  • 72.03 (n)
  • 77.34 (a)
ANO2 36
  • 73 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ANO2 36
  • 68 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ano2 35
  • 67.96 (n)
  • 72.95 (a)
Str.13490 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ano2 36
  • 59 (a)
ANO2 (1 of 2) 36
  • 39 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000095 35
  • 52.44 (n)
  • 43.47 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG10353 35
  • 49.13 (n)
  • 39.98 (a)
CG10353 36
  • 30 (a)
CG16718 36
  • 32 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ANO2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ANO2 Gene

Gene Tree for ANO2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ANO2 (if available)

Paralogs for ANO2 Gene

Paralogs for ANO2 Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for ANO2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ANO2: view

Variants for ANO2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ANO2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1860961 - 5,732,567(-) ACCAG(C/G/T)CTGCT nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs3741903 - 5,921,239(+) GGTGC(A/G)CCCCG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs3741901 - 5,921,135(+) GAGCG(A/G)TCCCA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs17788563 - 5,744,308(+) TCACA(C/T)ATCTC intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs1962814 -- 5,734,772(-) TACTC(C/T)GGAGG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ANO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv470262 CNV Gain 18288195
nsv468988 CNV Gain 19166990
nsv523152 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv898627 CNV Gain 21882294
esv2668238 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv268253 CNV Insertion 20981092
esv2585557 CNV Insertion 19546169
esv273463 CNV Insertion 20981092
esv269170 CNV Insertion 20981092
esv26915 CNV Gain 19812545
nsv826203 CNV Gain 20364138
esv1010714 CNV Loss 20482838
esv2669204 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv528886 CNV Loss 19592680
esv267629 CNV Insertion 20981092
nsv507628 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv521492 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv517527 CNV Loss 19592680
esv1098801 CNV Insertion 17803354
esv1061937 CNV Insertion 17803354
esv1270499 CNV Insertion 17803354
nsv53042 CNV Insertion 16902084
esv2745461 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2745462 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv22765 CNV Gain+Loss 19812545
esv8531 CNV Loss 19470904
esv2745464 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1647797 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv2745465 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2745466 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2745467 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv898628 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv521996 CNV Loss 19592680

Variation tolerance for ANO2 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 7.70; 83.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for ANO2 Gene

Disorders for ANO2 Gene

Relevant External Links for ANO2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for ANO2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ANO2 Gene

Publications for ANO2 Gene

  1. FLJ10261 gene, located within the CCND1-EMS1 locus on human chromosome 11q13, encodes the eight-transmembrane protein homologous to C12orf3, C11orf25 and FLJ34272 gene products. (PMID: 12739008) Katoh M. … Katoh M. (Int. J. Oncol. 2003) 2 3 23 67
  2. Structure and function of TMEM16 proteins (anoctamins). (PMID: 24692353) Pedemonte N. … Galietta L.J. (Physiol. Rev. 2014) 2 3
  3. Identification and characterization of TMEM16E and TMEM16F genes in silico. (PMID: 15067359) Katoh M. … Katoh M. (Int. J. Oncol. 2004) 2 3
  4. Assessment of the olfactory function in Italian patients with type 3 von Willebrand disease caused by a homozygous 253 Kb deletion involving VWF and TMEM16B/ANO2. (PMID: 25635880) Cenedese V. … Menini A. (PLoS ONE 2015) 3
  5. Calcium-activated chloride channels anoctamin 1 and 2 promote murine uterine smooth muscle contractility. (PMID: 24928056) Bernstein K. … Gallos G. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2014) 3

Products for ANO2 Gene

Sources for ANO2 Gene